International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Overview of quality protein maize and molecular breeding approaches for its development

By: Razia Sultana, Shakra Jamil, Muhammad Aslam, Rahil Shahzad, Rida Fatima, Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal

Key Words: Bio-fortification, Lysine, Malnutrition, Opaque-2, Tryptophan.

Int. J. Biosci. 14(1), 533-542, January 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.1.533-542

Certification: ijb 2019 0034 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Cereals are a major source of dietary proteins and fibers. Maize is emerging as a third leading cereal after wheat and rice. It fulfills about 20-30% calorie requirements of human diet as a staple food in almost 21 countries. However most of the currently grown maize germplasm is deficient in essential amino acids i.e. lysine and tryptophan. It poses serious health hazards to people taking maize as a staple food and giving birth to serious issues i.e. reduced growth rate and kwashiorkor. Hence bio-fortification of maize is mandatory for maintenance of nutritional balance. Current review summarized the methods for improving nutritional profile of maize. Different methods i.e. dietary diversification, supplementation, fortification, fermentation and bio-fortification can be opted to overcome nutritional deficiency of lysine and tryptophan in maize. The last method is inexpensive and can be easily opted by majority of the maize growing nations. Opaque-2 gene mediated quality protein maize, its possible way of utilization in different breeding programs and its role in overcoming nutritional deficiency of maize crop was mainly focused in this review.

| Views 36 |

Overview of quality protein maize and molecular breeding approaches for its development

Abadassi J. 2016. Correlations among grain yield and its components in maize populations. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 142-146.

Abate T, Shiferaw B, Menkir A, Wegary D, Kebede Y, Tesfaye K, Kassie M, Bogale G, Tadesse B, Keno T. 2015. Factors that transformed maize productivity in Ethiopia. Food Security 7(5), 965-981.

Akande SR, Lamidi GO. 2006. Performance of quality protein maize varieties and disease reaction in the derived-savanna agro-ecology of South-West Nigeria. African journal of biotechnology 5(19).

Azad MAK, Biswas BK, Alam N, Alam SS. 2012. Genetic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. The Agriculturists 10(1), 64-70.

Babu R, Nair SK, Kumar A, Venkatesh S, Sekhar JC, Singh NN, Srinivasan G, Gupta HS. 2005. Two-generation marker-aided backcrossing for rapid conversion of normal maize lines to quality protein maize (QPM). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 111(5), 888-97.

Bjarnason M, Vasal SK. 1992. Breeding of quality protein maize (QPM). Plant Breeding Reviews 9, 181-216.

Byerlee D, Eicher CK. 1997. eds. Africa’s emerging maize revolution. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Crow JF, Kermicle J. 2002. Oliver Nelson and quality protein maize. Genetics 160(3), 819-821.

Cuevas-Rodriguez EO, Verdugo-Montoya NM, Angulo-Bejarano PI, Milan-Carrillo J, Mora-Escobedo R, Bello-Perez LA, Garzon-Tiznado JA, Reyes-Moreno C. 2006. Nutritional properties of tempeh flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L.). LWT-Food Science and Technology 39(10), 1072-1079.

De Valença AW, Bake A, Brouwer ID, Giller KE. 2017. Agronomic bio-fortification of crops to fight hidden hunger in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Security 12, 8-14.

Dreher K, Khairallah M, Ribaut JM, Morris M. 2003. Money matters (I): costs of field and laboratory procedures associated with conventional and marker-assisted maize breeding at CIMMYT. Molecular Breeding 11(3), 221-234.

Dudley JW, Lambert RJ. 1969. Genetic variability after 65 generations of selection in Illinois high oil, low oil, high protein and low protein strains of Zea mays L. Crop Science 9, 179-181.

Graham GG, Lembcke J, Lancho E, Morales E. 1989. Quality protein maize: digestibility and utilization by recovering malnourished infants. Pediatrics 83(3), 416-421.

Gunaratna NS, De Groote H, Nestel P, Pixley KV, McCabe GP. 2010. A meta-analysis of community-based studies on quality protein maize. Food Policy 35(3), 202-210.

Hartings H, Maddaloni M, Lazzaroni N, Di Fonzo N, Motto M, Salamini F, Thompson R. 1989. The 02 gene which regulates zein deposition in maize endosperm encodes a protein with structural homologies to transcriptional activators. EMBO Journal 8, 2795-2801

Harvest Plus. 2008. Harvest Plus Statement on the Potential Benefits of Bio-fortification on the Nutritional Status of Populations. [Available at www.harvestplus.org.]

Holzapfel WH. 2002. Appropriate starter culture technologies for small-scale fermentation in developing countries. International Journal of Food Microbiology 75, 197-212.

Hunt JM. 2002. Reversing productivity losses from iron deficiency: the economic case. The Journal of Nutrition 132(4), 794S-801S.

Ignjatović-Micić D, Marković K, Ristić D, Mladenović-Drinić S, Stanković S, Lazić-Jančić V, Denić M. 2009. Variability analysis of normal and opaque2 maize inbred lines. Genetics 41(1), 81-93.

Jeloka TK, Dharmatti G, Jamdade T, Pandit M. 2013. Are oral protein supplements helpful in the management of malnutrition in dialysis patients? Indian Journal of Nephrology 23(1), 1.

Jones RA, Larkins BA, Tsai CY. 1977. Storage protein synthesis in maize: II. Reduced synthesis of a major zein component by the opaque-2 mutant of maize. Plant Physiology 59(4), 525-529.

Keatinge JD, Waliyar F, Jamnadas RH, Moustafa A, Andrade M, Drechsel P, Hughes JDA, Kadirvel P, Luther K. 2010. Relearning old lessons for the future of food—by bread alone no longer: diversifying diets with fruit and vegetables. Crop Science 50 (S1), S-51.

Kies C, Fox HM. 1972. Protein nutritional value of opaque-2 corn grain for human adults. The Journal of Nutrition 102(6), 757-765.

Kniep KR, Mason SC. 1991. Lysine and protein content of normal and opaque-2 maize grain as influenced by irrigation and nitrogen. Crop science 31(1), 177-181.

Krivanek AF, De Groote H, Gunaratna NS, Diallo AO, Friesen DK. 2007. Breeding and disseminating quality protein maize (QPM) for Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 6(4), 312-324.

Krivanek AF, Groote HD, Gunaratna NS, Diallo AO, Friesen D. 2007. Breeding and disseminating quality protein maize (QPM) for Africa. Afr. J. Biotechnol 6, 312-324.

Maberly GF, Trowbridge FL, Yip R, Sullivan KM, West CE. 1994. Programs against micronutrient malnutrition: ending hidden hunger. Annual Review of Public Health 15(1), 277 301.

Machida L, Derera J, Tongoona P, Mutanga O, Macrobert J. 2012. Geostatistical analysis of quality protein maize outcrossing with pollen from adjacent normal endosperm maize varieties. Crop Science Society of America 52, 1235-1245.

Magulama EE, Sales EK. 2009. Marker-assisted introgression of opaque 2 gene into elite maize inbred lines. USM R&D Journal 17(2), 131-136.

Mbuya K, Nkongolo KK, Kalonji-Mbuyi A. 2011. Nutritional analysis of quality protein maize varieties selected for agronomic characteristics in a breeding program. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics 5, 317-327.

Melchinger AE, Schmidt GA, Geiger HH. 1986. Evaluation of near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy for predicting grain and Stover quality traits in Maize. Plant Breeding 97, 2- 29.

Mertz ET, Bates LS, Nelson OE. 1964. Mutant gene that changes protein composition and increases lysine content of maize endosperm. Science 145, 279-280.

Motto M, Fonzo DN, Hartings H, Maddaloni M, Salamini F, Soave C, Thompson RD. 1989. Regulatory genes affecting maize storage protein synthesis. Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do? recordID=US201302703657.

Mpofu IDT, Sibanda S, Shonihwa A, Pixley. 2012. The Nutritional value of Quality Protein Maize for Weaner Pigs. Journal of Petroleum and Environmental Biotechnology 3 (5).

Nelson OE, Mertz ET, Bates LS. 1965. Second mutant gene affecting the amino acid pattern of maize endosperm proteins. Science 150(3702), 1469-1470.

Nurit E, Tiessen A, Pixley KV, Palacios-Rojas N. 2009. Reliable and inexpensive colorimetric method for determining protein-bound tryptophan in maize kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(16), 7233-7238.

Nuss ET, Tanumihardjo SA. 2011. Quality Protein Maize for Africa: Closing the protein Inadequacy Gap in Vulnerable Populations. American Society for Nutrition. Advances in Nutrition 2, 217-224.

Pixley KV, Bjarnason MS. 1994. Pollen-parent effects on protein quality and endosperm modification of quality protein maize. Crop Science 34(2), 404-409.

Pixley KV, Bjarnason MS. 2002. Stability of grain yield, endosperm modification, and protein quality of hybrid and open-pollinated quality protein maize (QPM) cultivars. Crop Science 42(6), 1882-1890.

Pixley KV. 2003. The Development and Promotion of Quality Protein Maize in Sub-Saharan Africa; Progress Report; CIMMYT: Harare, Zimbabwe, 2003; 65p.

Prakash J, Lata S, Sharma A, Vekariya RD, Sharma JK, Sood A. 2017. Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize (Zea Mays L.) hybrids for quantitative and quality traits. International Journal Current Microbiology and Applied Science 6(4), 1851-1859.

Prasanna BM, Vasal SK, Kassahun B, Singh NN. 2001. Quality protein maize. Current Science 1308-1319.

Ranawat A, Singh SK, Singh R, Bhati PK, Sharma A. 2013. Morphological diversity analysis in QPM and non-QPM maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Journal of Crop and Weed 9(2), 32-35.

Rosales A, Galicia L, Oviedo E, Islas C, Palacios-Rojas N. 2011. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for protein, tryptophan, and lysine evaluation in quality protein maize (QPM) breeding programs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(20), 10781-10786.

Schmidt RJ, Burr FA, Aukerman MJ, Burr B. 1990. Maize regulatory gene opaque-2 encodes a protein with a “leucine-zipper” motif that binds to zein DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. USA 87, 4640.

Shewry PR, Halford NG. 2002. Cereal seed storage proteins: structures, properties and role in grain utilization. Journal of experimental botany 53(370), 947-958.

Singleton WR. 1939. Recent linkage studies in maize: V. Opaque endosperm-2 (o2). Genetics 24(1), 59-63.

Tripathy SK, Ithape DM, Maharana M, Prusty AM. 2017. Quality Protein Maize (QPM): Genetic basis and breeding perspective. Tropical Plant Research 4, 145-152.

Truswell AS, Mann J. 2012. “Vitamins C and E.” Mann, J. and AS Truswell (editors) 236-245.

Varagona MJ, Schmidt RJ, Raikhel NV. 1992. Nuclear localization signal (s) required for nuclear targeting of the maize regulatory protein Opaque-2. The Plant Cell 4(10), 1213-1227.

Vasal SK. 2002. Quality protein maize development: An exciting experience. In Integrated Approaches to Higher Maize Productivity in the New Millennium, Proceedings of the Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 5-11 February 2002; Friesen, D., Palmer, A.F.E., Eds.; CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) and KARI (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute): Nairobi, Kenya pp. 2-9.

Vasconcelos MW, Gruissem W, Navreet KB. 2017. Iron biofortification in the 21st century: setting realistic targets, overcoming obstacles, and new strategies for healthy nutrition. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 44, 8-15.

Vivek BS. 2008. Breeding quality protein maize (QPM): Protocols for developing QPM cultivars. CIMMYT.

Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Gültekin I, Torun B, Barut H, Karanlik S, Cakmak I. 1998. Effect of seed zinc content on grain yield and zinc concentration of wheat grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21, 2257-2264.

Zaidi PH, Vasal SK, Maniselvan P, Jha GC, Mehrajjudin, Singh RP. 2008. Stability in performance of quality protein maize under abiotic stress. Maydica 53, 249-260.

Zhu C, Naqvi S, Gomez-Galera S, Pelacho AM, Capell T, Christou P. 2007. Transgenic strategies for the nutritional enhancement of plants. Trends in Plant Sciences 12(12), 548-555.

Razia Sultana, Shakra Jamil, Muhammad Aslam, Rahil Shahzad, Rida Fatima, Muhammad Amir Maqbool, Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal.
Overview of quality protein maize and molecular breeding approaches for its development.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(1), 533-542, January 2019.
https://innspub.net/ijb/overview-quality-protein-maize-molecular-breeding-approaches-development/
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update