International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Toxicity evaluation of white spike head (Kyllinga nemoralis) using brine shrimp lethality test and anthelminthic assay

By: Jay P. Picardal, Kristine Jade Abella, Rania Abella, Mary Julianne Villamor, Marchee T. Picardal

Key Words: Kyllinga nemoralis, toxicity evaluation, BSLA, Anthelminthic property, White spike head.

Int. J. Biosci. 14(6), 132-142, June 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.6.132-142

Certification: ijb 2019 0024 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Kyllinga nemoralis has been utilized for the treatment of various illnesses in developing countries because it is inexpensive and readily available but toxicity evaluation of this plant is still unreported in scientific publications. This study investigated the toxicity level of combined roots and leaves of K. nemoralis (40g) using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay and Earthworm Assay. The study employed Complete Randomized Design in triplicates (n= 210 A. salina nauplii and n=126 E. euginiae).  For BSLA, four K. nemoralis ethanolic root+leaf extracts [KNERLE] (T1=1000ppm; T2=100ppm; T3=10ppm; and T4=1ppm) were tested for toxicity while in earthworm assay, four K. nemoralis aqueous root+leaf extracts [KNARLE] (T1=25g/ml; T2=20g/ml; T3=15g/ml; and T4=10g/ml) were tested for time paralysis and mortality. After 24h experimental period, mortality data were analyzed using ANOVA (p<0.01) and post hoc analysis (Tukey’s test) while Probit analysis was employed to determine toxicity level of KNERLE at LC50. Result showed that there is a linear dose-dependent trends of KNERLE and KNARLE vs. nauplii (LC50 = 18.97ppm) and earthworm mortality (100% mortality comparable to positive control, Albendazole), respectively, suggesting that higher treatment concentration exhibit toxicity and anthelminthic properties. The study suggests that K. nemoralis root+leaf extracts are strongly toxic, and further investigation of toxicity using higher vertebrate models’ tissue and organ level is recommended.

| Views 51 |

| Views 51 |

Toxicity evaluation of white spike head (Kyllinga nemoralis) using brine shrimp lethality test and anthelminthic assay

Ajaiyeoba EO, Onocha PA, Olarenwaju OT. 2001. In vitro earthworm properties of Buchholzia coriacea and Gynandropsis gynandra extracts. Pharmaceutical Biology 39(3), 217-20.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/phbi.39.3.217.593

Amor E, Quanico J, Perez G. 2009. Analgesic activity of extracts of Kyllinga monocephala. Pharmaceutical Biology 47(7), 624–627.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200902915614

Carolina Biological Supply Co. [Internet]. 2012. Brine shrimp. [cited 2018 Mar 02]. Available as  https://www.pps.net/cms/lib/OR01913224/Centricity/Domain/ 193/Brine-Shrimp-CareSheet.pdf

Clarkson C, Maharaj VJ, Crouch NR, Grace OM, Pillay P, Matsabisa MG, Bhagwandin N, Smith PJ, Folb PI. 2004. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 92(2), 177-91.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.011

Devendra K, Kiran D, Ritesh V, Satyendra B, Abhishek K. 2013. Evaluation of total phenolics and flavonoids in different plant of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2(4), 116-118.

Finney DJ. 1952. Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, NY USA. 2nd Ed. 318 p.

Geethaa S, Thavamany PJ, Chiew SP, Thong OM. 2013. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research 4(4), 179.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.121411

Gruyal G, Del Roasario R, Palmes N. 2014. Ethnomedicinal plants used by residents in Northern Surigao del Sur, Philippines. Natural Product Chemistry and Research 2(4), 1-6

http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6836.1000140

Hamidi MR, Jovanova B, Panovska TK. 2014.Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) model. Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin 60(1), 9-18.

http://dx.doi.org/10.33320/maced.pharm. bull.2014.60. 01.002

Karthikeyan R, Kumar R, Prabahar A. 2009. Diuretic evaluation of rhizomes of Kyllinga nemoralis (Hutch. & Dalz). Pharmacology Online 1, 1178-1183.

Majumder P. 2013. Investigation of earthworm activity of an ignored plant Kyllinga nemoralis tuber – A potential hope. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Biological Sciences 4(1), 45–52.

Mclaughlin JL, Rogers LL, Anderson JE. 1998. The use of biological assays to evaluate botanicals. Drug Information Journal 32(2), 513-24.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009286159803200.223

Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DJ, McLaughlin JL. 1982. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Medica 45(05), 31-4.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971236

Miano R, Picardal J, Alonso CAG, Reuyan D. 2011. Ethnobotanical inventory and assessment of medically-important plant roots in Cebu Island, Philippines. Asian Journal of Biodiversity 2, 81-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.7828/ajob.v2i1.93

Nguta JM, Mbariaa JM, Gakuyab DW, Gathumbic PK, Kabasad JD, Kiamae SG. 2011. Biological screening of Kenyan medical plants using Artemia salina (Artemiidae).  Pharmacology Online 2, 458-478.

Olowa LF, Nuñeza OM. 2013. Brine shrimp lethality assay of the ethanolic extracts of three selected species of medicinal plants from Iligan City, Philippines. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(11), 74-7.

Panda SK, Das D, Tripathy NK. 2011. Evaluation of anthelminthic activity of Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2(2), 676-9.

Quisumbing EA. 1978. Medicinal plants of the Philippines. Katha Publishing, 1262 p.

Raju S, Kavimani S, Uma MR, Sreeramulu RK. 2011. Kyllinga nemoralis (Hutch & Dalz) (Cyperaceae): Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Pharmacognosy Journal, 3(24), 7-20.

http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/pj.2011.24.2

Sarah QS, Anny FC, Misbahuddin M. 2017. Brine shrimp lethality assay. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 12(2), 5-2017.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjp.v12i2.32796.

Sindhu T, Rajamanikandan S, Srinivasan P. 2014. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Kyllinga nemoralis. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 76(2), 170–174.

Stuart G. 2016. Philippine Medicinal Plant “Anuang” Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R.Foorst.  & G.Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel. Available as

http://www.stuartxchange.org/Anuang.html

Somasundaram A, Karthikeyan R, Velmurugan V, Dhandapani B, Raja M. 2009. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Kyllinga nemoralis (Hutch & Dalz) rhizomes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127, 555–557.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.11.014

Sudipta B, Kumar D, Goutam P, Monalisha D. 2012. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity and histological study of Cyperus Kyllinga Endl. Roots. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 3(3), 343-346.

Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. 2016. Merck Manual – Veterinary Manual [Internet]. Mechanisms of Action of Earthworms. 2016 [cited 2018 Jul 27].

Jay P. Picardal, Kristine Jade Abella, Rania Abella, Mary Julianne Villamor, Marchee T. Picardal.
Toxicity evaluation of white spike head (Kyllinga nemoralis) using brine shrimp lethality test and anthelminthic assay.
Int. J. Biosci. 14(6), 132-142, June 2019.
https://innspub.net/ijb/toxicity-evaluation-white-spike-head-kyllinga-nemoralis-using-brine-shrimp-lethality-test-anthelminthic-assay/
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update