International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Cognitive capacity among elderly people in an urban community

By: Mahmuda Ansari, Md. Ziaul Islam, Khan Nasrin Jahan, Shahanaz Chowdhury

Key Words: Cognitive capacity, elderly people, urban community, cross-sectional study.

Int. J. Biosci. 13(1), 167-187, July 2018.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.1.167-187

Certification: ijb 2018 0101 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Cognitive capacity is a person’s ability to process thoughts which primarily refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, and reading comprehension. Ageing is being increasingly recognized as a serious global concern and frequently it is associated with impairment of cognitive capacity. This cross-sectional study was carried out from January to December 2014 to assess the level of cognitive capacity among 221 elderly in Zigatola area of Dhaka city. The elderly of both sexes have been covered in this study. Data were collected by using semi- structured questionnaire and through face-to-face interview. The level of cognitive capacity was measured using Folstein’s Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The mean age of the respondents was found 67.03±5.509 years. Most of the respondents 86.9% were male, 88.7% were married, 39.8% were service holders, and 27.3% had secondary level of education. Average monthly family income of respondents was Tk. 41910±23949. By different domains, mean score of the orientation capacity was 8.52±1.35 while it was 2.77±0.508 in immediate recall capacity, 3.305±1.327 in calculation and attention capacity, 1.32±1.018 in recall capacity and 8.52±0.90 in language capacity. Cognitive capacity was normal in 65.2%, borderline in 25.8% and impaired in 9.0%. Impaired cognitive function was significantly higher (16.7%) in very old age than old (10.8%) and young old age (8.4%), (χ2 test, p=0.002). Impaired cognitive function was higher (17.2%) in females than males (7.8%). It was also significantly higher (27.3%) in secondary level education group (χ2 test, p<0.001). Impaired cognitive function was significantly higher (23.5%) among housewives than service holders (4.5%), (χ2 test, p<0.001). Cognitive impairment was significantly higher (14.9%) among lower income group (χ2 test, p<0.001). The level of cognitive capacity remains a common problem among the elderly population. The problem will assume added importance and impact on the society which suggests that elderly need more support from family as well as society and country to improve the level of cognitive capacity.

| Views 39 |

Cognitive capacity among elderly people in an urban community

Backman L, Small BJ, Wahlin A, Larsson M. 2000. Cognitive functioning in very old age.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). 2012a. Bangladesh population and housing census 2011. BBS. Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). 2012b. Household income and expenditure survey 2010.: BBS, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Baltes PB, Lindenberger U. 1997. Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: a new window to the study of cognitive aging. Psychology and Aging 12, pp. 12.

Borson S, Scanlan JM, Watanabe J, Tu SP, Lessig M. 2005. Simplifying detection of cognitive impairment: comparison of the MiniCog and MiniMental State Examination in a multiethnic sample. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 871-874.

Brayne C, Best N, Muir M, Richards SJ, Gill C. 1997. Five year incidence and prediction of dementia and cognitive decline in a population sample of women aged 70–79 at baseline. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12, 1107-1118.

Brayne C, Calloway P. 1989. An epidemiological study of dementia in a rural population of elderly women. The British Journal of Psychiatry 155, 214-219.

Brayne C, Calloway P. 1990. The case identification of dementia in the community: a comparison of methods. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 5, 309-316.

Brayne C, Nickson J, Mccracken C, Gill C, Johnson A. 1998. Cognitive function and dementia in six areas of England and Wales: the distribution of MMSE and prevalence of GMS organicity level in the MRC CFA Study. Psychological Medicine 28, 319-335.

Barnes DE, Cauley JA, Lui LY, Fink HA, McCulloch C, Stone KL. 2007. Women who maintain optimal cognitive function into old age. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 55 (2), 259–264

Brady CB, Spiro A, Gaziano JM. 2005. Effects of age and hypertension status on cognition: The veterans affairs normative aging study. Neuropsychology 19(6), 770–777.

Clark VH, Resnick SM, Doshi J, Beason-Held LL, Zhou Y, Ferrucci L, Wong DF, Kraut MA, Davatzikos C. 2012. Longitudinal imaging pattern analysis (SPARE-CD index) detects early structural and functional changes before cognitive decline in healthy older adults. Neurobiology of Aging 33, pp.2733-2745.

Coren S, Ward LM, Enns, James T. 1999. Sensation and Perception. Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Deary IJ, Whalley LJ, Batty GD, Starr JM. 2006. Physical fitness and lifetime cognitive change. Neurology 67(7), 1195–1200.

Donella L, Hoffman-Goetz L, Arocha JF. 2007. Assessing health numeracy among community- dwelling older adults. J Health community 12, 651-665.

Etnier JL, Caselli RJ, Reiman EM, Alexander GE, Sibley BA, Tessier D. 2007. Cognitive performance in older women relative to ApoE-epsilon4 geno- type and aerobic fitness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39(1), 199–207.

Ferri CP, Prince M, Brayne C, Brodaty H, Fratiglioni L, Ganguli M, Hall K, Hasegawa K, Hendrie H, Huang Y. 2006. Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. The Lancet 366, pp. 2112-2117.

Folstein MF, Folstein SE, Mchugh PR. 1975. “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of psychiatric Research 12, 189-198.

Fong TG, Jones RN, Rudolph JL, Yang FM, Tommet D, Habtemariam D, Marcantonio ER, Langa KM, Inouye SK. 2011. Development and validation of a brief cognitive assessment tool: the sweet 16. Archives of Internal Medicine 171, 432-437.

Foreman MD, Fletcher K, Mion LC, Trygstad L. 2003. Assessing cognitive function. Geriatric protocol for best practice, Vol. 99 pp. 115.

Gallacher JE, Elwood PC, Hopkinson C, Rabbitt PM, Stollery BT, Sweetnam PM, Brayne C, Huppert FA. 1999. Cognitive function in the Caerphilly study: associations with age, social class, education and mood. European Journal of Epidemiology 15, 161-169.

Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, Peel J. 2003. Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease. Patient Educ Couns 51(3) 267-275.

Glisky EL. 2007. Changes in cognitive function in human aging. Brain aging: models, methods, and mechanisms, 3, 20.

Graves A, Van Duijn C, Chandra V, Fratiglioni L, Heyman A, Jorm A, Kokmen E, Kondo K, Mortimer J, Rocca W. 1991. Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20, S48-S57.

Grady D, Yaffe K, Kristof M, Lin F, Richards C, Barrett-Connor E. 2002. Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cognitive function: The heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study. American Journal of Medicine 113(7), 543–548.

Gualtieri C, T. Johnson LG. 2008. Age-related cognitive decline in patients with mood disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 32, 962-967.

Hitt R, Young-Xu Y, Silver M, Perls T. 1999. Centenarians: the older you get, the healthier you have been. The Lancet 354, 652.

Idira JP. 2011. Aging in Bangladesh: Social gerontology training program organized by the Caritas Bangladesh during 19th to 23rd September, 2011.

Jorm A. 1994. A short form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE): development and cross-validation. Psychological Medicine 24, 145-153.

Kabir ZN, Ferdous T, Cederholm T, Khanam MA, Streatfied K. 2006. Mini Nutritional Assessment of rural elderly people in Bangladesh: the impact of demographic, socio-economic and health factors. Public Health Nutrition 9, 968-974.

Kidd PM. 2008. Alzheimer’s disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and age-associated memory impairment: current understanding and progress toward integrative prevention. Alternative Medicine Review 13, 85.

Mavrodaris A, Powell J, Thorogood M. 2013. Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 91, 773-783.

May CP, Hasher L, Kane MJ. 1999. The role of interference in memory span. Memory & Cognition 27, 759-767.

Mungas D. 1991. In-office mental status testing: a practical guide. Geriatrics 46(54), 63-66.

Muqit M, Ferdous H. 1998. Cognitive impairment in elderly, non-insulin dependent diabetic men in Bangladesh. Insulin 13, 27.

Orimo H, Ito H, Suzuki T, Araki A, Hosoi T, Sawabe M. 2006. Reviewing the definition of “elderly”. Geriatrics & Gerontology International 6, 149-158.

Plassman BL, Langa KM, Fisher GG, Heeringa SG, Weir DR, Ofstedal MB, Burke JR, Hurd MD, Potter GG, Rodgers WL. 2008. Prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine 148, 427-434.

Rait G, Fletcher A, Smeeth L, Brayne C, Stirling S, Nunes M, Breeze E, Ng ESW, Bulpitt CJ, Jones D. 2005. Prevalence of cognitive impairment: results from the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community. Age and Ageing 34, 242-248.

Raz N, Lindenberger U, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Head D, Williamson A. 2005. Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: General trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cerebral Cortex 15(11), 1676–1689.

Raz N, Rodrigue KM. 2006. Differential aging of the brain: Patterns, cognitive correlates and modifiers. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30(6), 730–748.

Raz N, Rodrigue KM, Acker JD. 2003. Hypertension and the brain: Vulnerability of the prefrontal regions and executive functions. Behavioral Neuroscience 117(6), 1169–1180.

Schretlen DJ, Inscore AB, Jinnah HA, Rao V, Gordon B, Pearlson GD. 2007. Serum uric acid and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Neuropsychology 21(1), 136–140.

Singh-Manoux A, Britton A, Marmot M. 2003. Vascular disease and cognitive function: Evidence from the Whitehall II study. Journal of American Geriatric Society 51(10), 1445–1450.

Schaie KW. 1983. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: A 21-year exploration of psychometric intelligence in adulthood. Longitudinal Studies of Adult Psychological Development 64, 484-493.

Schupf N, Tang M, Albert S, Costa R, Andrews H, Lee JH, Mayeux R. 2005. Decline in cognitive and functional skills increases mortality risk in non demented elderly. Neurology 65, 1218-1226.

Small BJ, Dixon RA, Mcardle JJ, Grimm KJ. 2012. Do changes in lifestyle engagement moderate cognitive decline in normal aging? Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Neuropsychology 26, 144.

Stuck AE, Walthert JM, Nikolaus T, Büla CJ, Hohmann C, Beck JC. 1999. Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review. Social Science & Medicine 48, 445-469.

Sushma B. 2004. Health problems of elderly-An intervention strategy. Indian Journal of Gerontology 18(2), 201-218.

Tabert MH, Albert SM, Borukhova-Milov L, Camacho Y, Pelton G, Liu X, Stern Y, Devanand DP. 2002. Functional deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment Prediction of AD. Neurology 58, 758-764.

Tombaugh TN, Mcintyre NJ. 1992. The mini-mental state examination: a comprehensive review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Von Eckardt, B. (1995). What is cognitive science? MIT press.

Wilson RS, Barnes L, De Leon CM, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, Bach J, Pilat J, Beckett L, Arnold, S, Evans D. 2002. Depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and risk of AD in older persons. Neurology 59, 364-370.

Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC. 2006. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 14(12), 1032–1040.

Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM. 1998. Relationship of functional heath literacy to patients’ knowledge of their chronic disease: A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch International Medical 158(2), 166-172.

Woodford H, George J. 2007. Cognitive assessment in the elderly: a review of clinical methods. Qjm 100, 469-484.

World Health Organization. 2008. WHO global report on falls prevention in older age. World Health Organization.

Yaffe K, Fiocco A, Lindquist K, Vittinghoff E, Simonsick E, Newman A, Satterfield S, Rosano C, Rubin S, Ayonayon H. 2009. Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults The Health ABC Study. Neurology 72, 2029-2035.

Yaffe K, Barnes DE, Lindquist K, Cauley JA, Simonsick EM, Penninx B. 2007. Endogenous sex hormone levels and risk of cognitive decline in an older biracial cohort. Neurobiology of Aging 28(2), 171–178.

Mahmuda Ansari, Md. Ziaul Islam, Khan Nasrin Jahan, Shahanaz Chowdhury.
Cognitive capacity among elderly people in an urban community.
Int. J. Biosci. 13(1), 167-187, July 2018.
https://innspub.net/ijb/cognitive-capacity-among-elderly-people-urban-community/
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update