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Prevalence of intestinal helminthic parasites among the children of the local population of Quetta District, Balochistan, Pakistan

By: Shahida Aziz, Shahab-ud-Din Kakar, Saima Siddiqui, Kashif Kamran

Key Words: Intestinal, Helminths, Prevalence, Children, Gender, Age

Int. J. Biosci. 17(2), 179-184, August 2020.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/17.2.179-184

Certification: ijb 2020 0048 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic helminths in children from a local population of Quetta district. For this purpose, stool samples were taken from children of the urban and rural areas of the district. The current findings showed that the overall 43.80% prevalence was recorded in children of rural and urban areas of Quetta district. Five species of intestinal helminths parasites were found at a different prevalence rate of infection. Hymenolepis nana  was detected at the highest 48 (15.24%) in children than other species. Gender wise infection was recorded higher in females (25.71%) than males (18.09%). The Age-wise high prevalence rate was recorded in the age group of 6-10 years of children (48.14%) than 11-15 years (42.15%) and up to 5 years of children (40.95%). The prevalence of helminthic in the Quetta district is high due to the rapid increase in population low socio-economic status, living with unhygienic conditions, sanitation issues, and high pollution.

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Prevalence of intestinal helminthic parasites among the children of the local population of Quetta District, Balochistan, Pakistan

Akhund AA. 1994. Frequency and pattern of pathogenic intestinal parasites in Nawabshah Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Pathology 5, 39-42.

Ali U, Yousaf I, Danish SH, Ahmad F, Hassan W Worm. 2016. Infestation and associated factors In school children of district Zhob, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Physiology 12(1), 18-21.

Ansari MA, Naru NA. Some incoming intestinal parasites of Lahore. 1968. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research 7(2), 138-54.

Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ. 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. The lancet 6(9521), 1521-32.

Bilqees FM, Khan A, Ahmed AA. 1982. Survey of intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites in Karachi. Pak J Med Res 21, 54-8.

Birrie H, Medhin G. 1996. Comparison of different Kato templates for quantitative faecal egg count of intestinal helminth parasites. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 10, 129-30

Chopra M, Galbraith S, Darnton-Hill I. 2002. A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of overnutrition. Bulletin of the world Health Organization 80, 952-8.

Drake LJ, Jukes MC, Sternberg RJ, Bundy DA. 2002. Geohelminth infections (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm): cognitive and developmental impacts. In Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 11, 245-251.

Farag HF. 1985. Intestinal parasitosis in the population of the Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical and geographical medicine 37(1), 29-31.

Ghauri AS, Alam M. 1992. The pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Sargodha area: A comparative study Pak J Pathol 3, 99-101.

Ghauri AS, Alam M. 1992. The pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Sargodha area: A comparative study. Pak J Pathol 3, 99-101.

Khan MU, Shahidullah M, Barua DK, Begum T. 1986. Efficacy of periodic deworming in an urban slum population for parasite control 83, 82-88.

Manwell RD. Introduction to protozoology. 1961. Introduction to Protozoology. Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd. London.

Nishiura H, Imai H, Nakao H, Tsukino H, Changazi MA, Hussain GA, Kuroda Y, Katoh T. 2002. Ascaris lumbricoides among children in rural communities in the Northern Area, Pakistan: prevalence, intensity, and associated socio-cultural and behavioral risk factors. Acta tropica 1(3), 223-31.

Ojurongbe O, Adegbayi AM, Bolaji OS, Akindele AA, Adefioye OA, Adeyeba OA. 2011. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 16(5), 680.

Okafor UP. 2018. Effects of industrial effluents on stream water quality in Onitsha urban area of Anambra state, Nigeria. Arch Clin Microbiol 9, 80.

Pal RA, Subhani F. 1989. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in primary school children of Dir District (NWFP). Pakistan J. Sci. Tech 13, 99-102.

Qureshi AH, Karamat KA, Qamer RH, Malik IA. 1992. Intestinal parasitic infestation in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area: A study of 12640 stool samples. Pak J Pathol 3, 31-9.

Ross AG, Olveda RM, McManus DP, Harn DA, Chy D, Li Y, Tallo V, Ng SK. 2017. Risk factors for human helminthiases in rural Philippines. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 1, 54, 150-5.

Shaikh GS, Begum R, Hussain A, Shaikh R. 2009. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites in Sukkur, Sindh. Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series) 15(41), 2.

Shaikh GS, Harani MS, Rathi SL, Khatri PR, Harani PK. 2000. Pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Larkana. Proceedings of Parasitology 2000, 61-6.

Shaikh GS, Shaikh RS, Shaikh AH. 2003. Intestinal parasitic infections in the Population of Shikarpur, Sindh. Proc. Parasitol 36, 59-67.

Siddiqui MI, Bilqees FM, Iliyas M, Perveen S. 2002. Prevalence of parasitic infections in a rural area of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 52, 315-20.

Siddiqui MN, Bano L. 1979. Observations of parasitic infections in school children of Peshawar. Pak. J. of Zoology 11(1), 109-13.

WHO. 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: report of a WHO expert committee.

Widjana DP, Sutisna P. 2000. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in the rural population of Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 6(3), 454-9.

Yamaguti S. Systema Helminthum. 1961. The Nematodes of Vertebrates Part I. Interscience Publishers.Akhund AA. 1994. Frequency and pattern of pathogenic intestinal parasites in Nawabshah Sindh. Pakistan Journal of Pathology 5, 39-42.

Ali U, Yousaf I, Danish SH, Ahmad F, Hassan W Worm. 2016. Infestation and associated factors In school children of district Zhob, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Physiology 12(1), 18-21.

Ansari MA, Naru NA. Some incoming intestinal parasites of Lahore. 1968. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research 7(2), 138-54.

Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ. 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. The lancet 6(9521), 1521-32.

Bilqees FM, Khan A, Ahmed AA. 1982. Survey of intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites in Karachi. Pak J Med Res 21, 54-8.

Birrie H, Medhin G. 1996. Comparison of different Kato templates for quantitative faecal egg count of intestinal helminth parasites. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 10, 129-30

Chopra M, Galbraith S, Darnton-Hill I. 2002. A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of overnutrition. Bulletin of the world Health Organization 80, 952-8.

Drake LJ, Jukes MC, Sternberg RJ, Bundy DA. 2002. Geohelminth infections (ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm): cognitive and developmental impacts. In Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 11, 245-251.

Farag HF. 1985. Intestinal parasitosis in the population of the Yemen Arab Republic. Tropical and geographical medicine 37(1), 29-31.

Ghauri AS, Alam M. 1992. The pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Sargodha area: A comparative study Pak J Pathol 3, 99-101.

Ghauri AS, Alam M. 1992. The pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Sargodha area: A comparative study. Pak J Pathol 3, 99-101.

Khan MU, Shahidullah M, Barua DK, Begum T. 1986. Efficacy of periodic deworming in an urban slum population for parasite control 83, 82-88.

Manwell RD. Introduction to protozoology. 1961. Introduction to Protozoology. Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd. London.

Nishiura H, Imai H, Nakao H, Tsukino H, Changazi MA, Hussain GA, Kuroda Y, Katoh T. 2002. Ascaris lumbricoides among children in rural communities in the Northern Area, Pakistan: prevalence, intensity, and associated socio-cultural and behavioral risk factors. Acta tropica 1(3), 223-31.

Ojurongbe O, Adegbayi AM, Bolaji OS, Akindele AA, Adefioye OA, Adeyeba OA. 2011. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 16(5), 680.

Okafor UP. 2018. Effects of industrial effluents on stream water quality in Onitsha urban area of Anambra state, Nigeria. Arch Clin Microbiol 9, 80.

Pal RA, Subhani F. 1989. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in primary school children of Dir District (NWFP). Pakistan J. Sci. Tech 13, 99-102.

Qureshi AH, Karamat KA, Qamer RH, Malik IA. 1992. Intestinal parasitic infestation in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area: A study of 12640 stool samples. Pak J Pathol 3, 31-9.

Ross AG, Olveda RM, McManus DP, Harn DA, Chy D, Li Y, Tallo V, Ng SK. 2017. Risk factors for human helminthiases in rural Philippines. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 1, 54, 150-5.

Shaikh GS, Begum R, Hussain A, Shaikh R. 2009. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites in Sukkur, Sindh. Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series) 15(41), 2.

Shaikh GS, Harani MS, Rathi SL, Khatri PR, Harani PK. 2000. Pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation in Larkana. Proceedings of Parasitology 2000, 61-6.

Shaikh GS, Shaikh RS, Shaikh AH. 2003. Intestinal parasitic infections in the Population of Shikarpur, Sindh. Proc. Parasitol 36, 59-67.

Siddiqui MI, Bilqees FM, Iliyas M, Perveen S. 2002. Prevalence of parasitic infections in a rural area of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 52, 315-20.

Siddiqui MN, Bano L. 1979. Observations of parasitic infections in school children of Peshawar. Pak. J. of Zoology 11(1), 109-13.

WHO. 2002. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: report of a WHO expert committee.

Widjana DP, Sutisna P. 2000. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in the rural population of Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 6(3), 454-9.

Yamaguti S. Systema Helminthum. 1961. The Nematodes of Vertebrates Part I. Interscience Publishers.

Shahida Aziz, Shahab-ud-Din Kakar, Saima Siddiqui, Kashif Kamran.
Prevalence of intestinal helminthic parasites among the children of the local population of Quetta District, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Int. J. Biosci. 17(2), 179-184, August 2020.
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