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In vivo antinociceptive potential of ethanolic extract of leave, catkin and cone of Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

By: Nagina, Muhammad Ibrar

Key Words: Pain, Inflammatory mediators, Acetic acid induced writhing, Extract.

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(4), 256-261, October 2018.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.4.256-261

Certification: ijb 2018 0005 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Alnusnitida (Spach.) Endl. (Betulaceae) is used to cure pain and inflammation in traditional medicine. In present study acetic acid induced writhing assay in mice was used to validate its traditional use as pain reliever. The extracts at all doses showed highly significant (p<0.001) percent reduction in pain compared to control. The crude ethanolic extracts (70%) of leave showed highly significant (p<0.001) and highest pain reduction of 77.87±1.01% and 59.44±1.70% at 200 and 100mg/kg doses respectively, followed by 52.98±1.01% and 42.84±1.70% reduction by cone extract at 200 and 100mg/kg doses respectively. While, 36.84±1.66% and 35.01±1.18% reductions were shown by the leave and cone extracts respectively at dose of 50mg/kg each. The catkin extract showed 15.19±2.83%, 27.17±1.17% and 33.62±1.59% reduction in pain at doses 50, 100 and 200mg/kg respectively. Our results justified the folkloric use of the leave of A. nitida as pain reliever and also revealed the pain reducing potency of catkin and cone extracts.

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In vivo antinociceptive potential of ethanolic extract of leave, catkin and cone of Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl.

Afsar T, Khan MR, Razak S, Ullah S, Mirza B. 2015. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker and its phytochemical analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15(1), 136.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/s12906-015-0658-8

Ahmed S, Sultana M, Hasan MMU, Azhar I. 2011. Analgesic and antiemetic activity of Cleome viscosa L. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43, 119-122.

https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.26544.25602

Chiu YJ, Huang TH, Chiu CS, Lu TC, Chen YW, Peng WH, Chen CY.  2012. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2012.

http://dx.doi.org/10. 1155/2012/508137

Choi SE, Park KH, Jeong MS, Kim HH, Lee DI, Joo SS, Lee CS, Bang H, Choi YW, Lee MK, Seo SJ, Lee MW. 2011. Effect of Alnus japonica extract on a model of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136(3), 406-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.024

Dellai A, Mansour HB, Clary Laroche A, Deghrigue M, Bouraoui A. 2012. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis. Cancer Cell International 12(1), 15.

https://doi.org/10.1186 /1475-2867-12-15

Ferdous M, Rouf R, Shilpi JA, Uddin SJ. 2008. Anti-nociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficusra cemosa Lin. (Moraceae). Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 8(1), 93-96.

http://dx. doi.org/10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.1.093

Hazrat A, Nisar M, Shah J, Ahmad S. 2011. Ethnobotanical study of some elite plants belonging to Dir, Kohistan valley, Khyberpukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Botany 43(2), 787-795.

Ilyas M, Qureshi R, Shinwari ZK, Arshad M, Mirza SN, ZiaUl-Haq. 2013. Some ethnoecological aspects of the plants of Qalagai hills, Kabal valley, Swat, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 15, 801–810.

Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AH, Khan MA, Khan I, Ashraf N. 2011.  Antinociceptive activity of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum: Attenuation of both peripheral and central pain mediators. Phytotherapy Research 25(7), 1024-1030.

https:// doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3369

Khan M, Khan H, Khan S, Mahmood T, Khan P, Jabar. 2009. A. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Physalis minima Linn. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 24(3), 632-637.

Kumar A, Agarwal K, Maurya AK, Shanker K, Bushra U, Tandon S, Bawankule DU. 2015. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. Pharmacognosy Magazine 11(42), 217-224.

http://dx. doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.157743

Kumar M, Shete A, Akbar Z. 2010. A Review on Analgesic: From Natural Sources. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 1, 95-100.

Kuo CH, Lee CW, Lai YC, Lee SS. 2008. Determination of Oregonin in Alnus plants and biological samples by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 47, 195–200.

https;//dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2007. 12.012

Laurence DR, Benneth PN, Brown MJ. 1997. Clinical Pharmacology. 8th edn. Edinburgh: ChurchHill Livingstone.

Mohamed GA, Ibrahim SRM, Elkhayat ES, Ross SA, Sayed HM, El-Moghazy SAM, El-Shanawany MA. 2015. Blepharisides A and B, new flavonol glycosides from Blepharisciliaris growing in Saudi Arabia. Phytochemistry Letters 11, 177 182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2014.12.018

Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA. 1991. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacological reviews 43, 109–142.

Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Hamidian M. 2004. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Glaucium grandiflorum. Fitoterapia 75(2), 123-29.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.fitote.2003.12.007

Muhammad N, Saeed M, Khan H. 2012. Antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12, 59. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-59

Mulla WA, More SD, Jamge SB, Pawar AM, Kazi MS, Varde MR. 2010.Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of roots Adhatodav asica Linn. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research 2(2), 1364–1368.

Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. 2010. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceytical Sciences 23(4), 385-392.

Omoigui S. 2007. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3—inflammatory profile of pain syndromes. Medical hypotheses 69(6), 1169–1178.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy. 2007.06.033

O’Rourke C, Byres M, Delazar A, Kumarasamy Y, Nahar L, Stewart F, Sarker SD. 2005. Hirsutanonol, oregonin and genkwanin from the seeds of Alnusglutinosa (Betulaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 33(7), 749–752.

http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.bse.2004.10.005

Raquibul-Hasan SM, Hossain MM, Akhtar R, Jamila M, Mazumder MEH, Alam MA. 2010. Analgesic Activity of the Different Fractions of the Aerial Parts of Commenila benghalensis Linn. International Journal of Pharmacology 6, 63-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2010.63.67 

Ren X, He T, Chang Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Bai S, Wang L, Shen M, She G. 2017. The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities. Molecules 22(8), 1383.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081383

Sajid M, Khan MR, Shah SA, Majid M, Ismail H, Maryam S, Batool R, Younis T. 2017. Investigationson anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Alnus nitida Spach (Endl). stem bark in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 198, 407–416.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.

Sati SC, Sati N, Sati OP. 2011. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus. Pharmacognosy Review 5(10), 174-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.91115

Sharma A, Bhatia S, Kharya MD, Gajbhiye V, Ganesh N, Namdeo AG, Mahadik KR. 2010. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswelli aserrata.  International Journal of Phytomedicine 2(1), 94-99.

Shaw K, Roy S, Wilson B. 2014. Alnusnitida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

www.dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20143.RLTS.T194659A23

Afsar T, Khan MR, Razak S, Ullah S, Mirza B. 2015. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker and its phytochemical analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15(1), 136.

http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1186/s12906-015-0658-8

Ahmed S, Sultana M, Hasan MMU, Azhar I. 2011. Analgesic and antiemetic activity of Cleome viscosa L. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43, 119-122.

https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.26544.25602

Chiu YJ, Huang TH, Chiu CS, Lu TC, Chen YW, Peng WH, Chen CY.  2012. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2012.

http://dx.doi.org/10. 1155/2012/508137

Choi SE, Park KH, Jeong MS, Kim HH, Lee DI, Joo SS, Lee CS, Bang H, Choi YW, Lee MK, Seo SJ, Lee MW. 2011. Effect of Alnus japonica extract on a model of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 136(3), 406-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.024

Dellai A, Mansour HB, Clary Laroche A, Deghrigue M, Bouraoui A. 2012. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis. Cancer Cell International 12(1), 15.

https://doi.org/10.1186 /1475-2867-12-15

Ferdous M, Rouf R, Shilpi JA, Uddin SJ. 2008. Anti-nociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficusra cemosa Lin. (Moraceae). Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 8(1), 93-96.

http://dx. doi.org/10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.1.093

Hazrat A, Nisar M, Shah J, Ahmad S. 2011. Ethnobotanical study of some elite plants belonging to Dir, Kohistan valley, Khyberpukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Botany 43(2), 787-795.

Ilyas M, Qureshi R, Shinwari ZK, Arshad M, Mirza SN, ZiaUl-Haq. 2013. Some ethnoecological aspects of the plants of Qalagai hills, Kabal valley, Swat, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 15, 801–810.

Khan H, Saeed M, Gilani AH, Khan MA, Khan I, Ashraf N. 2011.  Antinociceptive activity of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum: Attenuation of both peripheral and central pain mediators. Phytotherapy Research 25(7), 1024-1030.

https:// doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3369

Khan M, Khan H, Khan S, Mahmood T, Khan P, Jabar. 2009. A. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Physalis minima Linn. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 24(3), 632-637.

Kumar A, Agarwal K, Maurya AK, Shanker K, Bushra U, Tandon S, Bawankule DU. 2015. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. Pharmacognosy Magazine 11(42), 217-224.

http://dx. doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.157743

Kumar M, Shete A, Akbar Z. 2010. A Review on Analgesic: From Natural Sources. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 1, 95-100.

Kuo CH, Lee CW, Lai YC, Lee SS. 2008. Determination of Oregonin in Alnus plants and biological samples by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 47, 195–200.

https;//dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2007. 12.012

Laurence DR, Benneth PN, Brown MJ. 1997. Clinical Pharmacology. 8th edn. Edinburgh: ChurchHill Livingstone.

Mohamed GA, Ibrahim SRM, Elkhayat ES, Ross SA, Sayed HM, El-Moghazy SAM, El-Shanawany MA. 2015. Blepharisides A and B, new flavonol glycosides from Blepharisciliaris growing in Saudi Arabia. Phytochemistry Letters 11, 177 182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytol.2014.12.018

Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA. 1991. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacological reviews 43, 109–142.

Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Hamidian M. 2004. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Glaucium grandiflorum. Fitoterapia 75(2), 123-29.

https://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.fitote.2003.12.007

Muhammad N, Saeed M, Khan H. 2012. Antipyretic, analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Viola betonicifolia whole plant. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12, 59. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-59

Mulla WA, More SD, Jamge SB, Pawar AM, Kazi MS, Varde MR. 2010.Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of roots Adhatodav asica Linn. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research 2(2), 1364–1368.

Okokon JE, Nwafor PA. 2010. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceytical Sciences 23(4), 385-392.

Omoigui S. 2007. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3—inflammatory profile of pain syndromes. Medical hypotheses 69(6), 1169–1178.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy. 2007.06.033

O’Rourke C, Byres M, Delazar A, Kumarasamy Y, Nahar L, Stewart F, Sarker SD. 2005. Hirsutanonol, oregonin and genkwanin from the seeds of Alnusglutinosa (Betulaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 33(7), 749–752.

http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.bse.2004.10.005

Raquibul-Hasan SM, Hossain MM, Akhtar R, Jamila M, Mazumder MEH, Alam MA. 2010. Analgesic Activity of the Different Fractions of the Aerial Parts of Commenila benghalensis Linn. International Journal of Pharmacology 6, 63-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2010.63.67 

Ren X, He T, Chang Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Bai S, Wang L, Shen M, She G. 2017. The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities. Molecules 22(8), 1383.

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081383

Sajid M, Khan MR, Shah SA, Majid M, Ismail H, Maryam S, Batool R, Younis T. 2017. Investigationson anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Alnus nitida Spach (Endl). stem bark in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 198, 407–416.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.

Sati SC, Sati N, Sati OP. 2011. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus. Pharmacognosy Review 5(10), 174-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.91115

Sharma A, Bhatia S, Kharya MD, Gajbhiye V, Ganesh N, Namdeo AG, Mahadik KR. 2010. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different fractions of Boswelli aserrata.  International Journal of Phytomedicine 2(1), 94-99.

Shaw K, Roy S, Wilson B. 2014. Alnusnitida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

www.dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20143.RLTS.T194659A23

Nagina, Muhammad Ibrar.
In vivo antinociceptive potential of ethanolic extract of leave, catkin and cone of Alnus nitida (Spach.) Endl..
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(4), 256-261, October 2018.
https://innspub.net/ijb/vivo-antinociceptive-potential-ethanolic-extract-leave-catkin-cone-alnus-nitida-spach-endl/
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