Urbanization in Lahore leads to Respiratory Issues – A Microbiological Perspective
By: Farkhanda Sadaf, Adeena Saeed, Maryam Khan, Saba Shamim
Key Words: Urbanization, respiratory issues, chronic cough, dust, microorganisms.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(3), 39-58, March 2021.
Certification: ijb 2021 0176 [Generate Certificate]
Pakistan is an important country of South Asia. Lahore is its historical city with rich cultural values. The development of cities like construction of new roads, is indication of economic progress of a country. During last decade, Lahore city remains in the state of construction of new roads for providing Metro bus service facilities to the public in general which is considered a blessing. Due to continuous construction, dust clouds were normally observed. These contain dust particles which harbor microorganisms. By inhalation, these dust particles cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections which leads to respiratory health issues. As professionals, school going children, street hawkers cannot avoid the dust, it can be cope up by adopting the precautionary measures.
Urbanization in Lahore leads to Respiratory Issues – A Microbiological Perspective
Acosta-Martínez V, Van Pelt S, Moore-Kucera J, Baddock MC, Zobeck TM. 2015. Microbiology of wind-eroded sediments: current knowledge and future research directions. Aeolian Research 18, 99-113.
Ahmed A, Zareen A, Memon AS, Qazi ZA, Jamali AS, Ahmed A, Khan RMA, Akhtar M. 2015. Incidence of acute respiratory infections among male children. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 9(4), 1224-1226.
Al Frayh AR, Shakoor Z, Rab MOGE, Hasnain SM. 2001. Increased prevalence of asthma in Saudi Arabia. Annals Allergy Asthma and Immunology 86, 292-296.
Amato P, Parazols M, Sancelme M, Laj P, Mailhot G, Delort AM. 2007. Microorganisms isolated from the water phase of tropospheric clouds at the Puy de Dôme: major groups and growth abilities at low temperatures. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 59(2), 242-254.
Amin M. 1988. Willets, Duncan; Farrow, Brenden. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons, Ltd., p 20.
Andreu LM, Molinos AS, Fernandez RG, González SV, Ausina RV. 2006. Serologic diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 24, 19-23.
Ariza-Prota MA, Pando-Sandoval A, Garcia-Clemente M, Fole-Vazquez D, Casan P. 2016. Community-acquired Moraxelle catarrhalis bacteremic pneumonia: two case reports and review of the literature-case report. Case Reports in Pulmonology 2016, 1-4.
Atkinson TP, Balish MF, Waites KB. 2008. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and laboratory detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 32, 956-973.
Atkinson SK, Sadofsky LR, Morice AH. 2016. How does rhinovirus cause the common cold cough? BMJ Open Respiratory Research 3, 1-12.
Barberán A, Ladau J, Leff JW, Pollard KS, Menninger HL, Dunn RR, Fierer N. 2015. Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(18), 5756-5761.
Beirle S, Boersma KF, Platt U, Lawrence MG, Wagner T. 2011. Megacity emissions and lifetimes of nitrogen oxides probed from space. Science 333, 1737-1739.
Bener A, Abdulrazzaq YM, Al-Mutawwa J, Debuse P. 1996. Genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma. Human Biology 68, 405-414.
Birkebaek NH. 2001. Bordetella pertussis in the aetiology of chronic cough in adults. Diagnostic methods and clinic. Danish medical bulletin 48(2), 77-80.
Burrows SM, Elbert W, Lawrence MG, Poschl U. 2009. Bacteria in the global atmosphere-part 1: reviews and synthesis of literature data for different ecosystems. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, 9263-9280.
Chang HM, Butt PPH. 1986. Pharmacology and applications of Chinese Materia Medica. Vol. 1, World Scientific, Singapore. p 304.
Chang CC, Lee IM, Tsai SS, Yang CY. 2006. Correlation of Asian dust storm events with daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis in Taipei Taiwan. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 69, 229-235.
Creamean JM, Suski KJ, Rosenfeld D, Cazorla A, DeMott PJ, Sullivan RC, White AB, Ralph F M, Minnis P, Comstock JM, Tomlinson JM, Prather KA. 2013. Dust and biological aerosols from the Sahara and Asia influence precipitation in the Western U.S. Science 339(6127), 1572-1578.
Darwin CR. 1845. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and geology of countries visited during the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle round the world, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, R. N. John Murray, London.
Darwin C. 1846. An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic ocean. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 2, 26-30.
Daxboeck F, Krause R, Wenisch C. 2003. Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 9, 263-273.
Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. 2005. Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between airbone particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives 113, 934-946.
Dhawan K, Sharma A. 2002. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnate leaves. Fitoterapia 73, 397-399.
Dhule JN. 1999. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67, 361-365.
Dimmick R, Straat P, Wolochow H, Levin G, Chatigny M, Schrot JR. 1975. Evidence for metabolic activity of airborne bacteria. Journal of Aerosol Science 6(6), 387-393.
Donaldson K, Stone V, Seaton A, MacNee W. 2001. Ambient particle inhalation and the cardiovascular system: potential mechanisms. Environmental health perspectives 109, 523-527.
Duki MI, Sudarmadi S, Suzuki S, Kawada T, Tri-Tugaswati A. 2003. Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in Indonesia and its economic cost. Archives of Environmental Health 58, 135-143.
Erling V, Jalil F, Hanson LÅ, Zaman S. 1999. The impact of climate on the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in early childhood in Lahore, Pakistan. Journal of Public Health 23(3), 331-339.
Ezeamuzie CI, Thomson MS, Al-Ali S, Dowaisan A, Khan M, Hijazi Z. 2000. Asthma in the desert: spectrum of the sensitizing aeroallergens. Allergy 55, 157-162.
Falsey AR, Walsh EE. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13(3), 371-384.
Fang C, Liu H, Li G, Sun D, Miao Z. 2015. Estimating the impact of urbanization on air quality in China using spatial regression models. Sustainability 7, 15570-15592.
Flemming HC. 2002. Biofouling in water systems – cases, causes and counter measures. Applied Micrbiology and Biotechnology 59, 629-640.
Gardner T, Acosta-Martinez V, Calderón FJ, Zobeck TM, Baddock M, Van Pelt RS, Senwo Z, Dowd S, Cox S. 2012. Pyrosequencing reveals bacteria carried in different wind-eroded sediments.
Journal of Environmental Quality 41, 744-753.
Gavranich JB, Chang AB. 2005. Antibiotics for community acquired lower respiratory tract infections secondary to M. pneumoniae in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3, 1-29.
Ginoux P, Prospero JM, Gill TE, Hsu NC, Zhao M. 2012. Global-scale attribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources and their emission rates based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products. Reviews of Geophysics 50, 3005-3041.
Gorbushina AA, Kort R, Schulte A, Lazarus D, Schnetger B, Brumsack HJ, Broughton WJ, Favet J. 2007. Life in Darwin’s dust – intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century. Environmental Microbiology 9, 2911-2922.
Goudie AS, Middleton NJ. 2001. Saharan desert storms: nature and consequences. Earth-science reviews 56, 179-204.
Gnarpe J, Lundback A, Sundelof B, Gnarpe H. 1992. Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in subjectively healthy individuals. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 24, 161-164.
Griffin DW. 2007. Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implication for human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 20(3), 459-477.
Griffin DW, Kellog CA, Shinn EA. 2001. Dust in
the wind: long range transport of dust in the atmosphere and its implications for global public and ecosystem health. Global Change and Human Health 2, 20-33.
Gu J-D, Ford TE, Mitton DB, Mitchell R. 2000. Microbial degradation of polymeric materials. In: Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook. (Ed. Revie R. W.). 2nd edition p 439-460.
Gyan K, Henry W, Lacaille S, Laloo A, Lamesee-Eubanks C, McKay S, Antoine RM, Monteil M. A. 2005. African dust clouds are associated with increased paediatric asthma accident and emergency admissions on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. International Journal of Biometeorology 49, 371-376.
Hara K, Zhang D. 2012. Bacterial abundance and viability in long-range transported sut. Atmospheric Environment 47, 20-25.
Hardegger D, Nadal D, Bossart W, Altwegg M, Dutly F. 2000. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples by real-time PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods 41, 45-51.
Hopke PK, Cohen DD, Begum BA, Biswas SK, Ni B, Pandit GG, Santoso M, Chung Y-S, Davy P, Markwitz A. 2008. Urban air quality in the Asian region. Science of the Total Environment 404, 103-112.
Howitt ME, Naibu R, Roach TC. 1998. The prevalence of childhood asthma and allergy in Barbados. The Barboados National Asthma and Allergy Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 157, A624.
Howitt ME. 2000. Asthma management in the Carribean-an update. Postgraduate Doctor- Caribbean 16, 86-104.
Ichinose T, Sadakane K, Takano H, Yanagisawa R, Nishikawa M, Mori I, Kawazato H, Yasuda A, Hiyoshi K, Shibamoto T. 2006. Enhancement of mite allergen-induced eosinophil in the murine airway and local cytokine/ chemokine expression by Asian sand dust. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 69, 1571-1585.
Janssen PH. 2006. Identifying the dominant soil bacterial taxa in libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 1719-1728.
Jayantha UK. 2007. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health 36, 43-47.
Jones-López EC, Acuña-Villaorduña C, Ssebidandi M, Gaeddert M, Kubaik RW, Ayakaka I, White LF, Joloba M, Okwera A, Fennelly KP. 2016. Cough aerosols of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the prediction of incident tuberculosis disease in household contacts. Clinical Infectious Diseases 63(1), 10-20.
Joshi SR. 2008. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae). Revista de Biología Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology) 56(3), 1521-1529.
Kashyap S, Sarkar M. 2010. Mycoplasma pneumonia: clinical features and management. Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society 27(2), 75-85.
Kellogg CA, Griffin DW, Garrison VH, Peak KK, Royall N, Smith RR, Shinn EA. 2004. Characterization of aerosolized bacteria and fungi from desert dust events in Mali, West Africa. Aerobiologia 20, 99-110.
King P. 2012. Haemophilus influenzae and the lung (Haemophilus and the lung). Clinical and translational medicine 1, 1-9.
Konstantinidis K. 2014. Do airborne microbes matter for atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation? Environmental microbiology 16, 1482-1484.
Kvale PA. 2006. Chronic cough due to lung tumors: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 129(suppl), 47-53.
Kwaasi AA. 2003. Date palm and sandstorm-borne allergens. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 33, 419-426.
Kwon HJ, Cho SH, Chun Y, Lagarde F, Pershagen G. 2002. Effects of the Asian dust events on daily mortality in Seoul, Korea. Environmental research A 90, 1-5.
Lee JA, Baddock MC, Mbuh MJ, Gill TE. 2012. Geomorphic and land cover characteristics of Aeolian dust sources in West Texas and eastern New Mexico, USA. Aeolian Research 3, 459-466.
Li J, Okin GS, Alvarez L, Epstein H. 2007. Quantitative effects of vegetation cover on wind erosion and soil nutrient loss in a desert grassland of
southern New Mexico, USA. Biogeochemistry 85, 317-332.
Linchevski I, Klmenet E, Nir-Paz R. 2009. Mycoplasma pneumoniae vaccine protective efficacy and adverse reactions: Systemic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine 27, 2437-2446.
Lind K, Lindhardt BO, Schutten HJ, Blom J, Christiansen C. 1984. Serological cross-reactions between M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 20, 1036-1043.
Liu L, He P, Zhang B, Bi J. 2012. Red and green: public perception and air quality information in urban China. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 54, 44-49.
Loens K, Ursi D, Goossens H, Ieven M. 2003. Molecular diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infections. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41, 4915-4923.
Loens K, Beck T, Ursi D, Overdijk M, Sillekens P, Goossens H, Leven M. 2008. Development of real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence based amplification for detection of M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae and Legionella species in respiratory specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46, 185-191.
Ma T, Zhou C, Pei T, Haynie S, Fan J. 2012. Quantitative estimation of urbanization dynamics using time series of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data: A comparative case study from China’s cities. Remote Sensing of Environment 124, 99-107.
Maki LR, Galyan EL, Chang-Chien MM, Caldwell DR. 1974. Ice nucleation induced by Pseudomonas syringae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 28, 456-459.
Mandal SC, Ashok-Kumar CK, Lakshmi SM, Sanghamitra S, Murugesan T, Saha BP, Pal M. 2000. Antitussive effect of Asparagus racemosus root against sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice. Fitoterapia 71, 686- 689.
Martiny JB, Bohannon BJ, Brown JH, Colwell RK, Fuhrman JA, Green JL, Horner-Devine MC, Kane M, Krumins JA, Kuske CR, Morin PJ, Naeem S, Ovreas L, Reysenbach AL, Smith VH, Staley JT. 2006. Microbiological biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 102-112.
Matsumoto H, Tabuena RP, Niimi A, Inoue H, Ito I, Yamaguchi M, Otsuka K, Takeda T, Oguma T, Nakaji H, Tajiri T, Iwata T, Nagasaki T, Jinnai M, Matsuoka H, Mishima M. 2012. Cough triggers and their pathophysiology in patients with prolonged or chronic cough. Allergology International 61, 123-132.
Matus K, Nam K-M, Selin NE, Lamsal LN, Reilly JM, Paltsev S. 2012. Health damages from air pollution in China. Global Environmental Change 22, 55-66.
McTainsh GH, Strong CL. 2007. The role of Aeolian dust in ecosystems. Geomorphology 89, 39-54.
Methods for dust control. 2016. Department of Ecology, State of Washington.
Mohler O, DeMott PJ, Vali G, Levin Z. 2007. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics. Biogeosciences 4, 1059-1071.
Moreno A, Targarona J, Henderiks J, Canals M, Freudenthal T, Meggers H. 2001. Orbital forcing of dust supply to the North Canary Basin over the last 250 kyr. Quaternary Sciwnce Reviews 20, 1327-1339.
Morice AH, Millqvist E, Belvisi MG, Bieksiene K, Birring SS, Chung KF, Dal Negro RW, Dicpinigaitis P, Kantar A, McGarvey LP, Pacheco A, Sakalauskas R, Smith JA. 2014a. Expert opinion on the cough hypersensitivity syndrome in respiratory medicine. European Respiratory Journal 44, 1132-1148.
Morice AH, Jakes AD, Faruqi S, Birring SS, McGarvey L, Canning B, Smith JA, Parker SM, Chung KF, Lai K, Pavord ID, van den Berg J, Song WJ, Millqvist E, Farrell MJ, Mazzone SB, Dicpinigaitis P. 2014b. Chronic cough registry. A worldwide survey of chronic cough: a manifestation of enhanced somatosensory response. European Respiratory Journal 44, 1149-1155.
Moulin C, Lambert CE, Dulac F, Dayan U. 1997. Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature 387, 691-694.
Mozes N, Handley PS, Busscher HJ, Rouxhet PG. 1991. Microbial cell surface analysis. New York: VCH Publishers, Inc. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. Pp. 7-9.
Miyashita N, Fukano H, Yoshida K, Niki Y,
Matsushima T. 2003. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in adult patients with persistent cough. Journal of Medical Microbiology 52, 265-269.
Muhe L. 1994. Child health and acute respiratory infections in Ethiopia: Epidemiology for prevention and control. Ph. D. thesis. Umeå University, Umeå.
Myers J. 2005. Physiology and pathophysiology of cough. In: Supportive Care in Respiratory Disease. (Eds. Ahmedzai SH and Muers MF). Oxford. Oxford University Press. Pp: 341-364.
Nadig PD, Laxmi S. 2005. Study of anti-tussive activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn in guinea pigs. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 49, 243-245.
National Logistic Cell. 2017. Website accessed on March, 26th 2017. http://www.nlc.com.pk/strategic-units/engineering-services/33-projects/211-projects-in-center
Nawaz A, Bano S, Sheikh ZA, Usmanghani K, Ahmad I, Zaidi SF, Zahoor A, Ahmad I. 2014. Evaluation of acute and repeated dose toxicity of the polyherbal formulation linkus syrup in experimental animals. Chinese Medicine 5, 179-189.
Norboo T, Angchuk PT, Yahya M, Kamat SR, Pooley FD, Corrin B, Kerr IH, Bruce N, Ball KP. 1991. Silicosis in a Himalayan village population: role of environmental dust. Thorax 46, 861-863.
Nosál’ová G, Mokrý J, Hassan KM. 2003. Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine
Park JW, Lim YH, Kyung SY, An CH, Lee SP, Jeong SH, Ju YS. 2005. Effects of ambient particulate matter on peak expiratory flow rates and respiratory symptoms of asthmatics during Asian dust periods on Korea. Respirology 10, 470-476.
Pasteur L. 1861. Mémoire sur les corpuscules organisés qui existent dans l’atmosphère: examen de la doctrine des générations spontanées. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 4e série, 5-68.
Peccia J, Hospodsky D, Bibby K. 2011. New directions: a revolution in DNA sequencing now allows for the meaningful integration of biology with aerosol science. Atmospheric Environment 45, 1896-1897.
Phenix A, Burnstock A. 1990. The deposition of dirt: a review of the literature, with scanning electron microscope studies of dirt on selected paintings. In: Dirts and pictures separated. Papers given at a conference held jointly by UKIC and the Tate Gallery. (Ed. V. Todd). London, p 11-18.
Prospero JM. 1999. Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96, 3396-3403.
Prospero JM, Lamb PJ. 2003. African droughts and dust transport to the Carribean: climate change implication. Science 302, 1024-1027.
Prospero JM, Blades E, Mathison G, Naidu R. 2005. Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Carribean with soil dust.
Aerobiologia 21, 1-19.
Propsero JM, Collard FX, Molinié J, Jeannot A. 2014. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Carribean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 28, 757-773.
Rohde RA, Muller RA. 2015. Air pollution in China: mapping of concentrations and sources. PLoS One 10, 1-14.
Roldan M, Clavero E, Hernandez-Marine M. 2003. Aerophytic biofilms in dim habitats. In: Molecular biology and cultural heritage. (Ed. Saiz-Jaminez C). Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, p 163-169.
Rubin EE, Quennec P, McDonald JC. 1993. Infections due to parainfluenza virus type 4 in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases 17, 998-1002.
Saiyed HN, Sharma YK, Sadhu HG, Norboo T, Patel PD, Patel TS, Venkaiah K, Kashyap SK. 1991. Non-occupational pneumoconicosis at high altitude villages in central Ladakh. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48, 825-829.
Sattler B, Puxbaum H, Psenner R. 2001. Bacterial growth in supercooled cloud droplets. Geophysiological Research Letters 28, 239-242.
Savini V, Favaro M, Fontana C, Consilvio NP, Manna A, Talia M, Catavitello C, Balbinot A, Febbo F, Bonaventura GD, Giuseppe ND, D’Antonio D. 2008. A case of pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Journal of Medical Microbiology 57, 674-675.
Shao Y, Wyrwoll K-H, Chapell A, Huang J, Li Z, McTainsh, Mikami M, Tanaka TY, Wang X, Yoon D. 2011. Dust cycle: an emerging core theme in Earth system science. Aeolian Research 2, 181-204.
Smith AJ, Ashurst HL, Jack S, Woodcock AA, Earis JE. 2006. The description of cough sounds by healthcare professionals. Cough 2(1), 1-9.
Smith DJ, Griffin DW, Schuerger AC. 2010. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean. Aerobiologia 26, 35-46.
Smith DJ, Timonen HJ, Jafe DA, Griffin DW, Birmele MN, Perry KD, Ward PD, Roberts MS. 2013. Intercontinental dispersal of bacteria and archaea by transpacific winds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79, 1-6.
Song WJ, Kim JY, Jo EJ, Lee SE, Kim MH, Yang MS, Kang HR, Park HW, Chang YS, Min KU, Cho SH. 2014a. Capsaicin cough sensitivity is related to the older female predominant feature in chronic cough patients. Allergy Asthma and Immunology Research 6, 401-408.
Song WJ, Chang YS, Morice AH. 2014b. Changing the paradigm for cough: does ‘cough hypersensitivity’ aid our understanding? Asia Pacific Allergy 4, 3-13.
Song W-J, Faruqi S, Klaewsongkram J, Lee S-E, Chang Y-S. 2015. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology. Asia Pacific Allergy 5, 136-144.
Srinath K, Murugesan T, Kumar CA, Suba V, Das AK, Sinha S, Arunachalam G, Manikandan L. 2002. Effect of Trichodesma indicum extract on cough reflex induced by sulphur dioxide in mice. Phytomedicine 9, 75-77.
Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuasa K, Sudo K, Aburada M, Hosoya E. 1984. Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constitutents, (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol. Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics 7, 836-848.
Tarnowski AL, McNamar CJ, Bearce KA, Mitchell R. 2004. Sticky microbes and dust on objects in historic houses. In: AIC objects speciality group. Volume 11. (Eds. Greene V. and Griffin P.). Pp: 11-28.
Taylor JP, Wilson B, Mills MS, Burns RG. 2002. Comparison of microbial numbers and enzymatic activities in surface soils and subsoils using various techniques. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34, 387-401.
Tegen I, Werner M, Harrison SP, Kohfelf KE. 2004. Relative importance of climate and land use in determining present and future global soil dust emission. Geophysical Research Letters 31, 1-4.
Tully JG, Rose DL, Whitcomb RF, Wenzel RP. 1979. Enhanced isolation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae from throat washings with a newly-modified culture medium. Journal of Infectious Diseases 139, 478-482.
Tyndall J. 1882. Essays on the floating-matter of the air. D. Appleton and Company, New York.
Uchiyama I. 2013. Chronic health effects of inhalation of dust or sludge. Special feature: comprehensive CME program on disaster medicine part 2; research and reviews. Japan Medical Association Journal 56(2), 91-95.
Varnam A. 2000. Environmental microbiology. Washington, D. C. ASM Press, p 10-11.
Veillette M, Knibbs LD, Pelletier A, Charlois R, Lecours PB, He C, Morawska L, Duchaine C. 2013. Microbial contents of vacuum cleaner bag dust and emitted bioaerosols and their implications for human exposure indoors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79(20), 6331-6336.
Wainwright CE, France MW, O’Rourke P, Anuj S, Kidd TJ, Nissen MD, Sloots TP, Coulter C, Ristovski Z, Hargraves M, Rose BR, Harbour C, Bell SC, Fennelly KP. 2009. Cough-generated aerosols of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram negative bacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 64, 926-931.
Wee B, Browning J, Adams A, Benson D, Howard P, Klepping G, Molassiotis A, Taylor D. 2012. Management of chronic cough in patients receiving palliative care: review of evidence and recommendations by a task group of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland. Palliative Medicine 26, 780-787.
Womack AM, Bohannan BJ, Green JL. 2010. Biodiversity and biogeography of the atmosphere. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B. Biological Sciences 365, 3645-3653.
Wong E. 2013. Air pollution linked to 1.2 million premature deaths in China. 2013. (Available online: accessed on November 18, 2015).
Worrall G. 2008. Acute bronchitis. Canadian Family Physician 54, 238-239.
Xu XZ, Cai XG, Man XS, Yang PY, Yang JF, Jing SL, He JH, Si WY. 1993. A study of siliceous pneumoconiosis in the desert area of Sunan Country, Gansu Province, China. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 6, 217-222.
Yan B, Li J, Xiao N, Qi Y, Fu G, Liu G, Qiao M. 2016. Urban-development-induced changes in the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial community in Beijing. Scientific Reports 6, 1-9.
Yoon HY, Brimblecombe P. 2000. Contribution of dust at floor level to particle deposit within the Sainsbury Center for Visual Arts. Studies in Conservation 45, 127-137.
Yooseph S, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Tenney A, McQuaid J, Williamson S, Thiagarajan M, Brami D, Zeigler-Allen L, Hoffman J, Goll JB, Fadrosh D, Glass J, Adams MD, Friedman R, Venter JC. 2013. A metagenomic framework for the study of airborne microbial communities. PLoS One 8(12), 1-13.
Yuan Y, Liu S, Castro R, Pan X. 2012. PM2.5 monitoring and mitigation in the cities of China. Environmental Science and Technology 46, 3627-3628.
Zaman S, Jalil F, Karlberg J. 1993. Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan VI. Morbidity. Acta Paediatrica 82(s391), 63-78.
Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. 2005. The effect of particulate air pollution on emergency admissions for myocardial infarction: a multicity case-cross-over analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 113, 978-982.
Zhang XY, Gong SL, Zhao TL, Arimoto R, Wang YQ, Zhou ZJ. 2003. Sources of Asian dust and role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 2271.
Zhang D, Liu J, Li B. 2014. Tackling air pollution in China-what do we learn from the great smog of 1950s in London. Sustainability 6, 5322-5338.
Urbanization in Lahore leads to Respiratory Issues – A Microbiological Perspective.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(3), 39-58, March 2021.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)