A Review- Anti-Cancer Compounds from Medicinal Plants: Isolation, Identification, and Characterization
By: Muhammad Atif Imran, Hira Shahid
Key Words: Cancer, Medicinal plants, Apoptosis, Anticancer compounds, Antioxidants.
Int. J. Biosci. 17(6), 442-468, December 2020.
Certification: ijb 2020 0122 [Generate Certificate]
Cancer presently exists as the major pathological state in developed and emergent nations equally which is characterized by the uncontrolled division of cells and is fatal. People prefer anticancer plant products to treat cancer due to the increased mortality related to undetected growth in addition to its toxic reactions to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In recent years, eastern medicine provided a profitable substitute for allopathic medicine against cancer. There have been considerable researches on plants for treating cancer, and many of the plant products have been sold as anticancer medicine, depending on the conventional uses and experimental reports. The anticancer property of medicinal plants is due to their antioxidant activity which has been described in many reports. Thus, after isolation (by using chromatographic and crystallization techniques) and identification using LCMS spectra, IR, and NMR, many combinations of the active components can be prepared and should be further evaluated for their synergic effects. The development of a systemized dose and dosage procedure may perform an exceptional role in the cure of tumors. The rate at which cancer develops is a necessary and effective endeavor for the good health of human beings. Further investigations are required to analyze the mechanisms of anti-malignant action of active compounds from new plants and the use of standard herbal remedies.
A Review- Anti-Cancer Compounds from Medicinal Plants: Isolation, Identification, and Characterization
Aggarwal BB. 2010. Targeting Inflammation-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Diseases by Curcumin and Other Nutraceuticals. Annual Review of Nutrition 30(1), 173–199.
Aggarwal BB, Deb L, Prasad S. 2015a. Curcumin differs from tetrahydrocurcumin for molecular targets, signaling pathways and cellular responses. Impact Journals LLC.
Aggarwal BB, Deb L, Prasad S. 2015b, January 1. Curcumin differs from tetrahydrocurcumin for molecular targets, signaling pathways and cellular responses. MDPI AG.
Ajaya Kumar R, Sridevi K, Vijaya Kumar N, Nanduri S, Rajagopal S. 2004. Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92(2–3), 291–295. Elsevier.
Amin A, Gali-Muhtasib H, Ocker M, Schneider-Stock R. 2009. Overview of major classes of plant-derived anticancer drugs. Master Publishing Group. Available from www.ijbs.org [accessed 25 September 2020].
Antonoff MB, Chugh R, Borja-Cacho D, Dudeja V, Clawson KA, Skube SJ, Sorenson, BS, Saltzman DA, Vickers SM, Saluja AK. 2009. Triptolide therapy for neuroblastoma decreases cell viability in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Surgery 146(2), 282–290. Surgery.
Apostolou A, Stagos D, Galitsiou E, Spyrou A, Haroutounian S, Portesis N, Trizoglou I, Wallace Hayes A, Tsatsakis AM, Kouretas D. 2013. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts. Food Chem Toxicol Pergamon 61, 60–68.
Azmi AS, Bhat SH, Hanif S, Hadi SM. 2006. Plant polyphenols mobilize endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: A putative mechanism for anticancer properties. FEBS Lett. 580(2), 533–538. No longer published by Elsevier.
Bao R, Shu Y, Wu X, Weng H, Ding Q, Cao Y, Li M, Mu J, Wu W, Ding Q, Tan Z, Liu T, Jiang, L, Hu Y, Gu J, Liu Y. 2014. Oridonin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gallbladder cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway. BioMed Central Ltd. 14(1), 217.
Barbosa-Filho JM, Piuvezam MR, Moura MD, Silva MS, Lima KVB, Da-Cunha EVL, Fechine IM, Takemura OS. 2006. Anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloids: a twenty-century review. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 16(1), 109–139. Springer Science and Business Media LLC.
Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Paulraj GM, Al Numair KS. 2010. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model – an In vitro and In vivo study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10.
Betram H, Thomas WB, Forest AKJ, John M. 2008. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria.
Biloa Messi B, Ho R, Meli Lannang A, Cressend D, Perron K, Nkengfack AE., Carrupt PA, Hostettmann K, Cuendet M. 2014. Isolation and biological activity of compounds from Garcinia preussii. Pharmaceutical Biology 52(6), 706–711. Informa Healthcare.
Boubaker J, Ben Toumia I, Sassi A, Bzouich-Mokded I, Ghoul Mazgar S, Sioud F, Bedoui, A, Safta Skhiri S, Ghedira K, Chekir-Ghedira L. 2018. Antitumoral Potency by Immunomodulation of Chloroform Extract from Leaves of Nitraria retusa, Tunisian Medicinal Plant, via its Major Compounds β-sitosterol and Palmitic Acid in BALB/c Mice Bearing Induced Tumor. Nutrition and Cancer 70(4), 650–662. Routledge.
Cavallo F, De Giovanni C, Nanni P, Forni G, Lollini PL. 2011. 2011: The immune hallmarks of cancer. In Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. Springer p 319–326.
Chen Z, Sangwan V, Banerjee S, Chugh R, Dudeja V, Vickers SM, Saluja AK. 2014. Triptolide sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL-induced activation of the Death Receptor pathway. Cancer Lett. 348(1–2), 156–166. Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Donaldson EM. 1981. Spectrophotometric determination of boron in iron and steel with curcumin after separation by 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol-chloroform extraction. Talanta 28(11), 825–831. Talanta.
Dondorp AM, Nosten F, Yi P, Das D, Phyo AP, Tarning J, Lwin KM, Ariey F, Hanpithakpong W, Lee SJ, Ringwald P, Silamut K, Imwong M, Chotivanich K, Lim P, Herdman T, An SS, Yeung S, Singhasivanon P, Day, NPJ, Lindegardh N, Socheat D, White NJ. 2009. Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The New England Journal of Medicine 361(5), 455–467 Massachussetts Medical Society.
Efferth T, Dunstan H, Sauerbrey A, Miyachi H, Chitambar CR. 2001. The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer. International Journal of Oncology 18(4), 767–773. Spandidos Publications.
Ferreira MA, Fernandes MM, da Silva WV, Bezerra I.F, de Souza T, Pimentel M, Soares LL. 2016. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of phenolic compounds from fruits of Libidibia ferrea Martius. Pharmacognosy Magazine 12(46), 285. Medknow.
Freiburghaus F, Kaminsky R, Nkunya MHH, Brun R. 1996. Evaluation of African medicinal plants for their in vitro trypanocidal activity Journl of Ethnopharmacol 55(1), 1–11. Elsevier.
Geetha BS. 2016. Summary and conclusion. In Studies in Systems, Decision and Control p 97–99.
Geetha BS, Nair MS, Latha PG, Remani P. 2012. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits human lymphocyte proliferation and the growth of tumour cell lines and induces apoptosis in vitro. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2012.
Ghorani-Azam A, Sepahi S, Riahi-Zanjani B, Ghamsari AA, Mohajeri SA, Balali-Mood M. 2018, March 1. Plant toxins and acute medicinal plant poisoning in children: A systematic literature review. Isfahan University of Medical Sciences(IUMS).
Goel A, Boland CR, Chauhan DP. 2001. Specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by dietary curcumin in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Letters172(2), 111–118.
Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB. 2008. Curcumin as “Curecumin”: From kitchen to clinic. Biochemical Pharmacology 75(4), 787–809.
Gordi T, Lepist EI. 2004. March 1. Artemisinin derivatives: Toxic for laboratory animals, safe for humans? Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Greenwell M, Rahman PKSM. 2015. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment. Int. J. Pharm. Journal of Scientific Research 6(10), 4103–4112.
Hassaninasab A, Hashimoto Y, Tomita-Yokotani K, Kobayashi M. 2011. Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(16), 6615–6620. National Academy of Sciences.
Holder GM, Plummer JL, Ryan AJ. 1978. The metabolism and excretion of curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5 dione) in the rat. Xenobiotica 8(12), 761–768. Informa Healthcare.
Hong J, Kwon SJ, Sang S, Ju J, Zhou J, Nian Ho, CT, Huang MT, Yang CS. 2007a. Effects of garcinol and its derivatives on intestinal cell growth: Inhibitory effects and autoxidation-dependent growth-stimulatory effects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 42(8), 1211–1221.
Hong J, Kwon SJ, Sang S, Ju J, Zhou J, nian, Ho CT, Huang MT, Yang CS. 2007b. Effects of garcinol and its derivatives on intestinal cell growth: Inhibitory effects and autoxidation-dependent growth-stimulatory effects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 42(8), 1211–1221.
Huang D, Jiang Y, Chen W, Yao F, Sun L. 2014. Polyphenols with anti-proliferative activities from penthorum chinense pursh. Molecules 19(8), 11045–11055.
Lo Iacono M, Monica V, Vavalà T, Gisabella M, Saviozzi S, Bracco E, Novello S, Papotti M, Scagliotti GV. 2015. ATF2 contributes to cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer and celastrol induces cisplatin resensitization through inhibition of JNK/ATF2 pathway. International Journal of Cancer 136(11), 2598–2609. Wiley-Liss Inc.
Ikeda H, Itoh K. 2001. Germination and water dispersal of seeds from a threatened plant species Penthorum chinense Ecological Research 16(1), 99–106. Springer.
Jiang QW, Cheng KJ, Mei XL, Qiu JG, Zhang, WJ, Xue YQ, Qin WM, Yang Y, Zheng, DW, Chen, Y., Wei, MN, Zhang, X, Lv M, Chen MW, Wei X, Shi Z. 2015. Synergistic anticancer effects of triptolide and celastrol, two main compounds from thunder god vine. Oncotarget 6(32), 32790–32804. Impact Journals LLC.
Kabeer FA, Rajalekshmi DS, Nair MS, Prathapan R. 2019. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of deoxyelephantopin from a potential medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 19.
Kamatou GPP, Makunga NP, Ramogola WPN, Viljoen AM. 2008. October 28. South African Salvia species: A review of biological activities and phytochemistry. Elsevier.
Karpuz M, Silindir-Gunay M, Ozer AY. 2018, March 1. Current and Future Approaches for Effective Cancer Imaging and Treatment. Mary Ann Liebert Inc.
Kavli G, Raa J, Johnson BE, Volden G, Haugsbø S. 1983. Furocoumarins of Heracleum Laciniatum: isolation, phototoxicity, absorption and action spectra studies. Contact Dermatitis 9(4), 257–262. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Khazir J, Mir BA, Pilcher L, Riley DL. 2014, February 1. Role of plants in anticancer drug discovery. Elsevier.
Kikuchi T, Nihei M, Nagai H, Fukushi H, Tabata K, Suzuki T, Akihisa T. 2010. Albanol a from the root bark of Morus alba L. induces apoptotic cell death in HL60 human leukemia cell line. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 58(4), 568–571.
Kim JH, Lee JO, Lee SK, Kim N, You GY, Moon JW, Sha J, Kim SJ, Park, SH, Kim HS. 2013. Celastrol suppresses breast cancer MCF-7 cell viability via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced p53-polo like kinase 2 (PLK-2) pathway. Cell signaling 25(4), 805–813.
Kim Y, Kang H, Jang SW, KoJ. 2011. Celastrol inhibits breast cancer cell invasion via suppression of NF-κb-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Cell Physiol Biochem Press 28(2), 175–184.
Kolb EA, Steinherz PG. 2003. A new multidrug reinduction protocol with topotecan, vinorelbine, thiotepa, dexamethasone, and gemcitabine for relapsed or refractory acute leukemia. Leukemia 17(10), 1967–1972. Nature Publishing Group.
Kowalczyk, Sitarek P, Skała E, Toma M, Wielanek M, Pytel D, Wieczfińska J, Szemraj, J, Śliwiński T. 2019. Induction of apoptosis by in vitro and in vivo plant extracts derived from Menyanthes trifoliata L. in human cancer cells. Cytotechnology 71(1), 165–180. Springer Netherlands.
Kumar A, Patil D, Rajamohanan PR, Ahmad A. 2013. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Vinblastine and Vincristine from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Catharanthus roseus. PLoS One 8(9), Public Library of Science.
Kumar S, Pandey AK. 2013. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. ScientificWorld Ltd.
Kwon Y, Magnuson BA. 2007. Effect of azoxymethane and curcumin on transcriptional levels of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 during initiation of colon carcinogenesis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 42(1), 72–80.
Lai H, Singh NP. 2006. Oral artemisinin prevents and delays the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in the rat. Cancer Letters 231(1), 43–48.
Lakshmi S, Suresh S, Rahul BS, Saikant R, Maya V, Gopi M, Padmaja G, Remani P. 2019a. In vitro and in vivo studies of 5,7-dihydroxy flavones isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.) against human lung cancer and ascetic lymphoma. Medicinal Chemistry Research 28(1), 39–51. Birkhauser Boston.
Lakshmi S, Suresh S, Rahul BS, Saikant R, Maya V, Gopi M, Padmaja G, Remani P. 2019b. In vitro and in vivo studies of 5,7-dihydroxy flavones isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.) against human lung cancer and ascetic lymphoma. Med. Chem. Res. 28(1), 39–51. Birkhauser Boston.
Lampronti I, Bianchi N, Borgatti M, Fibach E, Prus E, Gambari R. 2003. Accumulation of γ-globin mRNA in human erythroid cells treated with angelicin. European Journal of Haematology 71(3), 189–198. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lee KH. 2000. Jiaogulan: China’s “Immortality Herb” By M. Blumert and J. Liu (Guiyang Medical College). Torchlight Publishing, Inc., Badger, CA 93603. 1999. 79 pp. 14 × 21.5 cm. $7.95. ISBN 1-887089-16-0. Journal of Natural Products 63(3), 431–431. American Chemical Society (ACS).
Lee MR, Cha MR, Jo KJ, Yoon MY, Park HR. 2008. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Tussilago farfara extract in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Food Science and Biotechnology 17(2), 308–312. Available from
Li CJ, Chu CY, Huang LH, Wang MH, Sheu L.F., Yeh JI., Hsu HY. 2012a. Synergistic anticancer activity of triptolide combined with cisplatin enhances apoptosis in gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 319(2), 203–213. Cancer Lett.
Li H, Hui L, Xu W, Shen H, Chen Q, Long L, Zhu X. 2012b. Modulation of P-glycoprotein expression by triptolide in adriamycin-resistant K562/A02 cells. Oncology Letters 3(2), 485–489. Spandidos Publications.
Li P, AnandhiSenthilkumar H, Wu S, biao Liu B, Guo Z, yong Fata JE, Kennelly EJ, Long lin C. 2016. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia. J. Chromatogr. B Anal. Technol. Biomed. Life Sciences 1011, 179–195. Elsevier B.V.
Li Y, Gu JF, Zou X, Wu J, Zhang MH, Jiang J, Qin D, Zhou JY, Liu BXZ, Zhu YT, Jia X, Bin Feng L, Wang RP. 2013. The anti-lung cancer activities of steroidal saponins of P. polyphylla smith var. chinensis (Franch.) hara through enhanced immunostimulation in experimental lewis tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice and induction of apoptosis in the A549 Cell Line Molecules 18(10), 12916–12936.
Lima SRM, Veiga VF, Christo HB, Pinto AC, and Fernandes PD. 2003. In vivo and in vitro Studies on the Anticancer Activity of Copaifera multijuga Hayne and its Fractions. Phytotherapy Research 17(9), 1048–1053. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lin CS, Kuo CL, Wang JP, Cheng JS, Huang ZW, Chen CF. 2007. Growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effect of Perilla frutescens extract on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 112(3), 557–567. Elsevier.
Lin JK, Pan MH, Lin-Shiau SY. 2000. Recent studies on the biofunctions and biotransformations of curcumin. In BioFactors. IOS Press p 153–158.
Lu Q, Jiang MH, Jiang JG, Zhang RF, Zhang, MW. 2012. Isolation and identification of compounds from Penthorum chinense Pursh with antioxidant and antihepatocarcinoma properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60(44), 11097–11103. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ma L, Peng L, Fang S, He B, Liu Z. 2017. Celastrol downregulates E2F1 to induce growth inhibitory effects in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Oncology Reports 38(5), 2951–2958. Spandidos Publications.
MacCallum DE, Melville J, Frame S, Watt K, Anderson S, Gianella-Borradori A, Lane DP, Green SR. 2005. Seliciclib (CYC202, R-Roscovitine) induces cell death in multiple myeloma cells by inhibition of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and down-regulation of Mcl-1. Cancer Res. 65(12), 5399–5407. American Association for Cancer Research.
Mahesh T, Menon VP. 2004. Quercetin Allievates Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats. Phytotherapy Researc 18(2), 123–127.
Malíková J, Swaczynová J, Kolář Z, Strnad M. 2008. Anticancer and antiproliferative activity of natural brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 69(2), 418–426. Pergamon.
Manjamalai A, Berlin Grace VM. 2012. Antioxidant activity of essential oils from wedelia chinensis (osbeck) in vitro and in vivo lung cancer bearing C57BL/6 mice. Asian Pacific J. Cancer Prev. 13(7), 3065–3071. Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention.
Maude RJ, Woodrow CJ, White L.J. 2010, February. Artemisinin antimalarials: Preserving the “magic bullet.” Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.20344.
Meng LH, Ding J. 2007, September. Salvicine, a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerts its potent anticancer activity by ROS generation. Nature Publishing Group.
Mi C, Shi H, Ma J, Han LZ, Lee JJ, Jin X. 2014. Celastrol induces the apoptosis of breast cancer cells and inhibits their invasion via downregulation of MMP-9. Oncology Reports 32(6), 2527–2532. Spandidos Publications.
Mira A, Shimizu K. 2015. In vitro cytotoxic activities and molecular mechanisms of angelica shikokiana extract and its isolated compounds. Pharmacognosy Magazine 11(44), 564. Medknow.
Mody MD, Gill HS, Saba NF. 2016. The evolving and future role of taxanes in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck a review. JAMA Otolaryngol. – Journal of Head and Neck Surgery 142(9), 898–905. American Medical Association.
Moon YJ, Wang X, Morris ME. 2006. Dietary flavonoids: Effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism. Elsevier Ltd.
Moreno PRH, van der Heijden R, Verpoorte R. 1995. Cell and tissue cultures of Catharanthus roseus: A literature survey – II. Updating from 1988 to 1993. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 42(1), 1–25. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Morrissey C, Gallis B, Solazzi JW, Kim BJ, Gulati R, Vakar-Lopez F, Goodlett DR., Vessella RL, Sasaki T. 2010. Effect of artemisinin derivatives on apoptosis and cell cycle in prostate cancer cells. Anticancer. Drugs 21(4), 423–432.
Mulukuri NVLS, Mondal NB, Raghu Prasad M, Renuka S, Ramakrishna K. 2011. Isolation of diterpenoid lactones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata and its anticancer activity. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 3(3), 39–42.
Nagahama K, Utsumi T, Kumano T, Maekawa, S, Oyama N, Kawakami J. 2016. Discovery of a new function of curcumin which enhances its anticancer therapeutic potency. Scientific Reports 6, Nature Publishing Group.
Nobili S, Lippi D, Witort E, Donnini M, Bausi L, Mini E, Capaccioli S. 2009, June 1. Natural compounds for cancer treatment and prevention. Academic Press.
Ochwang’i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. 2014. Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 151(3), 1040–1055.
Oliveira CR, Spindola DG, Garcia DM, Erustes A, Bechara A, Palmeira-dos-Santos C, Smaili SS, Pereira GJS, Hinsberger A, Viriato EP, Cristina Marcucci M, Sawaya ACHF, Tomaz SL, Rodrigues EG, Bincoletto C. 2019. Medicinal properties of Angelica archangelica root extract: Cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells and its protective effects against in vivo tumor development. Journal of Integrative Medicine 17(2), 132–140. Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd.
Padhye S, Ahmad A, Oswal N, Sarkar FH. 2009. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs. Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2(1), 38.
Panda SS, Chand M, Sakhuja R, Jain SC. 2013. Xanthones as Potential Antioxidants. Curr. Med. Chem. 20(36), 4481–4507. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Pareek A, Godavarthi A, Issarani R, Nagori, BP. 2013. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi extract in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150(3), 973–981.
Plummer M, de Martel C, Vignat J, Ferlay J, Bray F, Franceschi S. 2016. Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2012: a synthetic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 4(9), e609–e616. Elsevier Ltd.
Pommier Y. 2006. Topoisomerase I inhibitors: Camptothecins and beyond. In Nature Reviews Cancer. Nature Publishing Group p 789–802.
Prasad S, Tyagi AK, Aggarwal BB. 2014. Recent developments in delivery, bioavailability, absorption and metabolism of curcumin: The golden pigment from golden spice. Korean Cancer Association.
Raja SM, Clubb RJ, Ortega-Cava C, Williams SH, Bailey TA, Duan L, Zhao X, Reddi AL, Nyong AM, Natarajan A, BandV, Band H. 2011. Anticancer activity of Celastrol in combination with ErbB2-targeted therapeutics for treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancers. Cancer Biology & Therapy 11(2), 263–276.
Reungpatthanaphong P, Mankhetkorn S. 2002. Modulation of multidrug resistance by artemisinin, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in K562/adr and GLC4/adr resistant cell lines. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25(12), 1555–1561. The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.
Robati M, Holtz D, Dunton CJ. 2008. A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Dove Press.
Sai K, Li WY, Chen YS, Wang J, Guan S, Yang QY, Guo CC, Mou YG, Li, WP, Chen ZP. 2014. Triptolide synergistically enhances temozolomide-induced apoptosis and potentiates inhibition of NF-κB signaling in glioma initiating cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 42(2), 485–503.
Sanli N, Fonrodona G, Barrón D, Özkan G, Barbosa J. 2002. Prediction of chromatographic retention, pKa values and optimization of the separation of polyphenolic acids in strawberries. Journal of Chromatography 975(2), 299–309.
Sato D, Kondo S, Yazawa K, Mukudai Y, Li C, Kamatani T, Katsuta H, Yoshihama Y. Shirota T, Shintani S. 2013. The potential anticancer activity of extracts derived from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis on human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Molecular and Clinical Oncology 1(1), 105–111, Spandidos Publications.
Scholl M, Ding S, Lee CW, Grubbs RH. 1999. Synthesis and activity of a new generation of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts coordinated with 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligands. Organic Letters 1(6), 953–956. American Chemical Society.
Shirzad H, Taji F, Rafieian-Kopaei M. 2011. Correlation between antioxidant activity of garlic extracts and WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma tumor growth in BALB/c mice. Journal of Medicinal Food 14(9), 969–974.
Sigurdsson S, Ögmundsdottir HM, Gudbjarnason S. 2004. Antiproliferative effect of Angelica archangelica fruits. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch. 59(7–8), 523–527. Verlag der Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung.
Stiborová M, Poljaková J, Martínková E, Bořek-Dohalská L, Eckschlager T, Kizek R, Frei E. 2011. Ellipticine cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines-a comparative study. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 4(2), 98–105. Sciendo.
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem 50(25), 7449–7454. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Tang PMK, Chan JYW, Zhang DM, Au SWN, Fong WP, Kong SK, Tsui SKW, Waye, M.M.Y., Mak TCW, Fung KP. 2007. Pheophorbide a, an active component in scutellaria barbata, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance on a human hepatoma cell line R-HepG2. Cancer Biology & Therapy 6(4), 504–509. Landes Bioscience.
Taraphdar AK, Roy M, Bhattacharya RK. 2001. Natural products as inducers of apoptosis: Implication for cancer therapy and prevention. Current Science Association.
Titov DV, Gilman B, He QL, Bhat S, Low WK, Dang Y, Smeaton M, Demain AL, Miller PS, Kugel JF, Goodrich JA, Liu JO. 2011. XPB, a subunit of TFIIH, is a target of the natural product triptolide. Nature Chemical Biology 7(3), 182–188. Nature Publishing Group.
Tomeh MA, Hadianamrei R, Zhao X. 2019, March 1. A review of curcumin and its derivatives as anticancer agents. MDPI AG.
Turan I, Demir S, Kilinc K, Burnaz NA, Yaman SO, Akbulut K, Mentese A, Aliyazicioglu Y, Deger O. 2017. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 25(2), 241–248. Elsevier B.V.
Usta M, Wortelboer HM, Vervoort J, Boersma MG, Rietjens IMCM, Van Bladeren PJ, Cnubben NHP. 2007. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in caco-2 cells. Chemical research in toxicology 20(12), 1895–1902.
Wang LQ, Yang J, Deng E, Wang GB, Peng ZS. 2008. Optimizing the shoot proliferation protocol of Penthorum chinense by axillary buds. Biotechnology Letters 30(12), 2199–2203.
Wang S, Zhong Z, Wan J, Tan W, Wu G, Chen M, Wang Y. 2013. Oridonin induces apoptosis, inhibits migration and invasion on highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 41(1), 177–196.
Wang SJ, Gao Y, Chen H, Kong R, Jiang HC, Pan SH, Xue DB, Bai XW, Sun B. 2010. Dihydroartemisinin inactivates NF-κB and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett. 293(1), 99–108. Elsevier.
Wang X, Yuan S, Wang J, Lin P, Liu G, Lu, Zhang J, Wang W, Wei Y. 2006. Anticancer activity of litchi fruit pericarp extract against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol 215(2), 168–178.
Wang Y, Chen Y, Chen X, Liang Y, Yang D, Don, J, Yang N, Liang Z. 2019. Angelicin inhibits the malignant behaviours of human cervical cancer potentially via inhibiting autophagy. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. Spandidos Publications. 18(5), 3365–3374.
Wen L, Wu D, Jiang Y, Prasad KN, Lin S, Jiang G, He J, Zhao M, Luo W, Yang B. 2014. Identification of flavonoids in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) leaf and evaluation of anticancer activities. Journal of Functional Foods 6(1), 555–563.
Xu L, Qi Y, Lv L, Xu Y, Zheng L, Yin L, Liu K, Han X, Zhao Y, Peng J. 2014. In vitro anti-proliferative effects of Zuojinwan on eight kinds of human cancer cell lines. Cytotechnology 66(1), 37–50. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Xu Q, Li ZX, Peng HQ, Sun ZW, Cheng RL, Ye ZM, Li WX. 2011. Artesunate inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma HOS cell line in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 12(4)2, 47–255. Springer.
Yan H, Jung KH, Kim J, Rumman M, Oh MS, Hong SS. 2018. Artemisia capillaris extract AC68 induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway. Biomed. Pharmacother 98, 134–141. Elsevier Masson SAS.
Yang B, Xiao B, Sun T. 2013. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 62, 287–290.
Yang X, Yang Y, Tang S, Tang H, Yang G, Xu Q, Wu J. 2014. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from Scutellaria barbata d. don on the 95-D xenograft model via inhibition of the C-met pathway. Japanese Pharmacological Society 125(3), 255–263.
Yu JS, Kim AK. 2010. Platycodin D induces apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Journal of Medicinal Food 13(2), 298–305.
Zhang M, Chen Y, Nie L, Jin X, Liao W, Zhao S, Fu C, Yu L. 2018. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis. Scientific Reports 8(1), 1–12. Nature Publishing Group.
Zhang T, Hamza A, Cao X, Wang B, Yu S, Zhan CG, Sun D. 2008. A novel Hsp90 inhibitor to disrupt Hsp90/Cdc37 complex against pancreatic cancer cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 7(1), 162–170.
Zhang T, Li Y, Yu Y, Zou P, Jiang Y, Sun D. 2009. Characterization of celastrol to inhibit Hsp90 and Cdc37 interaction. Journal of Biological Chemistry 284(51), 35381–35389.
A Review- Anti-Cancer Compounds from Medicinal Plants: Isolation, Identification, and Characterization.
Int. J. Biosci. 17(6), 442-468, December 2020.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)