Causes of stunting in Coptodon zilli in Iraq
By: Mohammed I. Ghazwan Aljanabi
Key Words: Dwarf, Fish populations, Morphometric, Tilapia, Southern Iraq.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(5), 305-314, May 2019.
Certification: ijb 2019 0033 [Generate Certificate]
This study is an attempt to find out the most important reasons behind stunting phenomenon of the Coptodon zillii fish and some factors that lead to this phenomenon derived from four C.zilllii fish population from four province in Iraq starting from Baghdad province and other three ones situated in the south of Iraq such as Babylon or Babil , Wasit , and Maysan. It is suggested in the current study to specify four morphometric features of the C.zilllii fish as the total length , standard length , head length and weight of fish .The highest averages of such the morphometric features have been recorded by Maysan province, total length (16.59±0.61cm), standard length (12.99±0.52cm), head length( 4.30±0.24cm), and weight (97.19±10.05 gm) of total length respectively. While, Babylon province has recorded the less averages for morphometric features of the C.zilllii fish population as Total length(14.87±0.33cm),Standard length( 11.70±0.28cm) , Head length ( 3.80±0.21cm ) , and Weight ( 72.68±8.66 gm ) respectively .On the other hand , both Baghdad and Wasit provinces have recorded equal averages of the morphometric features. It has been noticed that there are statistically significant differences ( p <0.05 ) in the total and standard length as well as head length in Maysan province sample .Results showed that the total length was between (14.1 and 19.1 cm ) and (70%) of the four Iraqi provinces which their length was 17cm .This indicates there are stunting existed in C.zilllii population that was very clear in Babylon province and among male fish more than among female ones .The stunting phenomenon can be due to the increasing population of C.zilllii to the early sexual growth of such fish and also to the bad quality of water at these areas surveyed by this study .Moreover, it has been noticed that there are positive correlations between all morphometric features studied P <0.01) .
Causes of stunting in Coptodon zilli in Iraq
Abucay JS, Mair GC, Skibinski DO, Beardmore JA. 1999. Environmental sex determination: the effect of temperature and salinity on sex ratio in Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquaculture 173(1-4), 219-234.
Achieng AP. 1964. Factors influencing the Productivity of tropical waters with Special Reference To Fish Resources. The ecology of man in the Tropical Environment L’Ecologie de l’homme dans le milieu tropical, 190.
Aday DD, Kush CM, Wahl DH, hilipp DP. 2002. The influence of stunted body size on the reproductive ecology of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 11(3), 190-195.
Al-Saadi B, Mhaisen F, Al-Rubae A. 2012. The first parasitological report on the redbelly Tilapia Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848) in Iraq, Proceedings of the Scientific Symposium of Natural History Research Center and Museum, Univ. Baghdad, Baghdad, p 1-6.
Al-Zaidy K. 2013. First record of Tilapia zilli (Gewais, 1848) in Al-Delmj marsh weast Al-Diwania city middle of Iraq. Diyala Agricultural Sciences Journal, 5(1), 9-16.
Ali M, Salam A, Iqbal F. 2000. Weight-length and condition factor relationship of wild Channa punctata from Multan [Pakistan]. Punjab University Journal of Zoology (Pakistan).
Anthoni U, Børresen T, Christophersen C, Gram L, Nielsen PH. 1990. Is trimethylamine oxide a reliable indicator for the marine origin of fish? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 97(3), 569-571.
Björnsson BT, Ogasawara T, Hirano T, Bolton JP, Bern HA. 1988. Elevated growth hormone levels in stunted Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture, 73(1-4), 275-281.
Brown ME. 1957. Chapter IX – Experimental STUDIES ON GROWTH, in: Brown, M.E. (Ed.) The Physiology of Fishes. Academic Press, pp. 361-400.
Calhoun WE, Shelton WL. 1983. Sex ratios of progeny from mass spawnings of sex-reversed broodstock of Tilapia nilotica. Aquaculture 33(1-4), 365-371.
Chervinski J, Hering E. 1973. Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Pisces, Cichlidae) and its adaptability to various saline conditions. Aquaculture, 2, 23-29.
Chervinski J, Zorn M. 1974. Note on the growth of Tilapia aurea (Steindachner) and Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in sea-water ponds. Aquaculture 4, 249-255.
Cnaani A, Gall GAE, Hulata G. 2000. Cold tolerance of tilapia species and hybrids. Aquaculture International, 8(4), 289-298.
Coulibaly N. 2003. Length-weight relationships of 11 fish species of Burkina Faso. Fish Biodiversity: Local Studies as Basis for Global Inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Research. Report 14, 20-22.
Coward K, Bromage RN, Little D. 2005. Inhibition of spawning and associated suppression of sex steroid levels during confinement in the substrate‐spawning Tilapia zillii.
Diana JS, Mackay WC. 1979. Timing and Magnitude of Energy Deposition and Loss in the Body, Liver, and Gonads of Northern Pike (Esox lucius). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36(5), 481-487.
Diana JS, Salz R. 1990. Energy Storage, Growth, and Maturation of Yellow Perch from Different Locations in Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119(6), 976-984.
Dunz AR, Schliewen UK. 2013. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as “Tilapia”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 68(1), 64-80.
Echo JB. 1955. Some ecological relationships between yellow perch and cutthroat trout in Thompson Lakes, Montana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 84(1), 239-248.
Eschmeyer RW. 1937. Some characteristics of a population of stunted perch. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett, 23, 611-631.
Et A, Akaahan T, Simeon A. 2017. Variation in the Morphometry Measurements of Two Tilapia Fish Species in Relation to Their Body Weight Obtained from Lower Benue River at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria.
Grimaldi J, Leduc G. 1973. The growth of the yellow perch in various Quebec waters.
Heath D, Roff D. 1996. The role of trophic bottlenecks in stunting: A field test of an allocation model of growth and reproduction in yellow perch, Perca flavescens.
Heibo E, Magnhagen C, Vøllestad LA. 2005. Latitudinal Variation in Life-History Traits IN Eurasian Perch. Ecology, 86(12), 3377-3386.
Jansen WA. 1996. Plasticity in maturity and fecundity of yellow perch, Percaflavescens (Mitchill): comparisons of stunted and normal-growing populations. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33(3/4), 403-415.
Jawad L, Sh F, Habbeb FA, Al-Mukhtar M. 2018. Morphometric and Meristic Characters of Two Cichlids, Coptodon zillii and Oreochromis aureus Collected from Shatt al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq.
Konan F, Ouattara AMO, Gourène G. 2007. Weight-length relationship of 57 fish species of the coastal rivers in South-Eastern of Ivory Coast.
L’Abée-Lund JH, Jensen AJ, Johnsen BO. 1990. Interpopulation variation in male parr maturation of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Norway. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68(9), 1983-1987.
Lalèyè PA. 2006. Length–weight and length–length relationships of fishes from the Ouémé River in Bénin (West Africa). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 22(4), 330-333.
Linfield RSJ. 1980. Ecological changes in a lake fishery and their effects on a stunted roach Rutilus rutilus population. Journal of Fish Biology, 16(2), 123-144.
Linløkken A, Seeland PAH. 1996. Growth and production of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) responding to biomass removal. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33(3/4), 427-435.
Loya Y, Flshelson L. 1969. Ecology of Fish Breeding in Brackish Water Ponds near the Dead Sea (Israel). Journal of Fish Biology 1(3), 261-278.
Mair G, Abucay J, Abella T, Beardmore J, Skibinski D. 1997. Genetic manipulation of sex ratio for the large-scale production of all-male tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54(2), 396-404.
Majumdar K. 1983. Sex ratios from interspecific crosses within the tilapias, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, 1983. Nazareth.
Bruton NM, Allanson B. 1974. The growth of Tilapia mossambica Peters (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Sibaya, South Africa.
Phelps RP, Popma TJ. 2000. Sex reversal of tilapia, Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas. The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, , United States, p 25.
Post J, McQueen D. 2011. Variability in First-Year Growth of Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens): Predictions from a Simple Model, Observations, and an Experiment.
Rask M. 1983. Differences in growth of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in two small forest lakes. Hydrobiologia, 101(1), 139-143.
Ridgway LL, Chapleau F. 1994. Study of a stunted population of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in a monospecific lake in Gatineau Park, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(9), 1576-1582.
Roff D. 1993. Evolution Of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. Springer US.
Saleh KI. 2007. First recorded of Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848), in natural water of Iraq (Tigris River), The First Scientific Conference of Agricultures College. University of Basra, p 26-27.
Sandheinrich M, Hubert W. 2011. Intraspecific Resource Partitioning by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) in a Stratified Lake.
Sandheinrich MB, Hubert WA. 1984. Intraspecific resource partitioning by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in a stratified lake. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 41(12), 1745-1752.
Shahabuddin AM, Khan ND, Saha D, Ayna E, Wonkwon KW, Murray W, Yoshimatsu T, Araki T. 2015. Length-weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Juvenile Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) Fed Diets with Pyropia spheroplasts in Closed Recirculating System.
Summerfelt RC. 2000. Water quality considerations for aquaculture. Department of Animal Ecology, 2-7.
Swingle HS. 1960. Comparative Evaluation of Two Tilapias as Pondfishes in Alabama.
Takagi Y. 2009. Effects of Starvation and Subsequent Refeeding on Formation and Resorption of Acellular Bone in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.
Verani JR, Marins M, Sivia ABD, Sobrinho AC. 1983. Population control in intensive fish culture associating Oreochromis (Sarotherodon) niloticus with the natural predator Cicha ocellaris: quantitative analysis. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, 580–587.
Wohlfarth G, Hulata G. 1983. Applied genetics of tilapias. ICLARM studies and review, 6.
Yakubu A. 2012. Morphometric Differentiation of Two Nigerian Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus) Using Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis.
Ylikarjula J, Heino M, Dieckmann U. 1999. Ecology and adaptation of stunted growth in fish. Evolutionary Ecology 13(5), 433-453.
Causes of stunting in Coptodon zilli in Iraq.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(5), 305-314, May 2019.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)