International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Diet of common leopard and leopard cat in Murree, Kotli Sattian and Kahuta National Park, Pakistan: contrasting patterns of domestic animal and wild carnivore consumption

By: Rukhsana Khatoon, Maqsood Anwar, Ume Habiba, Naureen Mustafa, Sangam Khalil, Lori S. Eggert, Matthew E. Gompper

Key Words: Common leopard, Leopard cat, Molecular scatology, Dietary niche breadth, Intraguild predation.

Int. J. Biosci. 15(1), 321-330, July 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.1.321-330

Certification: ijb 2019 0044 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Predator communities are structured based on how sympatric species differentially use shared resources. To better understand the carnivore community in Murree, Kotli Sattian and Kahuta National Park in Pakistan, we determined the dietary breadth and niche overlap of sympatric carnivore Common leopards (Panthera pardus) and Leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis). We identified prey species through scat analysis after molecular confirmation of the source predator species for all Leopard cat scats (n = 42) and a subset of Common leopard scats (n = 38). Common leopard diet was relatively diverse (dietary breadth = 0.8) and comprised 19 mammalian prey species, including large mammal species (ungulates and domestic dogs; Frequency of Occurrence, FO = 34.6%), small (FO = 32.3%) and mid-sized mammals (FO = 27.7%). Even excluding domestic dogs, the frequency of domestic ungulate prey was slightly higher (15.4%) than the frequency of wild ungulates (14.6%). There was a notably high consumption of other carnivore species; five carnivore taxa were consumed by Common leopard. Leopard cat diet was similarly diverse (dietary breadth = 0.6), and included 9 mammalian prey species, as well as wild birds, reptiles and insects. Leopard cats relied heavily on rodents with the FO higher in winter (89.5%) than summer (62.6%). Although there was moderate dietary overlap between the two species (Ojk= 0.53), the observation that Common leopard focuses more on large prey and Leopard cat hunts primarily small mammals suggests competition for dietary resources is relatively low.

| Views 97 |

Diet of common leopard and leopard cat in Murree, Kotli Sattian and Kahuta National Park, Pakistan: contrasting patterns of domestic animal and wild carnivore consumption

Athreya V, Odden M, Linnell JD, Krishnaswamy J, Karanth KU. 2016. A cat among the dogs: leopard Panthera pardus diet in a human-dominated landscape in western Maharashtra, India. Oryx 50(1), 156-162.

Butler JR, Linnell JD, Morrant D, Athreya V, Lescureux N, Mckeown A. 2014. Dog eat dog, cat eat dog: Social-ecological dimensions of dog predation by wild carnivores. In M. E. Gompper, Ed. Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation Oxford: Oxford University Press, 129–130.

Chamberlain MJ, Leopold BD. 2005. Overlap in space use among bobcats (Lynx rufus), coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray foxes (Urocyoncinereoar genteus). American Midland Naturalist 153, 171-179.

DonadioE, Buskirk SW. 2006. Diet, morphology, and interspecific killing in Carnivora. American Naturalist 167, 524–536.

Fedriani JM, Fuller TK, Sauvajot RM, York EC. 2000. Competition and intra guild predation among three sympatric carnivores. Oecologia 125, 125–258.

Fernandez DAP, De Guia APO. 2011. Feeding habits of Visayan Leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis rabori) in sugar cane fields of Negros Occidental, Philippines. Asian International Journal of Life Sciences 20(1), 143-154.

Glen AS, Dickman, CR. 2005. Complex interactions among mammalian carnivores in Australia, and their implications for wildlife management. Biological Review 80, 387–401.

GOP. 2006. Meteorological data of Rawalpindi from 1931 to 2006. Pakistan Meteorological Department, Regional Meteorological Center, Islamabad. Islamabad.

http://www.met.gov.pk/cdpc/islamabad.htm.

Gompper ME, Lesmeister DB, Ray JC, Malcolm JR, Kays R. 2016. Differential habitat use or intraguild interactions: What structures a carnivore community? PLoS ONE 11(1), e0146055.

Grassman LI. 2000. Movements and prey selection of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in a dry evergreen forest in Thailand. Acta Theriologica 45, 421–426.

Grassman LI, Tewes ME, Silvy NJ, Kreetiyutanont K. 2005. Spatial organization and diet of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in north-central Thailand Journal of Zoology 266(1), 45-54.

Habiba U, Anwar M, Metacalf EC, Khan BM, Salim M, Hussain A, Khatoon R, Nasir KA., Haq EU, Haroon M. 2019. Local communities perception of anthropogenic threats to the habitat and population of barking deer (Muntiacus veginalis) in Murree, Kotli Sattian and Kahuta National Park District Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences 14(1), 525-532.

Jackson R, Hunter DO. 1996. Snow Leopard Survey and Conservation Handbook. International Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle, Washington and U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Colorado,  154.

Janssen A, Sabelis MW, Magalhaes S, Montserrat M, van der Hammen T. 2007. Habitat structure affects intraguild predation. Ecology 88, 2713-2719.

Jedrezejewski W, Jedrezejewska B, Szymura A. 1989. Food niche overlaps in a winter community of predators in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Acta Theriologica 34, 487-496.

Jones ME, Barmuta LA. 2000. Niche differentiation among sympatric Australian dasyurid carnivores. Journal of Mammalogy 81, 434–447.

Kessing BD, Martin CA, McIntosh C, McMillan MO, Palumbi S. 1989. The Simple Fool’s Guide to PCR.University of Hawaii, No. 24.

Khan LA. 1994. Working Plan for Coniferous Forest of Murree and Kahuta Tehsils of Rawalpindi District. Lahore: Development and Working Plan Circle 2.

Khan KA, Khan JA, Mohan M. 2017. Winter food habits of the golden jackal (Canisaureus) (Mammalfa: Carnivora: Canidae) in Patna Bird Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, Indfa. Journal ofThreatened .Taxa 9, 10656–10661.

Khatoon R, Hussain I, Anwar M, Nawaz MA. 2017. Diet selection of Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) in Chitral, Pakistan. Turkish Journal Zoology 41, 914-913.

Khatoon  R, Mehmood T, Anwar M, Habiba U, Eggert LS, Gompper ME. 2019. A field and laboratory-based assessment of the distribution of large and meso-carnivore species in the newly established Murree, Kotli Sattian, and Kahuta National Park, Pakistan. Mammal Research In press.

Kocher TD, Thomas WK, Meyer A, Edwards SV, Paabo S, Villablanca FX, Wilson AC.1989. Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: Amplification and sequencing with conserved primers. Proceeding Natural Academic Science USA. 86, 6196-6200.

Kshettry A, Vaidyanathan S, Arthreya V. 2018. Diet selection of Leopards (Panthera pardus) in a human use landscape in North-Eastern India. Tropical Conservation Science 11, 1-9.

Leopold BD, Krausman PR.1986. Diets of 3 predators in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 50, 290-295.

Litvaitis JA. 2000.  Investigating food habits of terrestrial vertebrates. In: Boitani, LFuller T. K. ed. Research techniques in animal ecology. Columbia University Press, New York Press, 165-190.

Linnell JDC, Strand O. 2000. Interference interactions, coexistence and conservation of mammalian carnivores. Diversity and Distribution 6, 169–176.

Levins R. 1968. Evolution in changing environments: some theoretical explorations. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press.

Lesmeister DB, Nielsen CK, Schauber EM, Hellgren EC. 2015. Spatial and temporal structure of a mesocarnivore guild in Midwestern North America. Wildlife Monograph 191(1), 1-61.

Mills MGL. 1992. A comparison of methods used to study food habits of large African carnivores. in Wildlife 2001: populations (D. R. McCullough and R. H. Barret, eds.). Springer, Netherlands. 1112–1124.

Mahmood T, Niazi F, Nadeem MS. 2013. Diet composition of Asiatic jackal (Canis aureus) in Margallah Hills National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23, 444-456.

Nadeem MS, Naz R, ShahSI, Beg MA, Kayani AR, Mushtaq M, Mahmood T. 2012. Season and locality related changes in the diet of Asiatic jackal (Canis aureus) in Potohar, Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Zoology 36 (6), 798-805.

Palomares F, Ferreras P, Fedriani JM, Delibes M. 1996. Spatial relationships between Iberian lynx and other carnivores in an area of south-west Spain. Journal of Applied Ecology 33, 5– 13.

Palomares F, Caro TM.1999. Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores. American Naturalist 153, 492–508.

Pianka ER.1973. The structure of lizard communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 53-74.

Rabinowitz A. 1989. The density and behavior of large cats in a dry tropical forest mosaic in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Natural History Bulletin andSiam Society 37, 235–251.

Rajaratnam R, Sunquist M, Rajaratnam L, Ambus L. 2007. Diet and habitat selection of leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis) in an agricultural landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23, 209-217.

Roberts TJ. 1997. The mammals of Pakistan, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan. 525.

Rosenzweig ML.1966. Community structure in sympatric carnivore. Journal of Mammal 47(4), 602-612.

Scott DM, Gemita E, Maddox TM. 2004. Small cats in human modified landscapes in Sumatra Cat News 40, 23–25.

Sunquist ME, Sunquist FC. 2009. Family Felidae (cats). in Handbook of the mammals of the world. Vol.1. Carnivores (D. E. Wilson and R. A. Mittermeier, ed. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain, 54–169.

Sunquist ME, Sunquist F, Daneke DE.1989. Ecological separation in a Venezuelan Llanos carnivore community. In Advances in Neotropical Mammalogy. Redford, K. H. & Eisenberg, J. F. Ed. Gainesville, FL: Sandhill Crane. Press. 197–232.

Sheikh KM, Molur S. 2004.  Status and Red List of Pakistan’s Mammals Based on the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan. IUCN Pakistan, Islamabad.

Siddiqui MF, Ahmed M, Khan N, Khan IA. 2010. A quantitative description of moist temperate conifer forests of Himalaya region of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. International Journal Biology and Biotechnology 7 (3), 175-185.

Vanak AT, Gompper ME. 2009. Dietary niche separation between sympatric free ranging domestic dogs and Indian foxes in central India. Journal of Mammal 90(5), 1058–1065.

Vanak AT, Fortin D, Thaker M, Ogden M, Owen C, Greatwood S, Slotow R. 2013.Moving to stay in place: behavioral mechanisms for coexistence of African large carnivores. Ecology 94, 2619-2631.

Rukhsana Khatoon, Maqsood Anwar, Ume Habiba, Naureen Mustafa, Sangam Khalil, Lori S. Eggert, Matthew E. Gompper.
Diet of common leopard and leopard cat in Murree, Kotli Sattian and Kahuta National Park, Pakistan: contrasting patterns of domestic animal and wild carnivore consumption.
Int. J. Biosci. 15(1), 321-330, July 2019.
https://innspub.net/ijb/diet-common-leopard-leopard-cat-murree-kotli-sattian-kahuta-national-park-pakistan-contrasting-patterns-domestic-animal-wild-carnivore-consumption/
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update