International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Toxic effects of sub-lethal dose of algal toxin (Microcystin-LR) on male laboratory mice Mus muscullus L.

By: Emad yousif Awad AL-Sultan, Selma Saeed Abbas

Key Words: Cyanotoxins (Microcystin-LR), Algal toxins testis, Hormones, Spermatogonium, Liver enzymes

Int. J. Biosci. 11(5), 192-203, November 2017.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/11.5.192-203

Certification: ijb 2017 0145 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects (physiological and histological effects) of sub-lethal dose of microcystin-LR (0.125 µg/kg/day as i.p. injection) on male mice for long time of exposure15and 30 days .Sixty four intact adult male mice (Laboratory generations) were used in current study. Animals were divided into eight groups each one contain eight male mice. Each group treated with 0.1 ml of toxins. Results showed significant decrease in sperm account reach 37and 25× 104 for the two periods respectively as compared with control group. While testosterone levels increased significantly p≤0.05 after 30 days reach 0.14 ng/ml compared with control group. However non-significant increase in follicle Stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing Hormone (LH) Hormone for two exposure periods. A significant reduction in the diameter of somniferous tubules and number of spermatogonium for two exposure periods reach 45.57, 37.50 µm and 28.37, 28 µm unit respectively compared with control groups. Whereas, the diameter of germ cells was not affected significantly. Liver enzymes such as (i.e. Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) were increase significantly for two periods of exposure reach 161.66 , 179 IU/L and 158.33, 180 33 IU/L respectively, While alkaline phosphatase (ALP)activity do not showed any significant increasing . Finding also appeared many histopathological changes in testis combined with exposure periods increasing and compared with control group represented by congestion, thickness of capsule wall, necrosis, excessive vacillation and closer of some somniferous tubules. In conclusion, the sub lethal dose of MC-LR may be led highly impairment in male mice testes; function and histology, sex hormones and liver enzymes when exposing for long period reach to 30 days that may be led to Infertility.

| Views 44 |

Toxic effects of sub-lethal dose of algal toxin (Microcystin-LR) on male laboratory mice Mus muscullus L.

Al-Sultan EYA. 2007.Bioassay of some toxic microalgae. Ph.D. Thesis. College of Education, Basra University, Iraq, 127 p.

Al-Sultan EYA, Al-Ali AAA, Al-Sultan FA. 2011. Toxic effects of cyanobacteria N. muscurum on some physiological parameters in blood of Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. 1844. Journal of THI-Qar Sciences, 3, 1, 42-54.

Al-Sultan EY. 2017. Isolation, Purification and Identification of Blue-green Alga Hapalosiphon auras and Evaluation of its Histopathological Effects on Fresh Water Snail Lymnaea auricularia. Journal of Applied sciences. Vol.17, 2, 61-71.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2017.61.71.

Al-Sultan EYA. 2010. The Isolation, the purification, the identification of hepatotoxinmicrocystin-LR from two cyanobacterial species and show biological activity on some aquatic organisms. Journal of Basra Research. (Sciences). 37, 1, 39-57.

Boekelheide K, Schoenfeld HA. 2001. Spermatogenesis by Sisyphus: Proliferating stem germ cells fail to repopulate the testis after “irreversible “injury .Journal of Adv. Experimental Medical Biology, 500.421-428.

Boekelheide K, Schoenfeld HA, Hall SJ, Weng CC, Shetty G, Leith LJ. 2005. Gonadotropin -releasing hormone antagonist (Cetrorelix) therapy fails to protect non-human primates (Macacaarctoides) from radiation induced spermatogenic failure. Journal of Andrology, 26, 222-234.

Campos A, Vasconcelos V. 2010. Molecular mechanisms of microcystin toxicity in animal cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11. 268-287.

https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijms11010268.

Carmichael WW. 1994. The toxins of cyanobacteria. American Journal science, 270. 78-86.

Chen L Chen J, Zhang X, Xie P. 2015. Areview of reproductive toxicity of microcystins. Journal of Hazardous Materials 301, 381-399.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.08.041.

Chen J, Xie P. 2005. Tissue distributions and seasonal dynamics of the hepatotoxic microcystins-LR and -RR in two freshwater shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, from a large shallow, eutrophic lake of the subtropical China, Journal of Toxicon 45, 615-625.

Chen L, Zhang XZ, Zhou WS, Qiao Q, Liang L, Li GY, Wang JH, Cai F. 2013. The interactive effects of cytoskeleton disruption and mitochondria dysfunction lead to reproductive toxicity induced by microcystin LR, PLos One journal, (1), 53949.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053949.

Chen Y, Xu J, Li Y, Dong XH. 2011. Decline of sperm quality and testicular function in male mice during chronic low-dose exposure to microcystin-LR, Journal of Toxicology Report, 31, 551–557.

Chen J, Xie P. 2005. Tissue distribution and seasonal dynamics of hepatotoxic microcystins-LR and–RR in two fresh water shrimps, Palaemon modestus and Macrobrachium nipponensis, from a large shallow, eutrophic lake of the subtropical china. Journal of Toxicon 45, 615-662.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.01.003.

Dawson RM. 1998. The toxicology of microcystins- review article. Journal of Toxicon, 36, 953-962.

https://doi.org/110.1016/S0041-0101(97)00102-5.

Ding XS, Li XY, Duan HY, Chung IK, LeeJ A. 2006. Toxic effects of Microcystis cell extracts on the reproductive system of male mice. Journal of Toxicon 48, 973-979.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.07.039.

Feurstein D, Holst K, Fischer A, Dietrich DR. 2009. Oatp-associated uptake and toxicity of microcystins in primary murine whole brain cells. Journal of Toxicology Applied Pharmacology, 234, 247-255.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2008.10.011.

Gupta N, Pant SC, Vijayaraghavan R, Rao PVL. 2003. Comparative toxicity evaluation of cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin variants (LR, RR, YR) in mice, Journal of Toxicology, 188, 285-296.

Humason GL. 1972. Animal tissue technique s .3rd ed. W.H. Freeman and company, Son Fran.614 p.

Izumi H, Kimura E, Ota T, Shimazu SA. 2005. A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of n-butyl benzene in rats. Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 30, 21-38.

Jawad AAH. 1996. Ethological studies in assessing the anti-aggressive on effects of some Iraqi medicinal plant in laboratory mice (Musmus culus). Thesis submitted to college of education, University of Basra. 165 p.

Katá FS. 2013. Effects of cysplatin drug on sperm characteristics, Spermatogenesis and sex hormones levels of male mice Musmus culus L. Journal of Basra Research (Sciences), 3992, 112-123.

Klassem RW, Persaud TV. 1978. Influence of alcohol on the reproductive system of male rat. International Journal of Fertility, 23, 176-184.

Kopp R, Hetesa J. 2000. Changes of hematological indices of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of natural population of cyanobacterial water blooms. Journal of Acta Veterinaria, (Brno), 69, 131-137.

https://doi.org/110.2754/avb200069020131.

Kumar G, Narayana K, Bairy KL, Urban JA, Samuela VB, Gopalakrishin K. 2006. Dacabrazine induces genotoxic and cytotoxic germ cell damage with concomitant decrease in in testosterone and increase in lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the testis. Journal of Mutation Research, 607, 240-252.

Lankoff A, Banasik A, Obe G, Deperas M, Kuzminski K, Tarczynska M, Jurczak T, Wojcik A. 2003. Effect of microcystin-LR and cyanobacterial extract from Polish reservoir of drinking water on cell cycle progression, mitotic spindle, and apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, Journal of  Toxicology Applied Pharmacolology 189, 204-213.

Lei H, Xie P, Chen J, Liang G, Dai M, Zhang X. 2008. Distribution of toxins in various tissues of crucian carp intraperitoneally injected with hep-atotoxinmicrocystins, Journal of Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 27, 1167-1174.

Li Y, Han XD. 2012. Microcystin-LR causes cytotoxicity effects in rat testicular Sertoli cells. Journal of Environ Toxicological Pharmacolog, 33, 318-326.

Li Y, Sheng J, Sha JH, Han XD. 2008.The toxic effects of microcystin-LR on the reproductive system of male rats in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Toxicological Report, 26, 239-245.

https://doi.org/110.1016/j.reprotox.2008.09.004.

Li GY, Xie P, Li HY, Hao L, Xiong Q, Qiu T. 2011. Involment of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 pathway in microcystins-induced apoptosis in rat testis, Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 26, 111-117.

https://doi.org/110.1002/tox.20532.

Nasri AB, Bouaïcha N, Fastener J. 2004. First report of a microcystin-containing bloom of the Cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. in Lake Ouberia, Eastern, Algeria. Arch. Journalof Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 46, 197-202. Nishkawa

R, Ohta T, Nishiwaki S, Suganoma M, Kohayama K, Ishikawa T, Charmichal WW, Fujiki H. 1992. Liver tumor promotion by cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxins micocystin-LR, Journal of Cancer Research Clinical Oncology 118(6), 420-424.

Pidoux G, Gerbaud P, Tsatsaris V, Marpeau O, Ferreira F, Meduri G. 2007. Biochemical characterization and modulation on LH/CG-receptor during human trophoblast differentiation .Journal of Cell Physiology, 212, 26-35.

Qiao, Q,LiuWJ, Wu K, Song T, Hu J, Huang X, Wen J, Chen L, Zhang XZ. 2013. Female zebrafish (Danio rerio) are more vulnerable than males to microcystin-LR exposure, without exhibiting estrogenic effects. Journal of Aquatic Toxicological, 142, 272-282.

https://doi.org/110.1016/j.aquatox.2013.07.002.

Rabergh CMI, Bylund G, Eriksson JE. 1991. Histopathological effects of microcystin-LR, a cyclic peptide toxin from the cyanobacterum (blue-green alga). Journal of Aquatic Toxicology, 20, 131-146.

Reddy YV, Reddy PS, Shivalingam MR, Gamini CP. 2009. Dose dependent alteration in epididymal sperm account of cisplatin or carboplatin treated male weste r rats .Journal of Pharmacological Sciences Research, 4, 167-172.

Shan L, Hardy DO, Catterall JF, Hardy MP. 1995. Effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgen on steady state levels of messenger riboneucleolic acid for LH receptors, and rogenreceptors, and steroidgenic enzymesin rat Leyding cell progenitors in vivo. Journal of Endocrinology 136, 1686-1693.

https://doi.org/110.1210/endo.136.4.7895679

Sharka RR, Muhanakumar KP, Chowdhury M. 2000. Effect of an organophosphate pesticide, quinalphos on the hypophlalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in adult male rats. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 118, 29-38.

Sharp RM, Fraser HM, Ratnasooriya WD. 1988. Assessment of the role of Leyding cell products other than testosterone in spermatogenesis and fertility in adult rats. International Journalof Andrology 11, 507-523.

Trinchet I, Djediat C, Huet H, Dao SP, Eder M. 2011. Pathological modifications following sub-chronic exposure of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) tomicrocystin-LR. Journal of Toxicology Reprot, 32, 329-340.

Vega S, Guzman P, Garcia I, Espinosa J. 1988. Sperm shape abnormality and urine mutagenicityin mice treated with niclosamide. Journal of Mutant Research, 204, 269-276.

WangL, Wang X, Geng Z, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Wu J, Han X. 2013. Distribution of microcystin-LR to testis of male Sprague-Dawley rats, Journal of Ecotoxicology, 22, 1555-1563.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1141-2.

Wang XT, Ying F, Chen Y, Han XD. 2012. Microcystin (-LR) affects hormones level of male mice by damaging hypothalamic-pituitary system, Journal of Toxicon 59, 205-214.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.12.001.

Watanabe HK, Hoskins B, Ho IK. 1986. Selective inhibitory effects of organophosphates on UDP-glucuronyltrnasferase activities in rate liver microsomes. Journal of Biochemistry  Pharmacology, 35, 455-460.

WHO. 1999. Toxic cyanobacteria in water: A Guide to their public health consciences, monitoring and management.

WHO. 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Third Edition Incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Volume 1.

Wyrobek A, Gordan A, Bukhart JG, Frances, MW, Kapp RW, Letz G, Malling HW, Topham JC, Whorton MD. 1983. An evaluation of the mouse sperm morphology test and other sperm tests in non-human mammals. Journal of Mutation Research .115, 1-72.

Yoshizawa S, Masushima R, Watanab MF, Harada KI, Ichihara A, Carmichael WW, Fujiki H. 1990. Inhibition of protein phosphatases by microcystin and nodularin associated with hepatotoxicity. Journal Cancer Research of Clinical Oncology, 116, 609-614.

Zhao SJ, Xie P, Li GY, Chen J, Cai Y, Xiong Q, Zhao YY. 2012. The proteomic study on cellular responses of the testes of zebra fish (Danio rerio) exposed to microcystin-RR. Journal of Proteomics, 12, 300-312.

Zhou Y, Yuan JT, Wu J, Han XD. 2012. The toxic effects of microcystin-LR on rat spermatogonia in vitro, Journal of Toxicology Lett., 212, 48-56.

Emad yousif Awad AL-Sultan, Selma Saeed Abbas.
Toxic effects of sub-lethal dose of algal toxin (Microcystin-LR) on male laboratory mice Mus muscullus L..
Int. J. Biosci. 11(5), 192-203, November 2017.
https://innspub.net/ijb/toxic-effects-sub-lethal-dose-algal-toxin-microcystin-lr-male-laboratory-mice-mus-muscullus-l/
Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update