Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | December 1, 2019

| Download

Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples of “urinary tract infections (UTIs)” patients in “District Kohat, Pakistan”

Hazrat Zaman, Nisha Zahid, Bushra Israr, MuskaNayab, Madiha Habib, Faheem Ullah, Waqas Ahmad, Taj Ali Khan

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.15(6), 240-246, December 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.6.240-246


IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infections both in nosocomial and community settings. E.coli is the prime causative agent of UTIs. Worldwide resistance in E.coliagainst commonly used antibiotics is a major threat to public health. So, there is a need to determine biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infection patients in district Kohat. Total 120 Positive mid-stream “urine samples” having “pus cells >10” were collected from patients in sterile urine containers. E.coli isolates were identified and confirmed by morphological and biochemical tests.  Congo-red agar and Standard Kirby-Bauer methods were performed to find biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of all isolates respectively. Of 120 positive urine samples, “50 were detected asE.coli and out of which, 34 (68%) isolates formed biofilm.  All isolates were 100% resistant to ampicillin, 68% to cefixime, 64% to ticarcilin, 48% to gentamicin, 8% to amikacin, piperacillin+tazobactum and meropenem, followed by 4% toimipenem and nitrofruantoin”. Fosfomycin showed 100% activity against all E.coli isolates. Fosfomycin was the most effective drug against all isolates, so this can be the optimal drug for treatments of UTIs in district Kohat. Moreover, proper susceptibility patterns tests should be performed before prescribing any antibiotics and defined approaches should be adopted to overcome biofilm-based antibiotics resistance to avoid treatment failure.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples of “urinary tract infections (UTIs)” patients in “District Kohat, Pakistan”

Abuhandan M, Güzel B. 2013. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in children with urinary tract infection in Sanliurfa. Turkish journal of urology 39(2): 106.

Ahmad W, Jamshed F. 2015.Freequncy of escherichia coli in patients with community acquired urinary tract infection and their resistance pattern against some commonly used anti bacterials. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 27(2): 333-337.

Akram M, Shahid M. 2007. Etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract infections in JNMC Hospital Aligarh, India. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials 6(1): 4.

Al-Badr A, Al-Shaikh G. 2013. Recurrent urinary tract infections management in women: a review. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal 13(3): 359.

Ayukekbong JA, Ntemgwa M. 2017. The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries: causes and control strategies. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 6(1): 47.

Bano S, Tunio SA. 2014. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of uropathogens circulating in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Khyber medical university journal 6(3).

Eberly A, Floyd K. 2017. Biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coli is favored under oxygen conditions that mimic the bladder environment. International journal of molecular sciences 18(10): 2077.

Islam TAB, Shamsuzzaman S. 2016. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Urinary Escherichia Coli in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. Anwer Khan Modern Medical College Journal 7(1): 40-44.

Jafri SA, Qasim M. 2014. Antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates from urine samples of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients in Pakistan. Bioinformation 10(7): 419.

Kalsoom B, Jafar K. 2012. Patterns of antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial pathogens among urinary tract infections (UTI) patients in a Pakistani population. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6(2): 414-420.

Kariuki S, Revathi G. 2007. Escherichia coli from community-acquired urinary tract infections resistant to fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactams.The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 1(03): 257-262.

Kim ME, Ha US. 2008. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in female outpatients in South Korea: a multicentre study in 2006. International journal of antimicrobial agents 31: 15-18.

Marrs CF, Zhang L. 2005. Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections: are there distinct uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) pathotypes? FEMS microbiology letters 252(2): 183-190.

Nickel JC. 2007. Urinary tract infections and resistant bacteria: highlights of a symposium at the combined meeting of the 25th international congress of chemotherapy (icc) and the 17th European congress of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases (eccmid), March 31–April 3, 2007, Munich, Germany. Reviews in urology 9(2): 78.

Noor N, Ajaz M. 2004. Urinary tract infections associated with multidrug resistant enteric bacilli: characterization and genetical studies. Pak J Pharm Sci 17(2): 115-123.

Patel R. 2005. Biofilms and antimicrobial resistance. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 437: 41-47.

Pradhan B, Pradhan S. 2017. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern to Urinary Pathogens in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Duwakot. Birat Journal of Health Sciences 2(1): 134-137.

Prestinaci F, Pezzotti P. 2015. Antimicrobial resistance: a global multifaceted phenomenon. Pathogens and global health 109(7): 309-318.

Puca E. 2014. Urinary Tract Infection in Adults. Clinical Microbiology: Open Access.

Rahman F, Chowdhury S. 2009. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection. Stamford journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2(1): 44-50.

Sabir S, Anjum AA. 2014. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli from urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital. Pakistan journal of medical sciences 30(2): 389.

Shahid M, Malik A. 2008. Prevalent phenotypes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at an Indian tertiary care hospital: plasmid-mediated cefoxitin resistance. International journal of infectious diseases 12(3): 256-264.

Soto SM. 2014. Importance of biofilms in urinary tract infections: new therapeutic approaches. Advances in biology 2014.

Stefaniuk E, Suchocka U. 2016. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens responsible for community-acquired urinary tract infections in Poland. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 35(8): 1363-1369.

Tajbakhsh E, Ahmadi P.. 2016. Biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroups and virulence genes of uropathogenic E. coli isolated from clinical samples in Iran.  Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 5(1): 11.

Tapiainen T, Hanni AM.. 2014. Escherichia coli biofilm formation and recurrences of urinary tract infections in children. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 33(1): 111-115.

Toval F, Köhler CD. 2014. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from hospital inpatients or outpatients with urinary tract infection. Journal of clinical microbiology 52(2): 407-418.

Vila J, Sáez-López. 2016. Escherichia coli: an old friend with new tidings. FEMS microbiology reviews 40(4): 437-463.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background