Proteus mirabilis as a pathogenic organism
By: Umbreen Zafar, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Imran Nawaz, Ashiq Hussain, Imran Taj, Zain-ul-Abideen, Sidra Mengal, Malala Panezai, Nasir Ahmed Rind, Syeda Ayesha Ali, Ghulam Mohammad, Saima Azam, Zohra Samreen
Key Words: Proteus, Mirabilis, Pathogenesis, Antibiotic, Wound.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(3), 443-450, March 2019.
Certification: ijb 2019 0034 [Generate Certificate]
Proteus is the member of family Enterobacteriaceae. They are gram negative, facultative anaerobic and rod shaped bacteria. Proteus mirabilis caused wounds infection, urinary tract infection, rheumatoid arthritis and meningitis in infants. Pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis is facilitated by their unique virulence factors like adhesins, flagella, toxins, quorum-sensing, enzymes and immune invasion. The ability of urease gene of Proteus mirabilis that breakdown the urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide that increase the pH of urine resulting adherence, colonization, and biofilm formation. Proteus mirabilis are sensitive to most of β-lactams contaning antibiotics but also show resistance against broad spectrum β-lactamases, and AmpC enzymes when they acquired β-lactamases genes. Proteus mirabilis has been increased extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. The most predominant enzymes of Proteus mirabilis such as TEM, CTX-M ,VEB- and PER are less common. Proteus mirabilis express number of virulence factors that promote pathogenicity. This information about Proteus virulence will help to a better understanding of infectious processes and will allow to develop new effective procedure for prevention and clinical treatment.
Proteus mirabilis as a pathogenic organism
Alamuri P, Mobley HLT. 2008. A novel autotransporter of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis is both a cytotoxin and an agglutinin. Molecular Microbiology 68, 997–1017.
Andrea DMM, Nucleo E, Luzzaro F,Giani T, Migliavacca R, Vailati F, Kroumova V, Pagani L, Rossolini GM. 2006. CMY-16, a novel acquired AmpC-type b-lactamase of the CMY/LAT lineage in multifocal monophyletic isolates of Proteus mirabilis from Northern Italy.Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50, 618–624.
Antoni RÓ, Agnieszka T, Magdalena M, Iwona k, Agnieszka M, kingaostrowska, Dominika D, Agnieszka Z, Agata P, Małgorzata S, Paweł S. 2012. Proteus sp. an opportunistic bacterial pathogen classification, swarming growth, clinical significance and virulence factors. Folia Biologica et Oecologica 8, 1–17.
Auwaerter P. 2008. Antibiotic guide. Johns Hopkins ABX (antibiotic) Guide, Baltimore, MD.
Bahrani FK, Mobley HL. 1994. Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbrial operon: genetic organization, nucleotide sequence, and conditions for expression. Journal of Bacteriology 176, 3412–3419.
Baldo C, Rocha SPD. 2014. Virulence factors of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 3(11), 24-27.
Braun V, Focareta T. 1991.Pore-forming bacterial protein hemolysins (cytolosins). Critical Reviews in Microbiology 18, 115–158.
Christopher C, Carrie A, Poore Xin L, Harry LT, Mobley. 2000. Pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection. Microbes and Infection 2, 1497−1505.
Coker C, Poore CA, X Li, Mobley HLT. 2000. Pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis urinary tract infection. Microbes and Infection 2, 1497–1505.
Endimiani A, Luzzaro F, Brigante G, Perilli M, Lombardi G, Amicosante G. 2005. Proteus mirabilis bloodstream infections risk factors and treatment outcome related to the expression of extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49, 2598–2605.
Habibi M, Asadi Karam MR, Shokrgozar MA, Oloomi M, Jafari A, Bouzari S. 2015. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Molecular Immun 64, 285-294.
Hansson KL, Sundstro M, Pelletier A, Roy PH. 2002. Intl2 integron integrase in Tn7. Journal of Bacteriology 184, 1712–1721.
Hara CM, Brenner FW, Miller JM. 2000. Classification, identification and clinical significance of Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13, 534-546.
Janda JM, Abbot SL. 2006. The Enterobacteriaceae. ASM Press. Washington. 233–259.
Kaca W, Glenska J, Lechowicz L, Grabowski S, Brauner A, Kwinkowski M. 2011. Serotyping of
Proteus mirabilis Clinical Strains Based on Lipopolysaccharide O Polysaccharide and Core Oligosaccharide Structures. Published in Russian in Biokhimiya 76(7), 1039-1050.
Knirel YA. 1999. Structure of the O-antigenic polysaccharides of Proteus bacteria. Polish Journal of Chemother 73, 895–9071.
Liaw SJ, Lai HC, Wang WB. 2004. Modulation of Swarming and Virulence by Fatty Acids through the RsbA Protein in Proteus mirabilis Infection and Immunity 72(12), 6836–6845.
Lukomski S, Serwecinska L, Rozalski A, Dziadek J, Staczek P, Jaworski A. 1991. Cell-free and cell-bound hemolytic activities of Proteus penneri determination by different Hly determinants. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 37, 419–424.
Manos J, Belas R. 2006. The Genera Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella. Prokaryotes 6, 245–269.
Matthews SJ, Lancaster JW. 2011. Urinary tract infections in the elderly population. American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy 9, 286–309.
Miro E, Mirelis B, Navarro F, Alba R, Raúl JM, Carme R, Laura G, Pere C. 2005. Surveillance of extendedspectrum b-lactamases from clinical samples and faecal carriers in Barcelona, Spain. Journal of Antimicrobe Chemother 56, 1152–1155.
Mobley HL, Chippendale GR, Swihart KG, Welch RA. 1991. Cytotoxicity of the HpmA hemolysin and urease of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris against cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity 59, 2036–2042.
Moland ES, Hanson ND, Black JA, Hossain A, Song W, Thomson KS. 2006. Prevalence of newer β-lactamases in Gram-negative clinical isolates collected in the United States from 2001 to 2002. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 44, 3318–24.
Mutta RN, Oliveira MN, Magathaes PSF, Dias AM, Aragho LP, Forti AC, Carlvalho CBM. 2003. Plasmid mediated extended spectrum beta lactamase producing strain of enterobacteriaceae isolated from diabetic foot infections in Brazilian Diabetic center. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 7(2), 129-134.
Nicholson EB, Concaugh EA, Mobley HL. 1991. Proteus mirabilis urease: use of a ureA-lacZ fusion demonstrates that induction is highly specific for urea. Infection and Immunity 59, 3360–3365.
Nielubowicz, Greta R, Sara N, Smith, Harry LT, Mobley. 2008 Outer membrane antigens of the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis recognized by the humoral response during experimental murine urinary tract infection. Infection and Immunity. 76(9), 4222-4231.
Park YJ, Lee S, Kim YR. 2006. Occurence of extended-spectrum b-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC b-lactamases among Korean isolates of Proteus mirabilis. Journal of Antimicrobal Chemother 57, 156–158.
Parsek MR, Singh PK. 2003. Bacterial biofilms: An emerging link to disease pathogenesis. Annual
Review Microbiology 57, 677.
Patridge SR, Collis CM, Hall RM. 2002. Class 1 integron containing a new gene cassette, aadA10, associated with Tn1404 from R151. Antimicrobe Agents Chemother 46, 2400–2408.
Pearson MM, Sebaihia M, Churcher C, Quail MA, Seshasayee AS, Luscombe NM, Abdellah Z, Arrosmith C, Atkin B, Chillingworth T, Hauser H, Jagels K, Moule S, Mungall K, Norbertczak H, Rabbinowitsch E, Walker D, Whithead S, Thomson NR, Rather PN, Parkhill J, Mobley HL. 2008. “Complete genome sequence of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis, a master of both adherence and motility.” Journal of Bacteriology 190(11), 4027-4037.
Pellegrino R, Scavone P, Umpiérrez A, Maskell DJ, Zunino P. 2013. “Proteus mirabilis uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA) fimbria plays a role in the colonization of the urinary tract. Pathogens and Disease 67, 104-107.
Phan H, Lehman D. 2012. Cerebral abscess complicating Proteus mirabilis meningitis in a newborn infant. Journal of Child Neurology 27(3), 405-407.
Rocha SP, Pelayo JS, Elias WP. 2007. Fimbriae of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 51, 1-7.
Sara MS. 2014. Importance of biofilms in urinary tract infections: New therapeutic approaches. Advance Human Biology, 1–13.
Saurina G, Quale JM, Manikal VM, Oydna E, Landman D. 2000. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae in Brooklyn, NY: epidemiology and relation to antibiotic usage patterns. Journal of Antimicrobal Chemother 45, 895-898.
Shibata N, Doi Y, Yamane K, Yagi T, Kurokawa H, Shibayama K, Kato H, Kai K, Arakawa Y. 2003. PCR typing of genetic determinants for metallo-ß-lactamases and integrases carried by gram-negative bacteria isolated in Japan, with focus on the class 3integron. Journal of Clinical. Microbiology 41, 5407–5413.
Shin-hee kim, cheng-i wei, haejung. 2005. an Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Retail Meat Products. Journal of Food Protection 68(7), 1408–1413.
Unhanand M, Mustafa MM, McCracken GH, Jr., Nelson JD. 1993. Gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis: a twenty- one-year experience. Journal of Paediatrics 122(1), 15-21.
Walker KE, Moghaddame SJ, Lockatell CV, Johnson D, Belas R. 1999. ZapA, the IgA-degrading metalloprotease of Proteus mirabilis, is a virulence factor expressed specifically in swarmer cells. Molecular Microbiology 32, 825–836.
Yong D, Lim Y, Song W, Choi YS, Park DY, Lee H, Kim JM, Chong Y. 2005. Plasmid-mediated, inducible AmpC β-lactamase (DHA-1)-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a Korean hospital: wide dissemination in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca and emergence in Proteus mirabilis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 53, 65–70.
Zunino P, Geymonat L, Allen AG, Legnani CF, Maskell DJ. 2000. Virulence of a Proteus mirabilis
ATF isogenic mutant is not impaired in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection. FEMS Medical Microbiology and Immunology 29, 137-143.
Proteus mirabilis as a pathogenic organism.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(3), 443-450, March 2019.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)