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Extraction of stress hormones by fecal sampling of big cats, ungulates and mammals in captivity and wild by using enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)

By: Jahanzeb Sarwer, Saqafat Ahmed, Maryam Khan, Sikander Hayat, Bushra Nisar Khan, Arif Malik, Saba Shamim

Key Words: Immunoassay, estrogen, FGC, metabolite, ELISA.

Int. J. Biosci. 17(5), 176-183, November 2020.


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The determination of fecal cortisol and steroids via immunoassay and extraction techniques is a widely accepted and used phenomena with respect to both captive and field study for the provision of the estimation of the regulating concentration of hormones in animals, which was achieved through non-invasive procedures. The reposition of fecal samples is a significant matter of concern due to the metabolism of fecal steroids by bacteria present in the feces of animals only after a few hours of deposition. In this study, the estimation of fecal hormones like estrogen (fE) and glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolites was carried out in big cats of the wild in captivity, such as lions, tigers, African lions, puma, jaguar, few ungulates, mouflon sheep, deer, chinkara, zebra and Punjab urial. The fecal samples (n=106) were collected from these wild animals and were treated with methanol to curb the metabolism of fecal hormones by bacteria. The expression of stress hormone levels in different animals as obtained by ELISA is given as 0.644±0.03 for Punjab urial followed by 0.619±0.02 for deer, 0.614±0.05 for Chinkara, 0.606±0.01 for tiger and Puma, 0.579±0.02 for lion and 0.061±0.04 for Jaguar. Much stress hormone was observed in Punjab urial whereas Jaguar was least affected by the stress. It showed that animals living in small and noisy environment are more affected by any disturbance in their surroundings as compared to the animals living in quiet and less noisy environment.

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Extraction of stress hormones by fecal sampling of big cats, ungulates and mammals in captivity and wild by using enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)

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Jahanzeb Sarwer, Saqafat Ahmed, Maryam Khan, Sikander Hayat, Bushra Nisar Khan, Arif Malik, Saba Shamim.
Extraction of stress hormones by fecal sampling of big cats, ungulates and mammals in captivity and wild by using enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA).
Int. J. Biosci. 17(5), 176-183, November 2020.
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