International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

By: Nisar Muhammad, Mohammad Nafees

Key Words: Potential toxic elements; health risk assessment; geo-chemical analysis; geo-statistics; Gadoon Amazai industrial estate.

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(6), 124-138, June 2018.

Certification: jbes 2018 0063 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The current study was conducted to identify potential toxic elements (PTEs) concentrations and associated health risk assessment (HRA) in adjacent agricultural soil of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate (GAIE) irrigated with industrial wastewater from last three decades. To achieve the objectives, 32 target and 21 reference soil samples were collected and analyzed for PTEs concentration. Geo-chemical results revealed that all the nine PTEs in target samples were above the permissible limits of different international standards and reference samples, indicating that industrial wastewater is causing potential ecological risk to target agriculture soil. Geo-statistical results revealed that geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI) were at significant levels and can cause potential ecological risks. Health risk assessment revealed that hazard quotient ingestion (HQ Ing) in children is the main source of non-carcinogenic risk and can cause significant health risks. This HQ Ing for children contributes to 76% of the total hazard index (HI). The study recommends sustainable treatment of the contaminated soil. Furthermore, residents of the study area should be made aware of the ecological risks associated with the wastewater irrigation and contaminated agricultural soil.

| Views 29 |

Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

Abrahim G, Parker R. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environmental monitoring and assessment 136, 227-238.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9678-2

Adakole J, Abolude D. 2009. Studies on effluent characteristics of a metal finishing company, Zaria–Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 1, 54-57.

Ahdy HH, Khaled A. 2009. Heavy metals contamination in sediments of the western part of Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3, 3330-3336.

Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Ashfaq A, Ashraf M, Yasmin S. 2014. Assessment of heavy metal and metalloid levels in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil of Sargodha, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 46, 1805-1810.

Aiman U, Mahmood A, Waheed S, Malik RN. 2016. Enrichment, geo-accumulation and risk surveillance of toxic metals for different environmental compartments from Mehmood Booti dumping site, Lahore city, Pakistan. Chemosphere 144, 2229-2237.

Ali MU, Liu G, Yousaf B, Abbas Q, Ullah H, Munir MAM, Fu B. 2017. Pollution characteristics and human health risks of potentially (eco) toxic elements (PTEs) in road dust from metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Chemosphere 181, 111-121.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.061

Amin B, Ismail A, Arshad A, Yap CK, Kamarudin MS. 2009. Anthropogenic impacts on heavy metal concentrations in the coastal sediments of Dumai, Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 148, 291-305.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0159-z

Atgin RS, El-Agha O, Zararsız A, Kocataş A, Parlak H, Tuncel G. 2000. Investigation of the sediment pollution in Izmir Bay: trace elements. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 55, 1151-1164.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(00)00231-7

Bhattacharya A, Routh J, Jacks G, Bhattacharya P, Mörth M. 2006. Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Västerbotten district (northern Sweden). Applied Geochemistry 21, 1760-1780.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.06.011

Brewer GJ2010. Copper toxicity in the general population, Elsevier.

Caeiro S, Costa MH, Ramos T, Fernandes F, Silveira N, Coimbra A, Medeiros G, Painho M. 2005. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: an index analysis approach. Ecological indicators 5, 151-169.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.02.001

Cao H-c, Luan Z-q, Zhang X-l. 2009. Potential ecological risk of cadmium, lead and arsenic in agricultural black soil in Jilin Province, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 23, 57-64.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-007-0195-1

Çevik F, Göksu MZL, Derici OB, Fındık Ö. 2009. An assessment of metal pollution in surface sediments of Seyhan dam by using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and statistical analyses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 152, 309.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0317-3

Chen X, Gan C, Zhu G, Jin T. 2013. Benchmark dose for estimation of cadmium reference level for osteoporosis in a Chinese female population. Food and chemical toxicology 55, 592-595.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.01.044

Chen X, Lu X, Yang G. 2012. Sources identification of heavy metals in urban topsoil from inside the Xi’an Second Ringroad, NW China using multivariate statistical methods. Catena 98, 73-78.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.06.007

Cheng J-l, Zhou S, Zhu Y-w. 2007. Assessment and mapping of environmental quality in agricultural soils of Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19, 50-54.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60008-4

DCR. 2017. Sixth Census Report of Pakistan, Department of statistics Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Government of Pakistan.

EPA A. 1989. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A), EPA/540/1-89/002.

EPA U. 1996. Soil screening guidance technical background document, office of solid waste and emergency response, EPA/540/R-95/128.

ESAG. 2009. Environmental Site Assessment Guideline; DB11/T656–2009; Adelaide Airport: Adelaide, Australia,

Fagbote EO, Olanipekun EO. 2010. Evaluation of the status of heavy metal pollution of soil and plant (Chromolaena odorata) of Agbabu Bitumen Deposit Area, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 5, 241-248.

Fytianos K, Katsianis G, Triantafyllou P, Zachariadis G. 2001. Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 67, 0423-0430.

http://dx.doi:10.1007/s001280141

Hakanson L. 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research 14, 975-1001.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8

Harikumar P, Nasir U, Rahman MM. 2009. Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 6, 225-232. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03327626

Hernández-Bonilla D, Escamilla-Núñez C, Mergler D, Rodríguez-Dozal S, Cortez-Lugo M, Montes S, Tristán-López L, Catalán-Vázquez M, Schilmann A, Riojas-Rodriguez H. 2016. Effects of manganese exposure on visuoperception and visual memory in schoolchildren. Neurotoxicology 57, 230-240.

Ho HH, Swennen R, Van Damme A. 2010. Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cua Ong Harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geologica belgica.

Hussain A, Alamzeb S, Begum S. 2013. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food chemistry 136, 1515-1523.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.058

Hussain R, Khattak SA, Shah MT, Ali L. 2015. Multistatistical approaches for environmental geochemical assessment of pollutants in soils of Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate, Pakistan. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15, 1119-1129.

Hutchison D, Jeffrey P2012. Chemical methods of rock analysis, Elsevier.

Ipeaiyeda AR, Onianwa PC. 2011. Pollution effect of food and beverages effluents on the Alaro river in Ibadan City, Nigeria. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 25,

http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v25i3.68587

Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary toxicology 7, 60-72.

Jamali M, Kazi T, Arain M, Afridi H, Jalbani N, Memon A. 2007. Heavy metal contents of vegetables grown in soil, irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Pakistan, using ultrasonic‐assisted pseudo‐digestion. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 193, 218-228.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2007.00261.x

Khan MU, Malik RN, Muhammad S. 2013. Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan. Chemosphere 93, 2230-2238.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.067

Khan S, Ahmad I, Shah MT, Rehman S, Khaliq A. 2009. Use of constructed wetland for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Journal of environmental management 90, 3451-3457.

Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, ShahMT. 2010. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 73, 1820-1827.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.08.016

Lăcătuşu R. 1998. Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals, in “Land Information Systems. Developments for planning the sustainable use of land resources”, European Soil Bureau, EUR 17729,

Li HH, Chen LJ, Yu L, Guo ZB, Shan CQ, Lin JQ, Gu YG, Yang ZB, Yang YX, Shao JR. 2017. Pollution characteristics and risk assessment of human exposure to oral bioaccessibility of heavy metals via urban street dusts from different functional areas in Chengdu, China. Science of the Total Environment 586, 1076-1084.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.092

Li Z, Ma Z, van der Kuijp TJ, Yuan Z, Huang L. 2014. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the total environment 468, 843-853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.090

Lim HS, Lee JS, Chon HT, Sager M. 2008. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au–Ag mine in Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 96, 223-230.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2007.04.008

Liu J, Zhuo Z, Sun S, Ning X, Zhao S, Xie W, Wang Y, Zheng L, Huang R, Li B. 2015. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Six Municipal Sludges from Guangzhou and Their Potential Ecological Risk Assessment for Agricultural Land Use. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24,

Lokeshwari H, Chandrappa G. 2006. Heavy Metals Content in Water, Water Hyacinth and Sediments of Lalbagh Tank, Bangalore(India). Journal of environmental science & engineering 48, 183-188.

Lu X, Wang L, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D. 2010. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. Journal of hazardous materials 173, 744-749.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.001

Ma L, Sun J, Yang Z, Wang L. 2015. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China. Environmental monitoring and assessment 187, 731.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4966-8

Mahmood A, Malik RN. 2014. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 7, 91-99.

Malik RN, Husain SZ, Nazir I. 2010. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 42, 291-301.

Micó C, Recatalá L, Peris M, Sánchez J. 2006. Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere 65, 863-872.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.016

Mohmand J, Eqani SAMAS, Fasola M, Alamdar A, Mustafa I, Ali N, Liu L, Peng S, Shen H. 2015. Human exposure to toxic metals via contaminated dust: Bio-accumulation trends and their potential risk estimation. Chemosphere 132, 142-151.

Morais S, e Costa FG, de Lourdes Pereira M2012. Heavy metals and human health. Environmental Health-Emerging Issues and Practice, InTech.

Muhammad S, Shah MT, Khan S. 2011. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb–Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchemical Journal 99, 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2011.03.012

Muller G. 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.050

Sutherland R. 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental geology 39, 611-627.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002540050473

Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Johansen JD. 2007. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population–prevalence and main findings. Contact dermatitis 57, 287-299.

http://dx.doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01220.x

Tomlinson D, Wilson J, Harris C, Jeffrey D. 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer meeresuntersuchungen 33, 566.

USEPA. 1986. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual; EPA/540/1–86; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 1997. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Exposure Factors Handbook; PA/600/P-95/002F. EPA; Office of Research and Development: Washington, DC, USA).

USEPA. 2000. US Department of Energy. RAIS: Risk Assessment Information System; US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2001a. United States Environmental Protection, Agency . Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00-002B; National Center for Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2001b. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00-002B; National Center for

Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2001c. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume III—Part A, Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment; EPA540-R-02-002; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA. .

USEPA. 2001d. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites; OSWER 9355.4-24; Office of solid waste and emergency response: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2002. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00e002B; National Center for Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

Vilahur N, Vahter M, Broberg K. 2015. The epigenetic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure. Current environmental health reports 2, 195-203.

http://dx.doi10.1007/s40572-015-0049-9

Wang Y, Qiao M, Liu Y, Zhu Y. 2012. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, 690-698.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60833-4

Wei Xin L, ZHANG XX, Bing W, Shi-Lei S, Yan Song C, Wen-Yang P, Da Yong Z, CHENG SP. 2008. A comparative analysis of environmental

quality assessment methods for heavy metal-contaminated soils1. Pedosphere 18, 344-352.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(08)60024-7

Wei B, Yang L. 2010. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchemical Journal 94, 99-107.

Wei X, Gao B, Wang P, Zhou H, Lu J. 2015. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 112, 186-192.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.11.005

WHO. 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations, World Health Organization.

Yang QW, Xu Y, Liu SJ, He JF, Long FY. 2011a. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 74, 1664-1669.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.006

Yang Z, Lu W, Long Y, Bao X, Yang Q. 2011b. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108, 27-38.

Yu L, Xin G, Gang W, ZHANG Q, Qiong S, Guoju X. 2008. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China. Journal of environmental sciences 20, 607-612.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62101-4

Zarei MH, Hosseini Shirazi SF, Aghvami M, Salimi A, Pourahmad J. 2018. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes. Toxicology mechanisms and methods 28, 79-86.

Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Science of the Total Environment 408, 726-733.

Nisar Muhammad, Mohammad Nafees.
Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(6), 124-138, June 2018.
https://innspub.net/jbes/geo-chemical-investigation-health-risk-assessment-potential-toxic-elements-industrial-wastewater-irrigated-soil-geo-statistical-approach-2/
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update