International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Fractal analysis of Hippocampus spp. (seahorse) in Danajon Bank, Philippines

By: Sharon Rose Tabugo, Charity Mae Apale, Edwin Dumalagan

Key Words: Fractal analysis, Hippocampus, Seahorse, Box-counting method, Lacunarity.

Int. J. Biosci. 12(6), 164-173, June 2018.


Certification: ijb 2018 0057 [Generate Certificate]


Danajon bank is the home of four out of seven species of seahorses known in the Philippines. Seahorses are considered as highly vulnerable species to overfishing and habitat destruction, especially in Danajon bank thus, there is a need to monitor populations in the area. One method to look into the nature of populations is to use fractal geometry to look into morphometric complexity patterns of different species of seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) hence, this study. Irregular non-euclidean objects are better described by fractal geometry and the measurable value is called the fractal dimension. It is hypothesized that fractals are far from the equilibrium state and thus associated with chaos. Hence, high fractal dimensions have implications to vulnerability of species. Box-counting and Lacunarity method were performed with Fraclac v.2.5, and available as a plugin to ImageJ. The method was done to test whether significant differences in fractal dimension and lacunarity values can be species-specific and provide evidence of vulnerability. Based on ANOVA and Tukey’s pairwise comparison, results yield significant difference between species in terms of fractal dimension and coefficient of variation (CV) values for lacunarity and could be attributed to difference in morphological complexity and associated microhabitats. However, high mean fractal dimension based on box-counting and CV values was associated with H. histrix. Herewith, H. histrix yield to be the most highly complex and vulnerable species. Information obtained contributes to understanding the nature of seahorses especially those found in Danajon bank.

| Views 35 |

Fractal analysis of Hippocampus spp. (seahorse) in Danajon Bank, Philippines

Aldrich PR, Horsley RK, Ahmed YA, Williamson JJ, Turcic SM. 2010. Fractal topology of gene promoter networks at phase transitions. Gene Regulation and Systems Biology 4, 5389.

Armada N, White AT, Christie P. 2009. Managing Fisheries Resources in Danajon Bank, Bohol, Philippines: An Ecosystem-Based Approach. Coastal Management 37, 308-330.

Cross SS. 1997. Fractals in pathology. The Journal of Pathology: A Journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland 182, 1-8.

Diaz R, Apistar D, Porpetcho W, Delizo D, Gatus R, Martinez R, Amolo R. 2012. Danajon Bank Double Barrier Reef. Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation, Inc. (CCEF),1-5.

Foster SJ, Vincent ACJ.2004. Life History and Ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 65,1-61.

Havlin S, Buldyrev SV, Goldberger AL, Mantegna RN, Ossadnik SM, Peng CK, Simons M, Stanley HE. 1995. Fractals in biology and medicine, Chaos Solitons Fractals 6,171-201.

Huikuri HV, Stein PK. 2012. Clinical application of heart rate variability after acute myocardial infarction. Frontiers in physiology 3, 41.

Kam Y, Karperien A, Weidow B, Estrada L, Anderson AR, Quaranta V. 2009. Nest expansion assay: a cancer systems biology approach to in vitro invasion measurements. BMC research notes 2, 130.

Karperien A, Jelinek HF, Milosevic NT, Cracow P. 2011.Reviewing lacunarity analysis and classification of microglia in neuroscience.In 8th European Conference on Mathematical and Theoretical Biology.

Karperien A, Jelinek HF, Leandro JJ, Soares JV, Cesar Jr RM, Luckie A. 2008. Automated detection of proliferative retinopathy in clinical practice. Clinical ophthalmology 2, 109.

Karperien A. 2005. FracLac V. 2. Charles Stuart University, NSW, Australia, 38.

Klein K, Maier T, Hirschfeld-Warneken VC, Spatz JP. 2013. Marker-free phenotyping of tumor cells by fractal analysis of reflection interference contrast microscopy images. Nano letters 13, 5474-5479.

Lawson JM, Foster SJ, Vincent AC. 2017. Low bycatch rates add up to big numbers for a genus of small fishes. Fisheries42, 19-33.

Loh TL, Knapp C, Foster SJ. 2014. Iseahorse Saving seahorses together Trends Tool Kit. Ver. 1.1.Vancouver, Canada: The University of British Columbia, 6.

Lourie SA. 2016. Seahorses: A Life-Sized Guide to Every Species. The University of Chicago Press, Ivy Press Limited, Chicago, USA.

Lourie SA, Foster SJ, Cooper EW, Vincent AC. 2004. A guide to the identification of seahorses. Washington DC,USA: Project Seahorse and TRAFFIC North America, 114.

Lourie SA, Randall JE. 2003. A new pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus denise (Teleostei: Syngnathidae), from the Indo-Pacific. Zoological Studies 42, 284-291.

Lourie SA, Vincent ACJ, Hall HJ. 1999. Seahorses: An Identification Guide to The World’S Species and Their Conservation. Project Seahorse, London, UK.

McPherson JM, Vincent AC. 2004. Assessing East African trade in seahorse species as a basis for conservation under international controls. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14, 521-538.

Meeuwig JJ, Ky TS, Job SD, Vincent AC. 2006. Quantifying non-target seahorse fisheries in central Vietnam. Fisheries Research 81, 149-157.

Pajaro MG, Vincent ACJ. 2015. The catch and export of the seahorse trade in the Philippines, pre-CITES. Fisheries Centre Working Paper102, 27.

Perry AL, Lunn KE, Vincent AC. 2010. Fisheries, large‐scale trade, and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems20, 464-475.

Pichon M. 1977. Physiography, morphology and ecology of the double barrier reef of north Bohol (Philippines).In Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, Miami, USA, 261–267.

Pollom R. 2017.  Hippocampus histrix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. e. T10070 A54905206.

Turcotte DL, Malamud BD, Guzzetti F, Reichenbach P. 2002. Self-Organization, the Cascade Model, and Natural Hazards.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, 2530–37.

Vincent AC, Foster SJ, Koldewey HJ. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. Journal of Fish Biology 78, 1681-1724.

Waliszewski P, Konarski J. 2002. Neuronal differentiation and synapse formation occur in space and time with fractal dimension. Synapse 43, 252-258.

Wassenbergh SV, Roos G, Ferry L. 2011. An adaptive explanation for the horse-like shape of seahorses.Nature Communications 2,164.

White AT, Cruz-Trinidad A. 1998. The Values of

Philippine Coastal Resources: Why Protection and Management are Critical. Coastal Resource Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Cebu City, Phils: United States Agency for International Development, 96.

Sharon Rose Tabugo, Charity Mae Apale, Edwin Dumalagan.
Fractal analysis of Hippocampus spp. (seahorse) in Danajon Bank, Philippines.
Int. J. Biosci. 12(6), 164-173, June 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update