International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Identification and prioritization of agricultural risks and their management strategies adopted by cotton growers in the Punjab, Pakistan

By: Muhammad Kashif Afzal, Muhammad Luqman

Key Words: Cotton, Agricultural risks, Risk management strategies.

Int. J. Biosci. 16(6), 45-59, June 2020.


Certification: ijb 2020 0027 [Generate Certificate]


Cotton is the major cash crop of Pakistan. Pakistan is also included in the list of top ten cotton producing countries of the world. Inspite of its significance in the national economy and in overall agricultural production, the average cotton production in Pakistan is declining since last five years. A number of factors are responsible for this decline of cotton production including the perception that overall agriculture has become a risky business. With this rational the present research was formulated for the identification and prioritization of agricultural risks and their management strategies adopted by cotton growers in the Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected from 400 cotton growers of three selected districts of the Punjab. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS. The results shows that majority of the respondents had age upto 35 years. Majority of the respondents were literate having educational level up to ten years of schooling. Family landholding of 40.0% of respondents was 6-10 Acres. Overall rating of risks that were being faced by cotton growers in the research area shows that “Human Risks” is on the top with highest mean value (4.26/5.00). Respondents practiced a wide variety of risk management strategies. Out of these adoption of multiple income sources was on the top with highest mean (3.58/5.00).

| Views 15 |

| Views 15 |

Identification and prioritization of agricultural risks and their management strategies adopted by cotton growers in the Punjab, Pakistan

Arbuckle JG, Jr. Morton LW, Hobbs J. 2015. Understanding Farmer Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: The Roles of Trust in Sources of Climate Information, Climate Change Beliefs, and Perceived Risk. Environment and Behavior 47(2), p 205-234.

Ashraf S, Iftikhar M, Khan GA. 2013. Decisive analysis of risks in agriculture: implications for agricultural extension for sustainable management. Spanish Journal of Rural Development IV (3), p 41-52.

Bakhsh K, Hassan I, Maqbool A. 2005. Factors effecting cotton yield: A case study of Sargodha (Pakistan). Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences 1(4), p 332-334.

Berchoux T, Watmough GR, Hutton CW, Atkinson PM. 2019. Agricultural shocks and drivers of livelihood precariousness across Indian rural communities. Landscape and Urban Planning 189, p 307-319.

Cafiero C, Angelucci F, Capitanio F, Vollaro M. 2007. Index based compensation for weather risk in the Italian agriculture: A feasibility study based on actual historical data. Paper presented at the 101st EAAE Seminar “Management of Climate Risks in Agriculture”, Berlin, Germany, 5-6 July.

Cianchetta AN, Davis RM. 2015.Fusarium wilt of cotton: Management strategies. Crop Production 73, p 40-44.

Duong TT, Brewer T, Luck J, Zander K. 2019. A global review of farmers’ perceptions of agricultural risks and risk management strategies. Agriculture, 9(10), p 2-16.

Fahad S, Wang J, Khan AA, Ullah A, Ali U, Hossain MS, Khan SU, Huong NTL, Yang X, Hu G, Bilal A. 2018. Evaluation of farmers’ attitude and perception toward production risk: Lessons from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 24(6), p 1710-1722.

FAO. 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in the world, Economic and Social Development. Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, October 2010.

Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. 1998. Multivariate data analysis, Prentice Hall International Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Hardaker JB, Huirne RB, Anderson JR, Lien G. 2015. Coping with risk in agriculture: applied decision analysis (3rd edition), CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. P 296.

Iqbal MA, Ping Q, Abid M, Kazmi SMM, Rizwan M. 2016. Assessing risk perceptions and attitude among cotton farmers: A case of Punjab province, Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 16, p 68-74.

Iqbal MA, Ping Q, Zafar MU, Abbas A, Bashir MK, Ali A, Kousar R. 2018. Farm risk sources and their mitigation: A case of cotton growers in Punjab. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 55(3), p 677-684.

Jianjun J, Yiwei G, Xiaomin W, Nam PK. 2015. Farmers’ risk preferences and their climate change adaptation strategies in the Yongqiao District, China. Land Use Policy 47, p 365-372.

Khan FZA, Sagheer M, Hassan M, Gul HT, Hassan F, Manzoor SA, Wahid A. 2013. Agricultural Dynamics in Pakistan: Current Issues and Solutions. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences 8(20), p 20-26.

Kouser S, Qaim M. 2014. Bt cotton, damage control and optimal levels of pesticide use in Pakistan. Environment & Development Economics,

19, p 704-723.

Meraner M, Finger R. 2017. Risk perceptions, preferences and management strategies: evidence from a case study using German livestock farmers. Journal of Risk Research 21, p 1-26.

Musshoff O, Odening M, Xu W. 2006. Modeling and pricing rain risk. Paper presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Gold Coast, Australia.


Naveed MA, Anwar MA. 2015. Understanding cotton growers’ information needs from Rural Bahawalpur. Pakistan Journal of Information Management and Libraries 16, p 21-28.

Okunmadewa F. 2003. Risk, vulnerability in agriculture: concept and context. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Agriculture Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Pervez AKMK, Gao Q, Uddin E. 2016. The management of agricultural risk in Bangladesh: A proposed process. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology 12(1), p 1-13.

Qasim M, Ahmad N. 2016. Agricultural Risk Sources and Risk Management Strategies: the Case of Rain-fed Agriculture in Pothwar Region, Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 6(3), p 18-25.

Rehman A, Chandio AA, Hussain I, Jindong L. 2019. Fertilizer consumption, water availability and credit distribution: Major factors affecting agricultural productivity in Pakistan. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(3), p 269-274.

Richards TJ, Manfredo MR, Sanders DR. 2004.

Pricing weather derivatives, American Journal of Agricultural Economics N°86: p 1005-1017.

SDPI. 2018. Risk Management Practices of Small Farmers: A feasibility study for introducing R4rural resilience initiative in Punjab. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Shadbolt NM. 2009. How Risky is your Business? Proceedings of South Africa Large Herds Conference.

Sookhtanlo M, Sarani V. 2011. Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran). AGRIS online Papers in Economics and Informatics 3(4), p 11-17.

Tadesse A, Demssie T, Kuma B. 2016. Household Food Insecurity and Associated Factors among Households in Sodo Town, 2015. Food Science and Quality Management 56, p 10-20.

Tangermann S. 2011. Risk management in agriculture and the future of the EU’s common agricultural policy. ICTSD Programme on Agricultural Trade and Sustainable Development, Issue Paper No. 34. ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva, Switzerland.

Ullah R, Shivakoti GP. 2014. Adoption of on-farm and off-farm diversification to manage agricultural risks: are these decisions correlated? Outlook Agriculture 43(4), p 265-271.

Ullah R, Jourdain D, Shivakoti GP, Dhakal S. 2015. Managing catastrophic risks in agriculture: Simultaneous adoption of diversification and precautionary savings. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 12, p 268-277.

Asseldonk MV, Oude Lansink AGJM. 2003. Weather Based Index Insurance to Hedge Temperature Exposure of Greenhouse Horticultural Farms. Risk and Uncertainty in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Edward Elgar, Cheltanham p 235-249.

Wang W, Jin J, He R, Gong H. 2017. Gender differences in pesticide use knowledge, risk awareness and practices in Chinese farmers. Science of the Total Environment, 22-28, p 590-591.

World Bank 2005. Agriculture Investment Sourcebook. Module 11, Managing Agricultural Risk, Vulnerability and Disaster. Washington, DC.

Zulfiqar F, Ullah R, Abid M. 2016. Cotton production under risk: a simultaneous adoption of risk copping tools. Natural Hazards 84(2), p 959-974.

Muhammad Kashif Afzal, Muhammad Luqman.
Identification and prioritization of agricultural risks and their management strategies adopted by cotton growers in the Punjab, Pakistan.
Int. J. Biosci. 16(6), 45-59, June 2020.
Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update