Role of proper management of nitrogen in cotton growth and development
By: Nangial Khan, Yingchun Han, Zhanbiao Wang, Guoping Wang, Lu Feng, Beifang Yang, Yabing Li
Key Words: Cotton, Growth, Nitrogen, Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), Quality and Yield.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(5), 483-496, May 2019.
Certification: ijb 2019 0007 [Generate Certificate]
Cotton is important cash crop grown for fiber. Cotton fiber is used in fabrics and other things used in daily life. The production of many industries in the world and, especially in china is related to fiber. Proper nutrition plays great role in growth and high-quality fiber production. Different macro and micro nutrients are applied to cotton for high quality fiber production. Nitrogen is the highly utilizing nutrient among that. High growth, yield and quality of cotton depend on proper management of nitrogen. Due to increasing prices of nitrogen fertilizers researchers are working to increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of cotton to benefit farmers. Nitrogen is applied through different methods at different rates. Mostly split application at PPA (Pre plant application), FBA (First bloom application) and PBA (Peak bloom application) with different rates according to soil and plant condition are in practice by farmers. Many organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen are available with different properties. NUE is affected by different factors like genotype, cropping system, soil, volatilization and leaching, N amount application and fertilizer timing. Prior to nitrogen fertilizer application nutrient status of soil must be analyzed to prevent nitrogen losses from the system. Different methods like soil testing, tissue testing, Leaf area index (LAI), normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI) and satellite imagery are suggested to improve NUE. Many researches proved that proper management of nitrogen increase farmers profit and NUE. This review highlights nitrogen response to cotton growth, yield, quality, NUE and factors affecting NUE and how to improve NUE through nitrogen management.
Role of proper management of nitrogen in cotton growth and development
Abdurakhmonov IY. 2018. Cotton Research Highlights. In: Intech open.
Afzal MN, Tariq M, Ahmad M, Mubeen K, Khan MA, Afzal MU, Ahmad S. 2019. Dry Matter, Lint Mass and Fiber Properties of Cotton in Response to Nitrogen Application and Planting Densities. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research 32(2), 2145-2155. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2019/184.108.40.206
Ali AR, Salimbeck R, Alishah O, Andarkhor SAA. 2012. Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Row Spacing on Growth and Yield of Cotton Varieties. International Journal of Biology 4(3), 124–129.
Ali H, Hameed RA. 2011. Growth , Yield and Yield Components of American Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L .) As Affected by Cultivars and Nitrogen Fertilizer. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 2(7).
Alitabar RA, Salimbeck R, Alishah O, Andarkhor SAA. 2013. The effects of nitrogen and row spacing on growth and yield of cotton varieties. International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review 3(1), 120–125.
Araújo É de O, Camacho MA, Vincensi MM. 2013. Nitrogen use efficiency by cotton varieties. Revista de Ciencias Agrarias 36(1), 10–16.
Arnall B, Boman R. 2019. Cotton Yield Goal -Nitrogen Rate Recommendation. Retrieved from http://cotton.okstate.edu/fertility/nitrogn-rte-recommendation-pss-2158final.pdf
Ballester C, Hornbuckle J, Brinkhoff J, Smith J, Quayle W. 2017. Assessment of in-season cotton nitrogen status and lint yield prediction from unmanned aerial system imagery. Remote Sensing, 9(11), 1–18.
Below FE. 2001. Nitrogen Metabolism and Crop Productivity. In: Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology. Marcel Dekker,Inc. NewYork, New York USA, p 385–406.
Bibi Z, Khan NU, Mussarat M, Khan MJ, Ahmad R, Khan IU, Shaheen S. 2011. Response of Gossypium hirsutum genotypes to various nitrogen levels. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43(5), 2403–2409.
Bondada BR, Oosterhuis DM. 2001. Canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf weight, and yield components of cotton under varying nitrogen supply. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24(3), 469–477.
Boquet DJ, Breitenbeck GA. 2015. Nitrogen Rate Effect on Partitioning of Nitrogen and Dry Matter by Cotton., 2013–2015.
Bronson BKF. 2009. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cotton Varies with. Crops, (November), 20–22.
Chaudhry MR. 2007. Update on Costs of Producing Cotton in the World. International Cotton Advisory Committee. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136(1), 23–42.
Chen J, Liu L, Wang Z, Sun H, Zhang Y, Lu Z, Li C. 2018. Determining the effects of nitrogen rate on cotton root growth and distribution with soil cores and minirhizotrons. PLoS ONE, 13(5).
Chen Y, Li Y, Zhou M, Rui Q, Cai Z, Zhang X, Chen Y, Chen D. 2018. Nitrogen (N) Application Gradually Enhances Boll Development and Decreases Boll Shell Insecticidal Protein Content in N-Deficient Cotton. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 51. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2018.00051
Chie M, Ketterings Q, Cherney J, Kilcer T, Fixation N. 2008. Agronomy Fact Sheet Series (Fact Sheet 39). New York USA.
Clay DE, Kim KI, Chang J, Clay SA, Dalsted K. 2006. Characterizing water and nitrogen stress in corn using remote sensing. Agronomy Journal, 98(3), 579–587.
Constable GA, Rochester IJ, Daniells IG. 1992. Cotton yield and nitrogen requirement is modified by crop rotation and tillage method. Soil and Tillage Research 23(1), 41–59.
Daigger LA, Sander DH, Peterson GA. 1976. Nitrogen Content of Winter Wheat During Growth and Maturation1. Agronomy Journal 68, 815–818.
Davidonis GH, Koti S, Reddy KR. 2004. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition on cotton grow…: EBSCOhost. Agronomy, 1148–57.
Djaman K, Bado B V, Mel VC. 2016. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of four aromatic rice varieties. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 28(2), 126–135.
Dong H, Li W, Eneji AE, Zhang D. 2012. Nitrogen rate and plant density effects on yield and late-season leaf senescence of cotton raised on a saline field. Field Crops Research, 126, 137–144.
Dowling C. 2014. Improving Nitrogen Use in Cotton. Australia.
Du X, Chen B, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Shen T, Zhou Z, Meng Y. 2016. Nitrogen use efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as influenced by wheat-cotton cropping systems. European Journal of Agronomy 75, 72–79.
FAO. 2015. World fertilizer trends 2018. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, p.
Fritschi F, Roberts B, Travis RL, Rains DW, Hutmacher RB. 2003. Response of irrigated Acala and Pima cotton to nitrogen fertilization: Growth, dry matter partitioning, and yield. Agronomy Journal, 95, 133–146.
Gardner BR, Tucker TC. 1967. Nitrogen effects on cotton. In: Soil Science Society America Proceedings (p. 780–785).
Gerik TJ, Oosterhuis DM, Torbert HA. 1998. Managing Cotton Nitrogen Supply Advances in Agronomy.
Gitelson AA, Viña A, Ciganda V, Rundquist DC, Arkebauer TJ. 2005. Remote estimation of canopy chlorophyll content in crops. Geophysical Research Letters 32(8), 1–4.
Halevy J, Marani A, Markovitz T. 1987. Growth and NPK uptake of high-yielding cotton grown at different nitrogen levels in a permanent-plot experiment. Plant and Soil, 103(1), 39–44. Retrieved from
Harris CH, Smith CW. 1980. Cotton Production Affected by Row Profile and N Rates1. Agronomy Journal 72, 919–922.
Hillel D. 2008. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Cycling. In: Soil BiodiversitY, D. B. T.-S. in the E. Hillel (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 163–174.
Hocking MD, Reynolds JD. 2012. Nitrogen uptake by plants subsidized by Pacific salmon carcasses: a hierarchical experiment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42(5), 908–917.
Holcomb JC, Sullivan DM, Horneck DA, Clough GH. 2011. Effect of Irrigation Rate on Ammonia Volatilization. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75, 2341–2347.
Hou Z, Li P, Li B, Gong J, Wang Y. 2007. Effects of fertigation scheme on N uptake and N use efficiency in cotton. Plant and Soil 290(1), 115–126.
Janat M. 2005. Assessment of Nitrogen Content, Uptake, Partitioning, and Recovery by Cotton Crop Grown under Surface Irrigation and Drip Fertigation by using Isotopic Technique. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35(17–18), 2515–2535.
Kumar V, Rawat AK, Rao DLN. 2016. Influence on soil carbon and nitrogen content in vertisols of madhya pradesh under different crop rotation. Research Journal of Plant & Animal Sciences 31(2), 108–113.
Kumbhar AM, Buriro UA, Junejo S, Oad FC, Jamro GH, Kumbhar BA, Kumbhar SA. 2008. Impact of different nitrogen levels on cotton growth, yield and N-uptake planted in legume rotation. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(2), 767–778.
Laghari SJ, Wahocho NA, Laghari GM, Laghari AH, Mustafa Bhabhan G, Hussain Talpur K, Bhutto TA, Wahocho SA, Lashari AA. 2016. Role of Nitrogen for Plant Growth and Development : A review ces inEnvironmental Biology Role of Nitrogen for Plant Growth rowth and Development : A Review. Advances inEnvironmental Biology 10(9), 209–218.
Leroy Wullstein. 1969. Reduction of nitrite deficits by alkaine metal carbonates. Soil Science, 108(3), 222–226. Retrieved from
LI P, Dong H, Liu A, Liu J, Sun M, Li Y, Liu S, Zhao X, Mao S. 2017. Effects of Nitrogen Rate and Split Application Ratio on Nitrogen Use and Soil Nitrogen Balance in Cotton Fields. Pedosphere, 27(4), 769–777.
Liaqat W, Jan MF, Ahmadzai MD. 2018. Plant spacing and nitrogen affects growth and yield of cotton. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(7), 2107–2110.
Lokhande SB, Reddy KR. 2015. Cotton reproductive and fiber quality responses to nitrogen nutrition. International Journal of Plant Production, 9(2), 191–209.
Luo Z, Kong X, Dai J, Dong H. 2015. Soil Plus Foliar Nitrogen Application increases Cotton Growth and Salinity Tolerance. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 38(3), 443–455.
Luo Z, Liu H, Li W, Zhao Q, Dai J, Tian L, Dong H. 2018. Effects of reduced nitrogen rate on cotton yield and nitrogen use efficiency as mediated by application mode or plant density. Field Crops Research, 218(December 2017), 150–157.
Madani A, Oveysi M. 2015. Fiber Quality and Yield Response of Cotton to Nitrogen Supply. In: International Conference on Chemical, Food and Environment Engineering. Dubai, p 11–14.
Main CL, Tomas Barber L, Boman RK, Chapman K, Dodds DM, Duncan S, Edmisten KL, Horn P, Jones MA, Morgan GD, Randall Norton E, Osborne S, Whitaker JR, Nichols RL, Bronson KF. 2013. Effects of Nitrogen and planting seed size on cotton growth, development, and yield. Agronomy Journal, 105(6), 1853–1859.
Maiti R, Satya P, Rajkumar D, Ramaswamy A. 2012. Crop Plant Anatomy 42, CABI,.
Mokhele B, Zhan X, Yang G, Zhang X. 2012. Review: Nitrogen assimilation in crop plants and its affecting factors. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 92(3), 399–405.
Novoa R, Loomis RS. 1981. Nitrogen and plant production. Plant and Soil, 58(1/3), 177–204. Retrieved from
OECD. 2010. Safety assesment of transgenic organism volume 1(4).
- Keeney D. 1982. Nitrogen Management for Maximum Efficiency and Minimum Pollution Farmed Soils, Fertilizer, Agro-Ecosystems. In: American Society of Agronomy. USA, p.
Raun WR, Johnson GV. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal 91(3), 357–363.
Read JJ, Reddy KR, Jenkins JN. 2006. Yield and fiber quality of Upland cotton as influenced by nitrogen and potassium nutrition. European Journal of Agronomy, 24(3), 282–290.
Reddy KC, Malik RK, Reddy SS, Nyakatawa EZ. 2007. Cotton Growth and Yield Response to Nitrogen Applied Through Fresh and Composted Poultry Litter. The Journal of Cotton Science 11, 26–34.
Rochester I, O’Halloran J, Maas S, Sands D, Brotherton E. 2007. Nutrition feature: monitoring nitrogen use efficiency in your region. Australian Cottongrower, The, 28(4), 22.
Saleem MF, Bilal MF, Awais M, Shahid M, Anjum SA. 2010. Effect of nitrogen on seed cotton yield and fiber qualities of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 20(1), 23–27.
Scharf PC, Lory JA. 2002. Calibrating Corn Color from Aerial Photographs to Predict Sidedress Nitrogen Need Contrib. from the Missouri Agric. Exp. Stn. Journal Ser. no. 13086. Agronomy Journal 94, 397–404.
Segonzac C, Boyer J-C, Ipotesi E, Szponarski W, Tillard P, Touraine B, Sommerer N, Rossignol M, Gibrat R. 2007. Nitrate Efflux at the Root Plasma Membrane: Identification of an Arabidopsis Excretion Transporter. The Plant Cell Online 19(11), 3760–3777.
Sharma LK, Bali SK. 2017. A review of methods to improve nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture. Sustainability (Switzerland) 10(1), 1–23.
Singh Y, Rao SS, Regar PL. 2010. Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on seed cotton yield, water productivity and yield response factor in shallow soils of semi-arid environment. Agricultural Water Management 97(7), 965–970.
Smith CW, Cothren JT. 1999. Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. Wiley,. Retrieved from
Sui R, Byler RK, Delhom CD, Sui R. 2017. Effect of Nitrogen Application Rates on Yield and Quality in Irrigated and Rainfed Cotton. The Journal of Cotton Science, 21, 113–121.
Tang HY, Yang GZ, Zhang XL, Siddique K. 2012. Improvement of fertilizer N recovery by allocating more N for later application in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 12(4), 32–37.
Tewolde H, Fernandez CJ. 2003. Fiber quality response of pima cotton to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26(1), 223–235.
Van Der Eerden L. 1998. Nitrogen on microbial and global scales. New Phytologist, 139(1), 201–204. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.1998.00172.x
Wang H, Cui J, Hou Z, Xie H, Gong J, Lu X. 2010. Impact of coupling of water and nitrogen on dry matter and water use efficiency of cotton under plastic mulching by drip irrigation. Acta Agric. Boreali-Occidentalis Sin, 19(3), 6–80.
Xue X, Guo W, Wang Y, Zhang L, Zhou Z. 2006. Research on dynamic increase characteristics of dry matter of cotton at different nitrogen levels. Cotton Science 18(6), 323–326.
Yang G, Tang H, Nie Y, Zhang X. 2011. Responses of cotton growth, yield, and biomass to nitrogen split application ratio. European Journal of Agronomy 35(3), 164–170.
Ye Q, Zhang H, Wei H, Zhang Y, Wang B, Xia K, Huo Z, Dai Q, Xu K. 2007. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 1(1), 30–36.
Zhang D, Li W, Xin C, Tang W, Eneji AE, Dong H. 2012. Lint yield and nitrogen use efficiency of field-grown cotton vary with soil salinity and nitrogen application rate. Field Crops Research 138, 63–70.
Zhang H-B, Li Y, Wang B, Chee PW. 2008. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics. International Journal of Plant Genomics, 2008(December 2014), 1–20.
Zhang H, Fu X, Wang X, Gui H, Dong Q, Pang N, Wang Z, Zhang X, Song M. 2018. Identification and screening of nitrogen-efficient cotton genotypes under low and normal nitrogen environments at the seedling stage. Journal of Cotton Research 1(1), 1–11.
Zhang Y, Dong H. 2019. Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton. Elsevier Inc, 1–9.
Role of proper management of nitrogen in cotton growth and development.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(5), 483-496, May 2019.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)