Multivariate analysis techniques reveal significant morphogenetic variability in pumpkin landraces in Kenya
By: James Kirimi Kiramana, Dorcas Khasungu Isutsa
Key Words: Factor analysis, Genetic advance, Heritability, Path coefficient analysis.
Int. J. Biosci. 13(1), 298-319, July 2018.
Certification: ijb 2018 0116 [Generate Certificate]
Documented information on naturalized pumpkin landraces in Kenya to identify useful variability is insufficient. The present study assessed variability using quantitative characters of 155 accessions, with 70 and 85 from Kakamega and Nyeri regions, respectively. The accessions were grown in one farm in a completely randomized design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) variation in all characters. Lowest and highest variables in mean and range were leaf length/width ratio and seed number that were 0.8 and 0.4, and 837 and 4,111, respectively. Eight factors accounted for 79.4% of total variation. The highly variable factors were fruit flesh thickness, length, width and length/width ratio, size, total weight, average weight and number, as well as seed number, 100-seeds weight, length, width, and thickness. Phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) were slightly higher or equal to genotypic ones (GCV). High GCV and PCV, heritability and genetic gain resulted for fruit size, total fruit weight, fruits and seeds. Over 70 positive correlations in fruit size, number and seeds with total fruit weight were observed in genotypic and phenotypic variabilities. Maximum positive direct effects on total fruit weight were observed in seeds, fruit average weight, length, and size, while indirect effects were observed in fruit number, flesh thickness, length, peduncle length and days to first flower. Multivariate analysis revealed fruit size, number, total weight, and seeds were characters of great genetic variability, which should be considered as primary components for achieving high yields in pumpkins when screening accessions for selection and improvement.
Multivariate analysis techniques reveal significant morphogenetic variability in pumpkin landraces in Kenya
Ahmed B, Masud MAT, Zakaria M, Hossain MM, Mian MAK. 2018. Variability, correlations and path coefficient analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). Journal of Applied Life Science International 16(1), 1-8.
Ahsan MZ, Majidano MS, Bhutto H, Soomro AW, Panhwar FH, Channa AR, Sial KB. 2015. Genetic variability, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance of some Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7(2), 147-151.
Akintunde AN. 2012. Path analysis step by step using excel. Journal of Technical Science and Technology 1(1), 9-15. Available at:
Akoroda MO. 1993. Non-destructive estimation of area and variation in shape of leaf lamina in the fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Scientia Horticulturae 53(3), 261-267.
Akter S, Rasul MG, Aminul IAKM, Hossain MM. 2013. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and quality traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). Bangladesh Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 26(1), 25-33.
Aruah BC, Uguru MI, Oyiga BC. 2010. Variations among some Nigerian Cucurbita landraces. African Journal of Plant Sciences 4(10), 374-386. Available at:
Aruah BC, Uguru MI, Oyiga BC. 2012. Genetic variability and interrelationships among some Nigerian pumpikn accessions (Cucurbita spp.). International Journal of Plant Breeding 6(1), 34-41.Available at:
Avijala MF, Bhering LL, Peixoto LD, Cruz CD, Carneiro PC, Cuambe CE, Zacarias A. 2015. Evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes reveals great genetic variability and potential selection gain. Australian Journal of Crop Sciences 9, 940-947.
Balkaya A, Ozbakır M, Karaagaç O. 2010a. Pattern of variation for seed characteristics in Turkish populations of Cucurbita moschata Duch. African Journal of Agriculture Research 5(10), 1068-1076. Available at:
Balkaya A, Ozbakir M, Kurtar ES. 2010b. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) populations from the black sea region of Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 152-162. Available at:
Beaumont R. 2012. An introduction to principal component analysis and factor analysis using SPSS 19 and R (psych package). Virtual classroompca1.docx, 1-24.Available at:
Bhandari HR, Bhanu AN, Srivastava K, Singh MN, Shreya, Hemantaranjan A. 2017. Assessment of genetic diversity in crop plants: An Overview. Advances in Plant and Agriculture Research 7(3), 255-262.
Bolina CO, Marchese JA, Capelin D, Bertoncelli DJ, Pinnow C, Benin G, Foglio MA. 2013. Correlation among agronomic, physiological and phytochemical traits in Artemisia annua L. varieties. Review of Brasilian Plant Medicine, Botucatu, 15(1), 135-141. Available at:
Bozokalfa MK, Ilbi DE, Asciogul TK. 2010. Estimates of genetic variability and association studies in quantitative plant traits of Eruca spp. landraces. Genetika 42(3), 501-512.
Chaudhari DJ, Acharya RR, Patel, JN, Gohil, SB, Bhalala KC. 2017. Variability, correlation and path analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex. Poir.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(6), 142-145.
Dilruba K, Noor-E-Alam S, Umakanto S, Zakir H, Jakia S. 2014. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient of quantitative characters and character association of aromatic rice. Journal of Biosciences and Agricultural Research 1(1), 34-46.
Du X, Sun Y, Li X, Zhou J, Xiaomei L. 2011.Genetic divergence among inbred lines in Cucurbita moschata from China. Scientia Horticulturae 127, 207-213.
Ebrahimnejad S, Rameeh V. 2016. Correlation and factor analysis of grain yield and some important component characters in spring bread wheat genotypes. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, XLIX, 1(165), 5-15.
El-Mohsen AAA, Hegazy SRA, Taha MH. 2012. Genotypic and phenotypic interrelationships among yield and yield components in Egyptian bread wheat genotypes. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Sciences 4(1), 9-16.
Ene CO, Ogbonna PE, Agbo CU, Chukwudi UP. 2016. Studies of phenotypic and genotypic variation in sixteen cucumber genotypes. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 76(3), 307-313.
Fayeun LS, Hammed LA, Oduwaye OA, Madike JU, Ushie EU. 2016. Estimates of genetic variability for seedling traits in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F). Plant Breeding and Biotechnology 4(2), 262-270.
DOI: Available at:
Fayeun LS, Odiyi AC, Makinde SC, Aiyelari OP. 2012. Genetic variability and correlation studies in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.). Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Sciences 4(10), 156-160.
Fayeun LS, Odiyi AC. 2016. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of marketable leaf yield in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) across two locations. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 12(4), 1063-1072. Available at:
Fubara-Manuel I, Nwonuala A, Davis DD. 2012. Growth response of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) to combinations of irrigation intervals and spent mushroom substrate in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(14), 3346-3351.
Fukrei KP, Kumar A, Tyagi W, Rai M, Pattanayak A. 2011. Genetic variability in yield and its components in upland rice grown in acid soils of North Eastern India. Journal of Rice Research 4(1&2), 4-7.Available at:
Gavilanez-Slone JM. 2001. Pollination and pollinators of pumpkin and squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) grown for seed production in the Willamette Valley of Western Oregon. A Master Thesis, State University, Oregon. Available at:
Geleta LF, Labuschagne MT, Viljoen CD. 2005. Genetic variability in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) estimated by morphological data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers. Biodiversity and Conservation 14, 2361-2375.
Ghebru B, Schmidt RJ, Bennetzen JL. 2002. Genetic diversity of Eritrean sorghum landraces assessed with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 105, 229-236. Online at:
Gichimu BM, Owuor B, Dida M. 2008. Agronomic performance of three most popular commercial watermelon cultivars in Kenya as compared to one newly introduced cultivar and one local landrace grown on dystricnitisols under sub-humid tropical conditions. ARPN Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3, 65-71.
Grisales SO, García DB, Cabrera FAV. 2009. Effect of inbreeding on the quality traits of squash fruit. Acta Agronómica 58(3), 1-7. Available at:
Grisales SO, Restrepo MPV, Cabrera FAV, García DB. 2015. Genetic correlations and path analysis in butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 68(1), 7399-7409. Available at:
Grubben GJH, Chigumira-Ngwerume F. 2004. Cucurbita moschata Duch. In: Grubben GJH, Denton OA. (Eds.). PROTA 2, Vegetables/Legumes. [CDRom]. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. Available at:
Hallauer AR, Carena MJ, Miranda Filho JB. 2010. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding, p. 33-67. In: Handbook of plant breeding. 16, 664 p.
IBPGR. 1991. Elsevier’s dictionary of plant genetic resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
IPGRI. 2003. Descriptors for melon (Cucumismelo L.). IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Available at:
Islam MR, Hossain MS, Bhuiyan MSR, Husna A, Syed MA. 2009. Genetic variability and path-coefficient analysis of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 1(3), 53-57.
Jaetzold R, Schmidt H, Hornetz B, Shisanya C. 2005. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya Vol. 11-Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information-2nd Edition. Supported by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ). Printed by Harrison Musyoka, PHV Studios, Nairobi.
Jonah PM, Aliyu B, Jibung GG, Abimiku OE. 2013. Phenotypic and genotypic variance and heritability estimates in bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc) in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Science Research 2(2), 66-71. Available at:
Kassahun BM, Alemaw G, Tesfaye B. 2013. Correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander accessions. African Crop Science Journal 21, 51-59. Available at:
Khan ASMMR, Eyasmin R, Rashid MH, Ishtiaque S, Chaki AK. 2016. Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and morphological diversity in snake gourd. Agricultural and Natural Resources 50, 483-489.
Khan ASMMR, Kabir MY, Alam MM. 2009.Variability, correlation path analysis of yield and yield components of pointed gourd. Journal of Agricultural and Rural Development 7(1&2), 93-98.
Kiramana JK, Isutsa DK, Nyende AB. 2016. Evaluation of quantitative yield performance of pumpkin accessions in Kenya using mother trials. International Journal of Advances in Biological Research 6(4), 439-447.
Kiramana JK, Isutsa DK. 2016. Pumpkin accessions in Kenya exhibit significant variation in quantitative characters based on baby trials conducted in Kakamega and Nyeri, Kenya. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 7(1), 60-76. Available at:
Kiramana JK, Isutsa DK. 2017. Morphological characterization of naturalized pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Lam.) Poir.) accessions in Kenya. African Journal of Horticultural Sciences 12, 61-83.
Kraic F, Mocak J, Rohacik T, Sokolovicova J. 2009. Chemometric characterization and classification of new wheat genotypes. Nova Biotechnologica 9(1), 101-106.
Kumar N, Markar S, Kumar V. 2014. Studies on heritability and genetic advance estimates in timely sown bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Bioscience Discovery, 5(1), 64-69.Available at:
Kumar V, Mishra DP, Yadav GC, Babu U. 2017. Determining relationships between different growth and yield traits in pumpkin with path coefficient analysis. The Pharma Innovation Journal 6(12), 18-26.Available at:
Kwon SH, Torrie JH. 1964. Heritability and interrelationship of two soybean (Glycine max L.) populations. Crop Science 4, 196-198.
Machado BQV, Nogueira APO, Hamawaki OT, Rezende GF, Jorge GL, Silveira IC Medeiros LA, Hamawaki RL, Hamawaki CDL. 2017. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations between soybean agronomic traits and path analysis. Genetics and Molecular Research 16(2), 1-11.
Mahaveer MS, Ravindra M, Nagesh GC, Gasti VD, Santhosha GR. 2017.Correlation and path analysis in F4 generation of pumpkins (Cucurbita sp.).International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(8), 3893-3895.
Maji AT, Shaibu AA.2012. Application of principal component analysis for rice germplasm characterization and evaluation. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Sciences 4(6), 87-93.
Malashetty SM. 2010. Genetic variability and divergence studies in pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.). Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Dharwad.
Marilene HDS, Rosana R, Leandro SAG, Cláudia PS, Messias GP. 2012. Agrobiodiversity in Cucurbita spp. landraces collected in Rio de Janeiro assessed by molecular markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 12, 96-103. Available at:
McCormack J. 2005. Cucurbit seed production: An organic seed production manual for seed growers in the Mid-Atlantic and Southern US. Creative Commons, Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California, USA.
Mladenovic E, Berenji J, Ognjanov V, Ljubojevic M, Cukanovic J, Blagojevic I, Gacic A. 2012b. Morphological characterization of Cucurbita species germplasm and its use in Horticulture. In: Proceedings of 47th Croatian and 7th International Symposium on Agriculture, 424-428 p. Opatija. Croatia.
Mladenovic E, Berenji J, Ognjanov V, Ljubojevic M, Cukanovic J, Salamun T. 2014. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Genetika 46(1), 199-207.
Mladenovic E, Berenji J, Ognjanov V, Ljubojevic M, Cukanovic J. 2012a. Genetic variability of bottle gourd Lagenaria Siceraria (Mol.) standley and its morphological characterization by multivariate analysis. Archeological and Biological Sciences 64(2), 573-583.
Mohammed O, Zakri AH. 2001. Legal issues in plant genetic resources, p. 17-25. In: Saad MS, Ramanatha RV (Eds.). Establishment and management of field gene bank. IPGRI, Rome.
Mohsin GM, Islam MS, Rahman MS, Ali L, Hasanuzzaman M. 2017.Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients of yield and its components analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir). International Journal of Agricultural Research and Innovation Technology 7(1), 8-13.
Nagar A, Sureja AM, Kumar S, Munshi AD, Gopalakrishnan S, Bhardwaj R. 2017. Genetic variability and principal component analysis for yield and its attributing traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). Vegetos 30(Special-1), 81-86.
Naik ML, Prasad VM, Laxmi PR. 2015. A study on character association and path analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). International Journal Advances in Research 3(1), 1030-1034.
Nerson H. 2007. Seed production and germinability of cucurbit crops. Seed Science and Biotechnology 1, 1-10.
Newsom LA, Webb SD, Dunbar JS. 1993. History and geographic distribution of Cucurbita pepo gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(1), 75-97.Available at:
Norman PE, Beah AA, Samba JA, Tucker MJ, Benya MT, Fomba SN. 2014. Agro-phenotypic characterization of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) genotypes using factor and cluster analyses. Agricultural Science Research Journal 4(2), 30-38.
Norman PE, Tongoona P, Shanahan PE. 2011. Determination of interrelationships among agro-morphological traits of yams (Dioscorea spp.) using correlation and factor analyses. Journal of Applied Biosciences 45, 3059-3070.
Nwangburuka CC, Ayinde DL, Olatunji O. 2014. Genetic variability and heritability of vegetative, fruit and seed yield traits in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.). African Journal of Biotechnology 13(32), 3262-3270.
Nwofia GE, Nwogu VN, Nwofia BK. 2012. Nutritional variation in fruits and seeds of pumpkins
(Cucurbita spp.) accessions from Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11(10), 848-858.
Nzuve F, Githiri S, Mukunya DM, Gethi J. 2014. Genetic variability and correlation studies of grain yield and related agronomic traits in maize. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 6(9), 166-176.
Odiyi AC, Fayeun LS, Makinde SCO, Adetunji AT. 2014. Analysis of variation among fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) accessions by factor analysis and principal component analysis. Canadian Journal of Plant Breeding 2(2), 80-86.
OECD. 2012. Consensus document on the biology of Cucurbita L. (squashes, pumpkins, zucchinis and gourds). Series on Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology, No. 53.ENV/JM/MONO (2012), 31.
Ogunniyan DJ, Olakojo SA.2014. Genetic variation, heritability, genetic advance and agronomic character association of yellow elite inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.). Nigerian Journal of Genetics 28, 24-28.
Oliveira RLD, Gonçalves LSA, Rodrigues R, Baba VY, Cláudia PSCP, DosSantos MH, Fabrizio MAFM. 2016. Genetic divergence among pumpkin landraces. Semina, Ciencias Agrarias, Londrina 37(2), 547-556.
Parikh M, Motiramani NK, Rastogi NK, Sharma B. 2012. Agro-morphological characterization and assessment of variability in aromatic rice germplasm. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 37(1), 1-8. Available at:
Ragheb EE. 2016. Recurrent selection and selfing with selection as tools for improvement of sweet melon (Cucumismelo var. aegyptiacus). Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 43(2), 427-439.
Rahman MA, Hossain MD, Islam MS, Biswass
DK, Ahiduzzaman M. 2002. Genetic variability, heritability and path analysis in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 5(3), 284-286. Available at:
Razim MDTM. 2011. Genotype–environment interaction in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, Duch. ex Poir.). A Master of Science Thesis, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur.
Reddy MP, Reddy BN, Arsul BT, Maheshwari JJ. 2013. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of growth and yield components of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 2, 231-237.
Riley KW, Ming-De Z, Rao R. 1996.Networks for the effective management and use of plant genetic resources in Asia, Pacific and Oceania. In: Workshop, Coordination and Evaluation of Network for PGR at the National, Regional and International levels, 23rd September 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Roychowdhury R, Tah J. 2011. Genetic variability study for yield and associated quantitative characters in mutant genotypes of Dianthus caryophyllus L. International Journal of Biosciences 1(5), 38-44.
Saha SR, Mitra BN, Hossain AE, Jalaluddin M, Mosiul HAMM. 1992. Genetic variability, character association and path coefficients analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L.). Bangladesh Horticulture 20, 59-62.
Sampath S, Krishnamoorthy V. 2017. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6(6), 3027-3035. Available at:
Shivananda MM, Madalageri MB, Chikkur SS, Mohankumar AB, Yathiraj K. 2013. Correlation and path coefficient studies in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(1), 76-79.
Singh RK, Chaudhary BD. 1985. Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi, India.
Sinha S, Kumaravadivel N. 2016. Understanding genetic diversity of sorghum using quantitative traits. Scientiﬁca, 2016, 1-8.
Srikanth M, Bharad SG, Thulasiram LB, Potdukhe NR. 2017. Studies on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6(6), 1416-1422. Available at:
Stalker HT, Chapman C. 1989. IBPGR training courses, Lecture Series 2. Scientific management of germplasm: Characterization, evaluation and enhancement, p. 194. IBPGR, Rome, Italy.
Sultana S, Kawochar MA, Naznin S, Mahmud F. 2015. Variability, correlation and path analysis in pumpkin (C. moschata L.). Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 40(3), 479-489.
Tiwari JK, Upadhyay D. 2011. Correlation and path-coefficient studies in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2, 63-68. Available at:
Waitt DE, Levin DA. 1998. Genetic and phenotypic correlations in plants: A botanical test of Cheveruds conjecture. Heredity 80, 310-319.Available at:
Xiaohua D, Yongdong S, Xinzheng L, Junguo Z, Xiaomei L. 2011. Genetic divergence among inbred lines in Cucurbita moschata from China. ScientiaHorticulturae127, 207-213.
Yadav RK. 2000. Studies on genetic variability for some quantitative characters in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Advances in Agricultural Research 13, 205-207.
Yong AG, Pearce S. 2013. A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 9(2), 79-94. Available at:
Multivariate analysis techniques reveal significant morphogenetic variability in pumpkin landraces in Kenya.
Int. J. Biosci. 13(1), 298-319, July 2018.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)