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Assessment of aflatoxins in wheat flour from different areas of Punjab in Pakistan

By: Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Farukh Adeem Afzal, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Muhammad Rehan, Ayesha Jabeen, Zeeshan Ashraf, Saadia Ambreen, Sahar Younas, Linta Noor, Fatima Saeed

Key Words: Wheat Flour, Mycotoxins, Aflatoxin, Chemical Composition, Thin Layer Chromatography.

Int. J. Biosci. 17(3), 230-240, September 2020.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/17.3.230-240

Certification: ijb 2020 0048 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Pakistan is an agricultural country and agriculture sector contributes approximately 35-40% to the national income. The Punjab is leading in the production of wheat. Wheat is more susceptible to infestation of different kinds of Fungi. Mycotoxins are perilous toxic metabolites fabricated abundantly by such Fungi. For a prolonged period of time, mycotoxins are familiar to attribute grievous diseases in mankind and animals. For this purpose, wheat flour was purchased from local markets and flour mills of different areas in the Punjab. A total of 108 whole wheat flour samples were collected and analyzed (73 samples from markets and 35 samples from flour mills) for aflatoxin, ash and moisture contents. The overall moisture of wheat flour sampled collected from flour mills of Punjab were in the range of 8.315% to 13.937% and from markets the values were in the range 10.302% to 13.803%.The overall ash content of wheat flour samples from flour mills were in the range of 0.618% to 0.983% and for market samples the values were 0.547% to 1.100%. All of the samples were analyzed and found negative for aflatoxin level in whole wheat flour. Results indicated that moisture content (%) in entire the flour samples were below 14%. Investigation of aflatoxin revealed that AFs (AFB1, AFG2, AFB2 and AFG1) were not established within detectable limits of Thin Layer Chromatography i.e. for B1 and G1 detectable limit is ≥0.72ppb while for B2, G2 is ≥0.20 ppb. However, aflatoxin was not be detected by thin layer chromatography, so for more reliable results, sophisticated techniques such as HPLC need to be used to determine aflatoxin in wheat flour samples.

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Assessment of aflatoxins in wheat flour from different areas of Punjab in Pakistan

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Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Tahir Nadeem, Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Farukh Adeem Afzal, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Muhammad Rehan, Ayesha Jabeen, Zeeshan Ashraf, Saadia Ambreen, Sahar Younas, Linta Noor, Fatima Saeed.
Assessment of aflatoxins in wheat flour from different areas of Punjab in Pakistan.
Int. J. Biosci. 17(3), 230-240, September 2020.
https://innspub.net/ijb/assessment-aflatoxins-wheat-flour-different-areas-punjab-pakistan/
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