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Elliptic fourier analysis of leaf shape variation of mangroves found in Camiguin Island, Philippines

By: Al James A. Manua, Millanie P. Abatay, Carimah M. Usman, Sharon Rose M. Tabugo

Key Words: Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA), Leaf shape, Mangroves, Camiguin Island.

Int. J. Biosci. 13(3), 144-153, September 2018.


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Mangrove forests are integral part of the ecosystem providing important services, including protecting coastlines from the impacts of extreme weather events, such as storm surge and erosion. In the Philippines, 40 species out of 54 in the world are present and 6 species are found in Camiguin. Delineating between species is important for ecosystem management and conservation. In this study, Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) was used to look into leaf shape variations between six mangrove species: Avicennia marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia alba. This was done to test whether significant yet subtle differences in leaf shape variation can be species-specific, habitat-influenced and provide evidence of sexual dimorphism. Results of PCA showed that the cumulative contribution of the first three significant principal components was about 97.78% of variance and the main source of shape differences was the variability in leaf laminar shape with respect to length-width ratio. Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the percentage proportion of each PC’s significantly contributed to the overall variance (p-value <0.05).  Also, results from MANOVA and CVA revealed significant interspecific variations in the leaf shape between groups examined with significant p-values <0.05. Moreover, species distinctiveness was manifested albeit overlapped from each other, implying that leaf shape variations is species-specific, habitat-influenced and provided evidence of sexual dimorphism. In addition, results from discriminant analysis provided further support for species-specific traits and sexual dimorphism among the six mangrove species. Herewith, EFA proved to be efficient in examining subtle leaf shape variations among mangrove species.

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Elliptic fourier analysis of leaf shape variation of mangroves found in Camiguin Island, Philippines

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Al James A. Manua, Millanie P. Abatay, Carimah M. Usman, Sharon Rose M. Tabugo.
Elliptic fourier analysis of leaf shape variation of mangroves found in Camiguin Island, Philippines.
Int. J. Biosci. 13(3), 144-153, September 2018.
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