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Fruit spectrum of Niangoloko Natural Reserve in Southwest Burkina Faso

By: Paulin Ouoba, Jérôme T. Yameogo

Key Words: savanna, Tropical Climate, Fruits, Maturation, Dissemination

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(1), 91-103, July 2018.

Certification: jbes 2018 0091 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Plant communities can be characterized by their fruit spectrum, which indicates the frequency of different types of fruit. The fruits of 354 species, representing the total floristic richness of the Niangoloko natural reserve, southwest Burkina Faso, were described and classified by type of fruit, which helped to establish the fruit spectrum of this reserve. The different fruits harvested were described and classified according to three main criteria: the consistency of fruit at maturity, number of carpels, and dehiscence (or not) of fruits. The fruit spectrum comprised seven main types of fruit: capsules (24.86%), achenes (18.36%),pods (16.38%), berries (16.10%), caryopses (9.61%), drupes (10.17%), and follicles (4.52%). Dry fruits were the dominant fruit group with 73.73% of total fruit, and 26.27% of plants had fleshy fruits. Dry dehiscent and indehiscent fruits represented 45.76% and 27.97% of the total fruit, respectively. The fruit spectrum of the natural reserve is characteristic of a tropical biseasonal climate; dry fruits need the drying atmosphere of the dry season for maturation or dehiscence and the majority of fleshy fruits mature in the rainy season when the air humidity is very high. For diaspore dispersal, anemochory was the most important mode of dissemination in the dry fruits group, while zoochory was the predominant means of dispersal for fleshy fruits. Finally, we show that different classes of diasporas are not subject to environmental degradation to the same degree in the natural reserve and, thus, some species require special attention due to the difficulties they will face spreading their diasporas if degradation of the natural reserve continues.

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Fruit spectrum of Niangoloko Natural Reserve in Southwest Burkina Faso

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Paulin Ouoba, Jérôme T. Yameogo.
Fruit spectrum of Niangoloko Natural Reserve in Southwest Burkina Faso.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(1), 91-103, July 2018.
https://innspub.net/jbes/fruit-spectrum-niangoloko-natural-reserve-southwest-burkina-faso/
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