International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Effect of lead stress on polyphenols, flavonoids, and proline contents in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

By: Nour Elhouda Neggaz, Houcine Abdelhakim Reguieg Yssaad

Key Words: Raphanus sativus L., Lead, Polyphenols, Flavonoids, Proline.

Int. J. Biosci. 12(5), 135-144, May 2018.


Certification: ijb 2018 0037 [Generate Certificate]


Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a suitable modal plant for eco-toxicological studies due to its tolerance to various stresses, such as metallic and saline stress. Lead is a toxic and exogenous metal to plants, and its presence causes several disturbances in plant. This work consists to determine the effect of lead stress applied during two weeks (0, 500, 1000, 2000 ppm) after 45 days of the plant’s growth. The parameters analyzed in the plant are polyphenols, flavonoids, and proline. The assay is performed using a JENWAY 6505 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The results obtained show a decrease in proline, but polyphenols and flavonoids show a marked increase. The high levels of proline (0.117 mg/g dry matter in the control) and polyphenols (0.248 mg/g dry matter at the 2000 ppm dose of lead) are recorded in the root system. However, the highest content of flavonoid (8,586 mg/g dry matter in the control) is recorded in the aerial part of the plant. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a tolerant plant to lead stress and has a phytoremediator power for lead.

| Views 55 |

Effect of lead stress on polyphenols, flavonoids, and proline contents in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

Ali MB, Singh N, Shohael AM, Hahn EJ, Paek KY. 2006. Phenolics metabolism and lignin synthesis in root suspension cultures of Panaxginsing in response to cooper stress. Journal of Plant Sciences 171, 147-154.

Apel K, Hirt H. 2004. Reactive oxygen species: Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Signal Transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology 55(3), 73-99.

Asadi Kapourchal So., Asadi Kapourchal Sa., Pazira E., Homaee M. 2009. Assessing radish (Raphanus sativus L.) potential for phytoremediation of lead-polluted soils resulting from air pollution. Plant, Soil and Environment 55(5), 202–206.

Ashraf M, Foolad MR. 2007. Roles of Glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 59, 206-216.

Babou FZ 2014. Lead action on Atriplex halimus and Atriplex canescens (Push) Nutt resistance markers. Memory of Magister, Oran University, Algeria 27-28.

Bahorun T, Gressier B, Trotin F, Brunet C, Dine T, Luyckx M, Vasseur J, Cazin M, Cazin JC, Pinkas M. 1996. Oxygen species scavenging activity of phenolic extracts from hawthorn fresh plant organs and pharmaceutical preparations. ArzneimForsch46, 1086-1089.

Belarbi A, 2018. Physiological and phytochemical study of tolerance to heavy metals Pb, Cr (III) and Cr (II) by Atriplex halimus L. PhD thesis, Mostaganem University, Algeria 179-189.

Ben ghnaya A, Gilbert C, Jeannette B, Michel B. 2006. Phytoremediation: in vitro selection of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) tolerant of toxic metals. International Journal of Tropical Ecology and Geography 30(2), 69-86.

Benahmed, F. 2010. Oxidative stress in Viciafaba L. seedlings subjected to various abiotic stresses (saline stress, hydric stress and heavy metal stress). Memory of Magister, Oran University, Algeria p 35-36.

Biteur N. 2012. Tests for the use of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in phytoremediation (biodepollution) in soil contaminated by heavy metals (Lead): Study of oxidative stress and some enzymatic parameters. PhD thesis, Oran University, Algeria p 61.

Bretzel, Francesca Benvenuti, Stefano Pistelli, Laura 2014. Metal contamination in urban street sediment in Pisa (Italy) can affect the production of antioxidant metabolites in Taraxacum officinale Weber. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21(3), 2325–2333.

Briat JF, Lebrun H. 1999. Plant responses to metal toxicity.Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences – Series III 322, 43-54.

Brown JE, Khodr H, Hider RC, Rice-Evans CA. 1998. Structural dependence of flavonoid interactions with Cu2+ ions: implications for their antioxidant properties. Biochemical Journal 330, 1173-1178.

Chao Wang, Jie Lu, Songhe Zhang, Pei Fang, Wang Jun Hou, Jin Qian.2011. Effects of Pb stress on nutrient uptake and secondary metabolism in submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74(5), 1297-1303.

Chen CT, Chen TH, Lo KF, Chiu CY.2004.Effects of proline on copper transport in rice seedlings under excess copper stress. Plant Science 166, 103–111.

Cuypers A, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H. 1999. The chemical behaviour of heavy metals plays a prominent role in the induction of oxidative stress. Free Radical Research 31, 539-543.

Dat J, Vandenabeele S, Vranová E, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Breusegem F. 2000. Dual action of the active oxygen species during plant stress responses. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 57, 779-95.

Dhriti K, Satwinderjeet K, Renu B. 2014. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Brassica juncea Plants under Cd-Induced Stress. BioMed Research International, Article ID 726070.

Dreier W, Göring M. 1974.Dereim slushohersolz kongentrasion en aiesverschideu physiologcshe parameter van-maiswrzelnwiss.Z. Drh. Berlin Nath. Naturwiss R 23, 641-4.

Duh PD. 1999.Antioxydant activity of water extract of four Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) varieties in soybean oil emulsion. Food Chemistry 4(66), 471-476.

Gill SS, Tuteja N. 2010.Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 48(12), 909-930.

Gomez-CaravacaAM, Gomez-Romero M, Arraez-Roman D, Segura-Carretero A, Fernandez-Gutierrez A. 2006. Advances in the analysis of phenolic compounds in products derived from bees. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 41, 1220-1234.

Heilerova L, Buekova M, Trapeik P, Silhar S, Lbuda J. 2003. Comparaison of antioxydative activity data for aqoeous extracts of Lemon Blam(Melissa officinalis L.); Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) ; Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and Agrimony (Agrimonita eupatoria L.) obtained by conventional methode and the DNA-Based biosensor. Journal of Food Science 21(2), 78-84.

Hoagland DR, Arnon DI. 1938. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Berkeley, California: College of Agriculture, University of California. Circular 347, 1-39.

John R, Ahmad P, Gadgil K, Sharma S. 2009. Heavy metal toxicity: effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L. International Journal of Plant Production 3, 65-75.

Jones LHP, Clemen CR. 1972. Lead uptake by plants and its significance for animals. In Lead Evironment, ed., P Hepple, 29-33 p. Applied Science Publishers, Barking, Essex.

Kasprzak MM, Erxleben A, Ochocki J. 2015. Properties and applications of flavonoid metal complexes. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances 5, 45853-45877.


Khan DH, Frankland B. 1983.Effects of cadmium and lead on radish plants with particular reference to movement of metals through soil profile and plant. Plant and Soil 70, 335-345.

Kilani BR, Chedly A, Arnould S. 2012.Proline, a multifunctional amino-acid involved in plant adaptation to environmental constraints. Biologie Aujour d’hui 206(4), 291-299.

Kristen Hladun R, David Parker R, John Trumble T. 2015. Cadmium, Copper, and Lead Accumulation and Bioconcentration in the Vegetative and Reproductive Organs of Raphanus sativus: Implications for Plant Performance and Pollination.

Journal of Chemical Ecology 41(4), 386–395.

Lemzeri H. 2007. Ecophysiological responses of three forest species of the genus Acacia, Eucalyptus and Schinus (A. cyanophylla, E. gomphocephala and S. mölle) under saline stress. Memory of Magister, Constantine University, Algeria 180p.

Løvdal T, Olsen KM, Slimestad R, Verheul M, Lillo C. 2010. Synergetic effects of nitrogen depletion, temperature, and light on the content of phenolic compounds and gene expression in leaves of tomato. Phytochemistry Journal 71(5), 605-613.

Manquián-Cerdaa K, Crucesb E, Escudeyac M, Zúñigaa G, Calderónd R. 2016. Interactive effects of aluminum and cadmium on phenolic compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and oxidative stress in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets cultivated in vitro.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 150, 320-326.

Monneveux PH, Nemmar M. 1986. Contribution to the study of drought resistance in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): study of proline accumulation during the development cycle. Agronomy, Édition Diffusion Presse Sciences 6(6), 583-590.

Morris CJ, Earl JR, Trenam CW, Blake DR. 1995. Reactive oxygen species and iron a dangerous partnership in inflamation. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 27, 109-122.

Påhlsson AB. 1989 Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) to vascular plants. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 47, 287–319.


Rastgoo Leila, Alemzadeh, Abbas. 2011. Biochemical Responses of Gouan (‘Aeluropus littoralis’) to Heavy Metals Stress. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5(4), 375-383.

Ravichandran R, Rajendran M, Devapiriam D. 2014. Antioxidant study of quercetin and their metal complex and determination of stability constant by spectrophotometry method.Food chemistry 146, 472-478.

Selvaraj S, Krishnaswamy S, Devashya V, Sethuraman S, Krishnan UM. 2014. Flavonoid–metal ion complexes: a novel class of therapeutic agents. Medicinal research reviews 34, 677-702.

Sharma P, Dubey RS. 2005. Lead toxicity in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 17, 35-52.

Singelton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. 1999. Analyses of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxydants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Packer, L., Ed., Oxidants and Antioxidants, Part A, Methods in Enzymology 299,

152-178 Academic Press, New York.

Sławomir D, Magdalena W, Kosiorb I, Sowab G, StanisławskiaIzabela B, Małgorzata W. 2017. Effect of short-term Zn/Pb or long-term multi-metal stress on physiological and morphological parameters of metallicolous and non metalli colous Echium vulgare L. populations. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (115), 380-389.

Smirnoff N, Foyer C, Dietz K, Mittler R, Feierabend J, Grace S, Desikan R, Jones M, Vreeburg R, Logan B, Jospers P. 2005. Antioxydants and reactive oxygen species in plants.Blackwell publishing. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 57(5), 779-795.

Sun BY, Kan SH, Zhang YZ, Deng SH, Wu J, Yuan H, Qi H, Yang G, Li L, Zhang XH, Xiao H, Wang YJ, Peng H, Li YW. 2010. Certain antioxydant enzymes and lipid peroxydation of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure. Journal of Hazardous Materials 183, 833-838.


Symonowicz M, KolanekM. 2012. Flavonoids and their properties to form chelate complexes. Biotechnology and Food Science 76, 35-41.

Talbi H, Boumaza A, El-mostafa K, Talbi J, Hilali A. 2015. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and physico-chemical composition of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa L. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 6(4), 1111-1117.

Tihana T, John TH, Meri E, Nada P, Vera C, Hrvoje L, Ivna Š, Drago B. 2008. Antioxidative responses in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Plants stressed by copper and lead in nutrient solution and soil. Acta biologica cracoviensia. Series Botanica 50(2), 79–86.

Tomislav V, Nada P, Hrvoje L, Ivna Š, Tihana T. 2008. Oxidative stress in radish plants grown on soils with different cu and pb level. Cereal Research Communications (36), 1519-1522.

Troll W, Lindsley J. 1955. A photometric method for the determination of proline. Journal of Biological Chemistry 215, 655-660.

Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs H, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR.  2008. Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 62(1), 10-16.

Xiuzhen H, Tao S, Hongxiang L. 2007. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 8, 950-988.

Zhong Zheng Yan, Nora Fung, Yee Tam. 2011. Temporal changes of polyphenols and enzyme activities in seedlings of Kandelia obovata under lead and manganese stresses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63(5–12), 438-444.

Nour Elhouda Neggaz, Houcine Abdelhakim Reguieg Yssaad.
Effect of lead stress on polyphenols, flavonoids, and proline contents in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).
Int. J. Biosci. 12(5), 135-144, May 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update