International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Distribution of roadside plant communities along the altitudinal gradient in pine forests, Pakistan

By: Shaheen Qadir, Adeela Altaf, Muhammad Hashim, Eamon Bushra, Asia BiBi, Nazir Ahmad, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Kaneez Fatima, Altaf Ahmad Dasti

Key Words: Road side vegetation, altitudinal gradient, Plant communities, Species Richness.

Int. J. Biosci. 17(5), 96-115, November 2020.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/17.5.96-115

Certification: ijb 2020 0074 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

In mountainous areas, road construction is accompanied by large‐scale physical disturbance that drastically modify the landscape. Road construction and cutting process of mountains removes soil and rock from the hillside above the proposed road, while soil and rock are deposited on the down‐slope area. The resultant roadsides are highly disturbed habitats characterized by plant communities maintained at an early successional stage. The present research was conducted along the roadside, consisting of Nathia Gali (Temperate forest), Abbottabad (Tropical forest) and Thandiani Valley (Sub alpine forest) to determine the associations and relationships between the plant communities and soil, grouping and quantification of plant communities using multivariate ordination techniques. The study area ranges in altitude from 2400 to 2700 m, a.s.l. A total 74 genera having 82 species belonging to 44 families were recorded during the field survey. The major families were Rosaceae (30%), Lamiaceae (23%) and Asteraceae (17%). Other families also contributed a good share in flora. Herbs contributed the more share followed by shrubs and trees.  Presence/absence data were used to classify and ordinate for both sites and species. DCA axes 1 and 2 were used for data interpretation. The relationships between soil characters and DCA axes 1 and 2 were determined using Spearman Rank correlation. Cluster analysis identified 3 vegetation types. These vegetation types have been discussed in the context of topographic and edaphic heterogeneity.

| Views 22 |

| Views 22 |

Distribution of roadside plant communities along the altitudinal gradient in pine forests, Pakistan

Abella SR, Springer JD. 2008. Canopy-tree influences along a soil parent material gradient in Pinus ponderosa-Quercus gambelii forests northern Arizona. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 135, 26-36.

Ahmad KS, Hameed M, Ahmad F, Sadia B. 2016. Edaphic factors as major determinants of plant distribution of temperate Himalayan grasses, Pakistan journal of Botany 48(2), 567-573.

Angold PG. 1997. The impact of a road upon adjacent heathlands vegetation effects on plants species composition. Journal of Animal Ecology 34, 409-417.

Araki M. 1995.Forest meteorology. Tokyo: Kawashima Shoten (in Japanese).

Arevalo JR, Delgado JD, Otto R, Naranjo A, Salas M,Fernández-Palacios JM. 2005. Distribution of alien vs. native plant species in roadside communities along an altitudinal gradient in Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Perspective in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 7, 185-202.

Baillie IC, Ashton PS, Court MN, Anderson JAR, Fitzpatrick EA, Tinsley J. 1987. Site characteristics and distribution of tree species in Mixed Dipterocarp Forest on Tertiary sediments in central Sarawak. Malysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3, 201-220.

BiBi A, Bushra E. Hashim M, Altaf A, Qadir S, Ahmad I, Ahmad N, Hussain S, Dasti AA. 2020. Classification and ordination of upland vegetation of temperate forest at Mukeshpuri Hills, Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences 17(3), 206-229.

Champion HG, Seth SK, Khattak GM. 1965. Forest types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute.

Charman DJ. 1993. Patterned ferns in Scotland: evidence from vegetation and water chemistry, Journal of Vegetation Science 4, 543–552.

Coffin AW. 2007. From road kill to road ecology: A review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography 15, 396-406.

Cui BS, Zhao SQ, Zhang KJ. 2009. Disturbance of Dabao highway construction on plant species and soil nutrients in Longitudinal Range Gorge Region of southwestern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158, 545-59.

D’Antonio C, Meyecrson LA, Denslow J. 2001. Exotic species and conservation: research needs. Conservation biology: research priorities for the next decade. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Dasti AA, Agnew DQ. 1994. The vegetation of Cholistan and Thal deserts, Pakistan. Journal Arid Environments 27, 193-208.

Dasti AA, Malik SA. 1998. A transect of vegetation and soils on the Indus valley scar slope, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Plant Science 4(2), 73-84.

Dasti AA, Saima ZM, Azhar M, Gohar S.2010.Vegetation zonation along the geological and geomorphological gradient at eastern slope of Sulaiman range, Pakistan.  African Journal of Biotechnology 9(37), 6105-6115.

Davis MA, Wrage KJ, Reich PB. 1998. Competition between tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation: Support for a theory of resource supply and demand. Journal of Ecology 86, 652-661.

Deduke C, Halden NM, Piercey-Normore MD. 2016. Comparing element composition of rock substratum with lichen communities and the fecundity of Arctoparmelia and Xanthoparmelia species. Botany 94, 41-51.

DoleyD, Audet P. 2013. Adopting novel ecosystems as suitable rehabilitation alternatives for former mine sites. Ecological Processes 2(1), 22.

Donaldson JE, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU. 2013. Scale-area curves: A tool for understanding the ecology and distribution of invasive tree species. Biological Invasion 16, 553-63.

Dong SK, Yang ZF, Cui BS, Liu SL, Liu J, Hu B, Zhai HJ, Ding ZK, Wei  G. 2010. Impacts of environmental factors and human disturbance on composition of roadside vegetation in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve of southwest China. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2(12), 13-19.

Franklin J, Drake DR, Bolick LA, Smith DS, MotleyJ. 1999. Rain forest composition and patterns of secondary succession in the Vava’u Island Grou, Tonga. Journal of Vegetation Science 10, 51-64.

Fu W, LiuS, Dong S. 2010. Land scape pattern changes under the disturbance of road networks. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2(8), 59-67.

Gairola S, Rawal RS, Todaria NP. 2008. Forest vegetation patterns along an altitudinal gradient in sub-alpine zone of west Himalaya, India. African Journal of Plant Science 6, 42- 48.

Hahm WJ, Riebe CS, Lukens CE, Araki S. 2014. Bed rock composition regulates mountain ecosystems and landscape evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 3338-43.

Hall JB, Swaine M. 1976. Classification and ecology of closed-canopy forest in Ghana. The Journal of Ecology 913-951.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Iqbal Z, Alam M, Aksoy A. 2017. Multivariate approach to the classification and ordination of the forest ecosystem of Nandiar valley western Himalayas. Ecological Indicators 80, 232-241.

Hashim M, Dasti AA. 2019. Himalayan temperate forest composition and canopy Attributes. International Journal of Biosciences 14(4), 317-337.

He H, Monaco T. 2018. Litter accumulation and nutrient content of roadside plant communities in Sichuan Basin, China. Plants 6(3), 36.

Hubbell SP, Foster RB. 1986. Biology, Chance and history and the structure of tropical rain forest tree communities. Community Ecology 314-329.

Khalid FA, Hale WHG, Headley ADD. 2008. Floristic composition and Environmental determinants of roadside vegetation in North England. Journal of Ecology 57(1), 73-88.

Khan SM, Page S, Ahmad H, Ullah Z, Shaheen H, Ahmad M, Harper DM. 2013.Phyto-climatic gradient of vegetation and habitat specificity in the high elevation Western Himalayas. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45, 223-230.

Khuroo AA, Rashid I, Reshi Z, Dar GH, Wafai BA. 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasion 9, 269-292.

Kochy M, Wilson SD. 2001.Nitrogen deposition and forest expansion in the northern Great plains. Journal of Ecology 89, 807-817.

Kubota Y, Murata H, Kikuzawa K. 2004. Effects of topographic heterogenity on tree species richness and stand dynamics in a subtroical forest in Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Journal of Ecology 92, 230-240.

Latrou M, Papadopoulos A, Papadopoulos F, Dichala O, Psoma P, Bountla A. 2014. Determination of soil available phosphorus using the Olsen and Mehlich 3 methods for Greek soils having variable amounts of calcium carbonate. Communications in soil science and plant analysis 45(16), 2207-2214.

Li Y, Gao Z, Tang L. 2016. Soil-Plant characteristics in an age sequence of Coronillavaria L. Plantations along embankments. Journal of Soil Science and Plant nutrition 16, 187-99.

Liberman M, Liberman D, Peltera R, Hartsshorn GS. 1985. Small scale altitudinal variation in lowland tropical wet forest vegetation.Journal of Ecology 73, 505-516.

Liberman M, Liberman D, Peltera R, Hartsshorn GS. 1995. Canopy closure and the distribution of tropical forests tree species at La Selva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1, 161-178.

Nasir E, Ali SI. 1972. Flora of Pakistan. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.

Neher DA, Asmussen D, Lovell ST. 2013. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area. Science of Total Environment 449, 320-27.

Parendes LA, Jones JA. 2000.  Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Conservation Biology 14, 64-75.

Perkins LB, Hatfield G. 2014.Competition, legacy, and priority and the success of three invasive species. Biological invasion 16(12), 2543-2550.

Pickering C, Hill W. 2007. Roadside weeds of the snowy mountains, Australia. Mountain Research and Devlopment, 27, 359-367.

Richards PW. 1996. The tropical rainforest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sadıa S, Zhang JT, Tarıq A, Bai X, Sheday AA, Caol K, Mazari P, Aslam S, Ahmad L. 2017. Specıes diversity, vegetation pattern and conservatıon of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Communıtıes ın Donglıng mountain meadow, Beıjıng, Chına. Pakistan Journal of Botany 49(5), 1725-1734.

Saima S, Altaf A, Faiz MH, Shahnaz F, Wu G. 2018. Vegetation patterns and composition of mixed coniferous forests along an altitudinal gradient in the Western Himalayas of Pakistan. Austrian Journal of Forest Science 135, 159–180.

Saima S, Dasti AA, Hussain F, Wazir SM, Malik SA. 2009. Floristic compositions along an 18- km long transect in Ayubia National Park district Abbottabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41, 2115-2127.

Shaheen H, Khan SM, Harper DM, Ullah Z, Qureshi RA. 2011. Species diversity, community structure, and distribution patterns in western Himalayan alpine pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 31(2), 153-159.

Shaheen S, Iqbal Z, Ijaz F, Alam J, Rahman IU. 2016. Floristic composition, biological spectrum and phenology of Tehsil Havelian, District Abbottabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 48(5), 1849-1859.

Shmida A, Evenari M, Noy-Meir I. 1986. Hot deserts ecosystem: an integeral view. Ecosystems of the world 379- 451.

Tiessen H, Roberts TL, Stewart JWB. 1983. Carbonate analysis in soils and minerals by acid digestion and two‐endpoint titration.  Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 14(2), 161-166.

Trombulak SC, Frissell CA. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14, 18-30.

Tyser RW, Worley CA. 1992. Alien flora in grass lands adjacent to road and rail corridors in Glacier National park, Montana Conservation Biology 6, 253-262.

Ullmann I, Bannister P, Wilson JB. 1995. The vegetation of roadside verges with respect to environmental gradients in southern New Zealand. Journal of Vegetation Science 6, 131-142.

Walker LR, Shiels AB, Bellingham PJ. 2013. Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides. Journal of Ecology 101, 650-661.

Walkley A, Black IA. 1934. An examination of Degtjareff method for soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 29-37.

Walton M, Gadzia T, Zeedyk WD. 2014. Characterization and restoration of slope wetlands in New Mexico: a guide for understanding slope wetlands, causes of degradation and treatment options. New Mexico Environmental Department: Santa, 68.

Wazir SM, Dasti AA, Saima S, Shah J, Hussain 2008. Multivariate analysis of vegetation of Chapursan valley: An alpine meadow in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(2), 615-626.

Whittaker RH. 1972. Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21, 213–251.

Shaheen Qadir, Adeela Altaf, Muhammad Hashim, Eamon Bushra, Asia BiBi, Nazir Ahmad, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Kaneez Fatima, Altaf Ahmad Dasti.
Distribution of roadside plant communities along the altitudinal gradient in pine forests, Pakistan.
Int. J. Biosci. 17(5), 96-115, November 2020.
https://innspub.net/ijb/distribution-roadside-plant-communities-along-altitudinal-gradient-pine-forests-pakistan/
Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update