International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Monotonous Cereal-based Complementary Feeding Contribute to Aflatoxin Exposure in Children

By: Rufina Fredrick, Haikael Martin, Sieg Snapp, Neema Kassim

Key Words: Complementary feeding, Dietary diversity, Dietary-aflatoxins exposure.

Int. J. Biosci. 18(6), 204-216, June 2021.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/18.6.204-216

Certification: ijb 2021 0251 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This study assessed the diversity of food used in complementary feeding, their risk to aflatoxins (AF) contamination and subsequent children’s exposure. A total of 290 children aged between 6-24 months from ten villages in Singida District, Tanzania was studied. Their mothers were interviewed on infant feeding practices and handling of food crops using a structured questionnaire, weight of index child was taken and up to 3 cereals-based food samples used in complementary feeding were collected in a subsample of 180 households to make a total of 218 samples. Food samples were analyzed for aflatoxins using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the majority of children were monotonously feeding on thin and thick porridge made from maize (78.3%), sorghum (12.7%) or millet (9.0%) flour, and sometimes sorghum-based fermented drink (14.5) locally known as Magai. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 80 (36.7%) flour and drink samples with the levels ranging from 0.33 to 23.75 µg/kg whereas, total aflatoxins were detected in 185 (84.9%) samples with the range from 0.47 to 289.28 µg/kg. Magai drink and maize flour were the leading complementary food materials responsible for the high aflatoxin exposure to AFB1 in children with the mean exposure of 133.3 and 111.7 ng/kg body weight per day respectively. These findings highlighted a need for integrated nutrition interventions to the entire population with the inclusion of strategies for improving dietary diversity and mitigating mycotoxins contamination of staple food crops thereby reducing exposure among infants and the general population.

| Views 33 |

| Views 33 |

Monotonous Cereal-based Complementary Feeding Contribute to Aflatoxin Exposure in Children

Anitha S, Muzanila Y, Tsusaka TW, Kachulu L, Kumwenda N, Musoke M, Swai E, Shija J, Siambi M, Monyo ES. 2020. Reducing Child Undernutrition through Dietary Diversification, Reduced Aflatoxin Exposure, and Improved Hygiene Practices: The Immediate Impacts in Central Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 59, 243-262.

Arimond M, Ruel MT. 2004. Dietary diversity is associated with child nutritional status: evidence from 11 demographic and health surveys. The Journal of Nutrition 134, 2579-2585.

https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.10.2579.

Brown K, Peerson J, Kimmons J, Hotz C. 2002. Options for achieving adequate intake from home-prepared complementary foods in low income countries, NESTLE NUTRITION WORKSHOP SERIES. Philadelphia; Lippincott-Raven; 1999, p 239-256.

Brown R, Chen Z-Y, Cleveland T, Russin J. 1999. Advances in the development of host resistance in corn to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology 89, 113-117.

https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.1999.89.2.113.

Castelino JM, Routledge MN, Wilson S, Dunne DW, Mwatha JK, Gachuhi K, Wild CP, Gong YY. 2015. Aflatoxin exposure is inversely associated with IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels in vitro and in Kenyan schoolchildren. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 59, 574-581.

https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300619.

Chen J. 2016. Contextualizing Child Stunted Growth and Development within a Broader Framework of the

Demographic Transition and the Epidemiologic Transition. Journal of Social Sciences and Philosophy 28, 1– 99.

EFSA. 2007. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the potential increase of consumer health risk by a possible increase of the existing maximum levels for aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts and pistachios and derived products. The EFSA Journal 446, 1-127.

www.efsa.europa.eu.

Ezekiel CN, Ayeni KI, Misihairabgwi JM, Somorin YM, ChibuzorOnyema IE, Oyedele OA, Abia WA, Sulyok M, Shephard GS, Krska R. 2018. Traditionally processed beverages in Africa: a review of the mycotoxin occurrence patterns and exposure assessment. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 17, 334-351.

https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12329.

Geary PA, Chen G, Kimanya ME, Shirima CP, Oplatowska-Stachowiak M, Elliott CT, Routledge MN, Gong YY. 2016. Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in maize based porridges from selected regions of Tanzania by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a longitudinal study. Food Control 68, 337-343.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.018.

Gong Y, Egal S, Hounsa A, Turner P, Hall A, Cardwell K, Wild C. 2003. Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 556-562.

Gong YY, Turner PC, Hall AJ, Wild CP. 2008. Aflatoxin exposure and impaired child growth in West Africa: an unexplored international public health burden. Mycotoxins Detection Methods, Management, Public Health and Agricultural Trade: 53-66.

Gong YY, Watson S, Routledge MN. 2016. Aflatoxin exposure and associated human health effects, a review of epidemiological studies. Food Safety 4, 14-27.

Kennedy G, Ballard T, Dop MC. 2011. Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity. Nutrition and consumer protection division, food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. 2011. In: FAO (Ed.). ISBN 978-92-5-106749-9, Rome, Italy., p 60.

Kimanya ME, Meulenaer BD, Baert K, Tiisekwa B, Van Camp J, Samapundo S, Lachat C, Kolsteren P. 2009. Exposure of infants to fumonisins in maize‐based complementary foods in rural Tanzania. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53, 667-674.

Kothari CR. 2004. Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Kulwa KB, Mamiro PS, Kimanya ME, Mziray R, Kolsteren PW. 2015. Feeding practices and nutrient content of complementary meals in rural central Tanzania: implications for dietary adequacy and nutritional status. BMC Pediatrics 15, 171.

Lal R, Singh BR, Mwaseba DL, Kraybill D, Hansen DO, Eik LO. 2015. Sustainable intensification to advance food security and enhance climate resilience in Africa. Springer.

Loprieno N. 1975. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man:” Relevance of data on mutagenicity”. Mutation research 31, 210.

Magoha H, Kimanya M, De Meulenaer B, Roberfroid D, Lachat C, Kolsteren P. 2016. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in R ombo, N orthern T anzania. Maternal & Child Nutrition 12, 516-527.

Makori N, Matemu A, Kimanya M, Kassim N. 2019. Inadequate management of complementary foods contributes to the risk of aflatoxin exposure and low nutrition status among children. World

Mycotoxin Journal 12, 67-76.

https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2018.2354.

Muhimbula HS, Issa-Zacharia A. 2010. Persistent child malnutrition in Tanzania: Risks associated with traditional complementary foods (A review). African Journal of Food Science 4, 679-692.

Nemati M, Mehran MA, Hamed PK, Masoud A. 2010. A survey on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk samples in Ardabil, Iran. Food Control 21, 1022-1024.

Nyamete F, Bennink M, Mugula J. 2016. Potential of lactic acid fermentation in reducing aflatoxin B1 in Tanzania maize-based gruel. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 16, 11139-11151.

Ochieng J, Afari-Sefa V, Lukumay PJ, Dubois T. 2017. Determinants of dietary diversity and the potential role of men in improving household nutrition in Tanzania. PloS one 12, e0189022.

Shirima CP, Kimanya ME, Routledg, MN, Srey

C, Kinabo JL, Humpf HU, Wild CP, Tu YK, Gong YY. 2014. A prospective study of growth and biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin during early childhood in Tanzania. Environmental Health Perspectives 123, 173-178.

Siwela AH, Siwela M, Matindi G, Dube S, Nziramasanga N. 2005. Decontamination of aflatoxin‐contaminated maize by dehulling. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85, 2535-2538.

https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2288.

Smith LE, Stoltzfus RJ, Prendergast A. 2012. Food chain mycotoxin exposure, gut health, and impaired growth: a conceptual framework. Advancesin Nutrition 3, 526-531.

https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002188.

Song S, Ediage EN, Wu A, De Saeger S. 2013.

Development and application of salting-out assisted liquid/liquid extraction for multi-mycotoxin biomarkers analysis in pig urine with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1292, 111-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.10.071.

Strosnider H, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Banziger M, Bhat RV, Breiman R, Brune, MN, DeCock K, Dilley A, Groopman J, Hell K. 2006. Workgroup report: public health strategies for reducing aflatoxin exposure in developing countries. Environmental Health Perspectives 114, 1898.

https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9302.

Torres AM, Barros GG, Palacios SA, Chulze SN, Battilani P. 2014. Review on pre-and post-harvest management of peanuts to minimize aflatoxin contamination. Food Research International 62, 11-19.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.023.

UNICEF. 2015. Adopting optimal feeding practices is fundamental to a child’s survival, growth and development, but too few children benefit. New York, UNICEF.

Waliyar F, Osiru M, Ntare B, Kumar KVK, Sudini H, Traore A, Diarra B. 2014. Post-harvest management of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut. World Mycotoxin Journal 8, 245-252.

https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2014.1766.

WHO. 2008. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices: part 1: definitions: conclusions of a consensus meeting held 6-8 November 2007 in Washington DC, USA.

Wild CP, Gong YY. 2009. Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis 31, 71-82.

https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp264.

Wu F. 2014. Global impacts of aflatoxin in maize: trade and human health. World Mycotoxin Journal 8, 137-142.

https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2014.1737

Rufina Fredrick, Haikael Martin, Sieg Snapp, Neema Kassim.
Monotonous Cereal-based Complementary Feeding Contribute to Aflatoxin Exposure in Children.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(6), 204-216, June 2021.
https://innspub.net/ijb/monotonous-cereal-based-complementary-feeding-contribute-to-aflatoxin-exposure-in-children/
Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update