International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Antifungal activity by resistance inducing salicylic acid and plant extracts against postharvest rots of tomato

By: Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Waqas Raza, Zafar Iqbal, Salman Ahmad, Misbah Iqbal Qamar, Muzammil Hussain

Key Words: Antifungal, salicylic acid, resistance, alternative, fungicides.

Int. J. Biosci. 14(4), 264-274, April 2019.


Certification: ijb 2019 0027 [Generate Certificate]


The utilization of resistance inducing salicylic acid (SA) and botanicals could be valuable alternatives for the management of postharvest diseases of tomato. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of salicylic acid and plant extracts against sour rot, pink mold rot and Rhizopus soft rot of tomato. Antifungal activity of all botanicals was tested by media amendments and detached fruit assays. The harvested tomato fruits were sprayed with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mm salicylic acid and dipped in 25%, 50% and 75% (w/v) extracts of the three plant species. The tomato fruits were inoculated with 105/ml conidia of each tested fungi. The results revealed that SA concentration of 6mM completely retarded the radial growth of all plant pathogens and extract of kinnow fruit peel showed significantly (P<0.05) high antifungal activity and also completely inhibited mycelium growth of tested pathogens. Garlic extract was effective in reducing mycelium growth of G. candidum and T. roseum, while mentha leaves extract proved effective against the mycelial growth of R. oryzae. Postharvest application of SA significantly reduced mycelia growth and lesion diameter on artificially inoculated fruits. Incidence of pathogenic fungi was significantly reduced at 50% concentration when harvested tomatoes were dipped in kinnow peel extract. In conclusion, resistance inducing SA and natural botanicals have potential to manage of postharvest fungal diseases of tomato and can be the alternatives of health hazardous chemical pesticides.

| Views 30 |

Antifungal activity by resistance inducing salicylic acid and plant extracts against postharvest rots of tomato

Arif T, Mandal TK, Dabur R. 2009. Natural products-antifungal agents derived from plants. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research 11, 621-638.

Bartz JA, Sargent SA, Mahovic M. 2009. Guide to Identifying and Controlling Postharvest Tomato Diseases in Florida. Publication HS866/HS131 Horticultural Sciences Department,Florida Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville 866.

Caccioni DR, Guizzardi M, Biondi DM, Renda A, Ruberto G. 1998. Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. International Journal of Food Microbiology43, 73-79.

Cao J, Zeng K, Jiang W. 2006. Enhancement of postharvest disease resistance in Ya Li pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit by salicylic acid sprays on the trees during fruit growth. European Journal of plant pathology114, 363-370.

Carvalho DDC, Alves E, Camargos RB, Oliveira DF, Scolforo JRS, de Carvalho DA, Batista TRS. 2011. Plant extracts to control Alternaria alternata in Murcott tangor fruits. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología28, 173-178.

Cerioni L, Rapisarda VA, Hilal M, Prado FE. 2009. Rodriguez-Montelongo, L. Synergistic antifungal activity of sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and cupric sulfate against Penicillium digitatum. Journal of food protection72, 1660-1665.

Combrinck S, Regnier T, Kamatou GPP. 2011. In vitro activity of eighteen essential oils and some major components against common postharvest fungal pathogens of fruit. Industrial Crops and Products33, 344-349.

Cowan MM. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical microbiology reviews12, 564-582.

Cun-fei FAN, Yang BI, Yun-fei WANG, Ya-lin REN, Zhi-min YiYA. 2012. Effect of salicylic acid dipping on postharvest diseases and phenyl propanoid pathway in muskmelon fruits. Scientia Agricultura Sinica3, 021.

Curtis H, Noll U, Störmann J, Slusarenko AJ. 2004. Broad-spectrum activity of the volatile phytoanticipin allicin in extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.) against plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Oomycetes. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology65, 79-89.

Das K, Tiwari RKS, Shrivastava DK. 2010. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agents: current methods and future trends. Journal of medicinal plants research4, 104-111.

Du Plooy W, Regnier T, Combrinck S. 2009. Essential oil amended coatings as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in citrus postharvest management. Postharvest Biology and Technology53, 117-122.

Eckert JW. 1990. Impact of fungicide resistance on citrus fruit decay control.

Fajola AO. 1979. The Post‐Harvest Fruit Rots of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria.Molecular Nutrition and Food Research23, 105-109.

Green MB, LeBaron HM, Moberg WK. (Eds.). 1990. Managing resistance to agrochemicals: From fundamental research to practical strategies, American Chemical Society.

Hamid MI, Hussain M, Ghazanfar MU, Raza M, Liu XZ. 2014. Trichothecium roseum causes fruit rot of tomato, orange, and apple in Pakistan. Plant Disease 98, 1271-1271.

Hayat S, Ali B, Ahmad A. 2007. Salicylic acid: biosynthesis, metabolism and physiological role in plants. Salicylic acid: A plant hormone 1-14.

Hussain M, Hamid MI, Ghazanfar MU. 2015. Salicylic acid induced resistance in fruits to combat against postharvest pathogens: a review. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection48, 34-42.

Iqbal Z, Singh Z, Khangura R, Ahmad S. 2012. Management of citrus blue and green moulds through application of organic elicitors. Australasian Plant Pathology41, 69-77.

Ismail M, Zhang J. 2004. Post-harvest citrus diseases and their control. Outlooks on Pest Management15, 29.

Joyce DC, Wearing H, Coates L, Terry L. 2001. Effects of phosphonate and salicylic acid treatments on anthracnose disease development and ripening of’ Kensington Pride’mango fruit. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture41, 805-813.

Joyce DC, Wearing H, Coates L, Terry L. 2001. Effects of phosphonate and salicylic acid treatments on anthracnose disease development and ripening of’Kensington Pride’mango fruit. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 805-813.

Juliano C, Mattana A, Usai M. 2000. Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Thymus herba-barona Loisel growing wild in Sardinia. Journal of Essential Oil Research12, 516-522.

Kinay P, Mansour MF, Gabler FM, Margosan DA, Smilanick JL. 2007. Characterization of fungicide-resistant isolates of Penicillium digitatum collected in California. Crop Protection26, 647-656.

Kwon JH, Kim J, Kim WI. 2011. First report of Rhizopus oryzae as a postharvest pathogen of apple in Korea. Mycobiology39, 140-142.

Li HX, Xiao CL. 2008. Characterization of fludioxonil-resistant and pyrimethanil-resistant phenotypes of Penicillium expansum from apple. Phytopathology98, 427-435.

Mari M, Neri F, Bertolini P. 2007. Novel approaches to prevent and control postharvest diseases of fruits. Stewart Postharvest Rev3, 1-7.

Nosrati S, Esmailzadeh-Hosseini SA, Sarpeleh A, Soflaei Shahrbabak M, Soflaei Shahrbabak Y. 2011. Antifungal Activity of Spearmint (Mentha Spicata L.) Essential Oil on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum the Causal Agent of Stem and Crown Rot of Greenhouse Cucumber in Yazd, Iran. In International Conference on Environmental and Agricultural Engineering, Chengdu, China15, 52-56.

Obagwu J, Emechebe AM, Adeoti AA. 1997. Effect of extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb and neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) seed on the mycelium growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum capsici. Journal of Agricultural Technology5, 51-55.

Olivieri FP, Lobato MC, Altamiranda EG, Daleo GR, Huarte M, Guevara MG, Andreu AB. 2009. BABA effects on the behaviour of potato cultivars infected by Phytophthora infestans and Fusarium solani. European Journal of Plant Pathology23, 47-56.

Panahirad S, ZaareNahandi F, Safaralizadeh R, AlizadehSalteh S. 2012. Postharvest control of Rhizopus stolonifer in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruits using salicylic acid. Journal of Food Safety32, 502-507.

Plaza P, Torres R, Usall J, Lamarca N, Vinas I. 2004. Evaluation of the potential of commercial post-harvest application of essential oils to control citrus decay. The journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology79, 935-940.

Qin GZ, Tian SP, Xu Y, Wan YK. 2003. Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeasts by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruit. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology62, 147-154.

Rodov V, Ben-Yehoshua S, Fang DQ, Kim JJ, Ashkenazi R. 1995. Preformed antifungal compounds of lemon fruit: citral and its relation to disease resistance. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry43, 1057-1061.

Santas J, Almajano MP, Carbó R. 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of crude onion (Allium cepa, L.) extracts. International journal of food science and technology45, 403-409.

Strobel NE, Porter LA. 2005. Salicylate inhibits growth of plant-pathogenic fungi and synergistically enhances the activity of other antifungal materials in vitro. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science66, 118-128.

Thornton CR, Slaughter DC, Davis RM. 2010. Detection of the sour-rot pathogen Geotrichum candidum in tomato fruit and juice by using a highly specific monoclonal antibody-based ELISA.Internationaljournal of food microbiology143, 166-172.

Timothy SY, Wazis CH, Adati RG, Maspalma ID. 2012. Antifungal activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Cassia alata Linn. Journal of Appl. Pharm. Science 2, 182-185.

Verástegui Á, Verde J, García S, Heredia N, Oranday A, Rivas C. 2008. Species of Agave with antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology24, 1249-1252.

Verberne MC, Verpoorte R, Bol JF, Mercado-Blanco J, Linthorst HJ. 2000. Overproduction of salicylic acid in plants by bacterial transgenes enhances pathogen resistance. Nature biotechnology18, 779.

Wang L, Li S. 2008. Role of salicylic acid in postharvest physiology In: Fresh produce. Global Science Books, Ltd., UK, 2(1-2).

Wilson CL, Solar JM, El Ghaouth A, Wisniewski ME. 1997. Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Plant disease81, 204-210.

Yaghmour MA, Bostock RM, Morgan DP, Michailides TJ. 2012. Biology and sources of inoculum of Geotrichum candidum causing sour rot of peach and nectarine fruit in California. Plant disease96, 204-210.

Yao H, Tian S. 2005. Effects of pre-and post-harvest application of salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate on inducing disease resistance of sweet cherry fruit in storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology35, 253-262.

Zainuri JDC, Wearing AH, Coates L, Terry L. 2001. Effects of phosphonate and salicylic acid treatments on anthracnose disease development and ripening of ‘Kensington Pride’ mango fruit. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 805-813.

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Waqas Raza, Zafar Iqbal, Salman Ahmad, Misbah Iqbal Qamar, Muzammil Hussain.
Antifungal activity by resistance inducing salicylic acid and plant extracts against postharvest rots of tomato.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(4), 264-274, April 2019.
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update