International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Occurence of aflatoxin M1 in Northern Africa: A short review

By: Redouane-Salah Sara, Messaï Ahmed, Abdeldjelil M-Cherif

Key Words: AFM1, Northern africa, Public health

Int. J. Biosci. 12(2), 64-75, February 2018.


Certification: ijb 2018 0232 [Generate Certificate]


Moldy feed toxicosis was recognized as a serious livestock problem in the 1950’s. Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites synthesized by some naturally occurring fungi under suitable physical, chemical and biological factors. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated that approximately 25% of the cereals produced in the world are contaminated by mycotoxins. The aflatoxins constitute a group of fungal metabolites that have varied toxic properties. Among 17 aflatoxins isolated and identified, only 4 of them are well known and studied extensively ; B1, B2, G1 and G2. Aflatoxin B1 ingested by lactating animals is biotransformed in the liver to a monohydroxylated metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), which is a toxic molecule excreted in the milk. Higher analytical costs of AFM1 are one of the reported reasons for unavailability of surveillance data in the majority of developing countries. In this review, occurrence of AFM1 in milk and milk products in northern Africa, as well as its metabolisme, properties and analytical methods are summarised.

| Views 249 |

| Views 249 |

Occurence of aflatoxin M1 in Northern Africa: A short review

Abbès S, Ben Salah-Abbès J, Bouraouia Y, Oueslatia S, Oueslatia R. 2012. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins (B1 and M1) in feed, plasma and raw milk of lactating dairy cows in Beja, Tunisia, using ELISA. Food Additives and Contaminants : Part B5(1), 11–15.

Agag BI. 2004. Mycotoxins In Foods And Feeds : 1-Aflatoxins. Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental Researches 7 (1), 173-206.

Aidoo KE, Mohamed SM, Candlish AA, Tester RF, Elgerbi AM. 2011. Occurrence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Some Commercial Baby Foods in North Africa. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2, 751-758.

Alshannaq A, Yu YH. 2017. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, 632.

Appell M, Mueller A. 2016. Mycotoxin analysis using imprinted materials technology: Recent developments. Journal of AOAC International 99, 861–864.

Applebaum RS, Marth EH. 1982. Use of sulfite or bentonite to eliminate aflatoxin M1 from naturally contaminated raw milk. Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und -Forschung 174, 303–305.

Ardic M, Atasever M, Adiguzel G, Atasever M, Karakaya Y, Unsal C, Durmaz H. 2008. A Survey on the Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Urfa Cheese. International Journal of Food Safety 10, 92-96.

Beltran E, Ibañez M, Sancho JV, Cortés MA, Yusa V, Hernández F. 2011. UHPLC-MS/Ms highly sensitive determination of aflatoxin, the aflatoxin metabolite M1 and ochratoxin A in baby food and milk. Food Chemistry 126(2), 737–744.

Bhatnagar D, Yu J, Ehrlich KC. 2002. Toxins of filamentous fungi. Chemical Immunololy 81, 167–206.

Bilandzic N, Varenina I, Solomun B. 2010. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in Croatia. Food Control 21 (9), 1279–1281.

Bram Van Der G, Sabine S, Heidi D, Edwin S, Gerben B, Ton Van O, Kees K. 2003. Biosensors and multiple mycotoxin analysis. Food Control 14 (4), 251–254.

Busby WF, Wogan GN. 1985. Chemical Carcinogens, Ed. Searle, G. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC), 2nd Ed., 945-1136.

Campagnoli A, Cheli F, Savoini G, Crotti A, Pastori AG, Dell’Orto V. 2009. Application of an electronic nose to detection of aflatoxins in corn. Veterinary Research Communications 33(1), 273–275.

CAST, Council for Agric. Sci. and Technol. 1989. “Mycotoxins economic and health risks.” Task force report 116, 1989.

Cavaliere C, Foglia P, Pastorini E, Samperi R, Lagana A. 2006. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric confirmatory method for determining aflatoxin M1 in cow milk-comparison between electrospray and atmospheric pressure photoionization sources. Journal of Chromatography A 1101(12), 69–78.

Chun HS, Choi EH, Chang HJ, Choi SW, Eremin SA. 2009. A fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the detection of zearalenone in corn. Analytica Chimica Acta 639, 83–89.

Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2001. Comments submitted on the draft maximum level for Aflatoxin M1 in milk. Codex committee on food additives and contaminants 33rd session. The Netherlands: Hague.

De Girolamo A, Lippolis V, Nordkvist E, Visconti A. 2009. Rapid and non-invasive analysis of deoxynivalenol in durum and common wheat by Fourier-Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A 26, 907–917.

Devero A. 1999. Aflatoxins: The effects on human and animal health. Biol, 4900; Fall, 1999.

Dhanasekaran D, Shanmugapriya S, Thajuddin N, Panneerselvam A. 2011. Aflatoxins and Aflatoxicosis in Human and Animals, Aflatoxins – Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dr. Ramon G. Guevara-Gonzalez (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-395-8.

Diniz Andrade P, Laine Gomez da Silva J, Dutra Caldas E. 2013. Simultaneous analysis of afaltoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in brest milk by highperformance liquid chromatography/fluorescende after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP). Journal of Chromatography A 1304, 61–68.

Ehrlich KC, Wei Q, Brown RL, Bhatnagar D.

  1. Inverse Correlation of Ability to Produce Aflatoxin and Aspergillus Colonization of Maize Seed. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2, 486-489.

Elgerbi AM, Aidoo KE, Candlish AAG, Tester RF. 2004. Occurrence of aflatoxin M-1 in randomly selected North African milk and cheese samples. Food Additives & Contaminants 21(6), 592–597.

Elgerbi AM. 2005. Studies on Occurrence of Aflatoxins M1 in Milk Products and Effect of Lactobacilli and Related Genera on Toxin,” Ph D Thesis, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, 2005.

ElMarnissi B, Belkhou R, Morgavi DP, Bennani L, Boudra H. 2012. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk collected from traditional dairies in Morocco. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50(8), 2819–2821.

Elzupir AO, Elhussein AM. 2010. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in dairy cattle milk in Khartoum State, Sudan. Food Control 21, 945–946.

Fallah A. 2010. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in dairy products marketed in Iran during winter and summer. Food Control 21, 1478–1481.

FDA. 2005. Sec. 527.400 Whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk–aflatoxin M1 (CPG 7106.10). Available from Accessed20 Apr 2009.

Firmin S, Morgavi DP, Yiannikouris A, Boudra H. 2011. Effectiveness of modified yeast cell wall extracts to reduce aflatoxin B1 absorption in dairy ewes. Journal of Dairy Science 94, 5611–5619.

Gallot J, Abenhaïm L, Guillou M. 2000. Guide de bonnes pratiques d’hygiène dans l’industrie de semoulerie de blé dur. Édition: Les journaux officiaux, 105-108.

Galtier P, Loiseau N, Oswald IP, Puel O. 2005. Toxicology of mycotoxins, hazards and risks in human and animal food. Bulletin de l’Académie Vétérinaire de France, Tome 159 – N°1.

Ghareeb K, Elmalt LM, Awad WA, Böhm J. 2013. Prevalence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in tropical state (Qena, Egypt) and imported milk powder. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 3(12), 1–4.

Giovati L, Magliani W, Ciociola T, Santinoli C, Conti S, Polonelli L. 2015. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination. Toxins 7, 4330-4349.

Gonçalves BL, Gonçalves JL, Rosim RE, Cappato LP, Cruz AG, Oliveira CAF, Corassin CH. 2017. Effects of different sources of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass on milk production, composition, and aflatoxin M1 excretion in milk from dairy cows fed aflatoxin B1. Journal of Dairy Science 100, 1–8.

Groopman JD, Donahuet PR, Zhu J, Chen J, Wogant GN. 1985. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: Detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 82, 6492-6496.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2002. Aflatoxins. IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 82, IARC, World Health Organization, Lyon, 171.

Ismail A, Akhtar S, Levin RE, Ismail T, Riaz M, Amir M. 2015. Aflatoxin M1: Prevalence

Redouane-Salah Sara, Messaï Ahmed, Abdeldjelil M-Cherif.
Occurence of aflatoxin M1 in Northern Africa: A short review.
Int. J. Biosci. 12(2), 64-75, February 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update