International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

By: Nisar Muhammad, Mohammad Nafees

Key Words: Potential toxic elements, Health risk assessment, Geo-chemical analysis, Geo-statistics, Gadoon Amazai industrial estate

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(5), 367-380, May 2018.

Certification: jbes 2018 0051 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The current study was conducted to identify potential toxic elements (PTEs) concentrations and associated health risk assessment (HRA) in adjacent agricultural soil of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate (GAIE) irrigated with industrial wastewater from last three decades. To achieve the objectives, 32 target and 21 reference soil samples were collected and analyzed for PTEs concentration. Geo-chemical results revealed that all the nine PTEs in target samples were above the permissible limits of different international standards and reference samples, indicating that industrial wastewater is causing potential ecological risk to target agriculture soil. Geo-statistical results revealed that geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI) were at significant levels and can cause potential ecological risks. Health risk assessment revealed that hazard quotient ingestion (HQ Ing) in children is the main source of non-carcinogenic risk and can cause significant health risks. This HQ Ing for children contributes to 76% of the total hazard index (HI). The study recommends sustainable treatment of the contaminated soil. Furthermore, residents of the study area should be made aware of the ecological risks associated with the wastewater irrigation and contaminated agricultural soil.

| Views 23 |

Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

Micó C, Recatalá L, Peris M, Sánchez J. 2006. Assessing heavy metal sources in agricultural soils of an European Mediterranean area by multivariate analysis. Chemosphere 65, 863-872.

Yu L, Xin G, Gang W, Zhang Q, Qiong S, Guoju X. 2008. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China. Journal of environmental sciences 20, 607-612.

Ma L, Sun J, Yang Z, Wang L. 2015. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187, 731.

Nagajyoti P, Lee K, Sreekanth T. 2010. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters 8, 199-216.

Li Z, Ma Z, van der Kuijp TJ, Yuan Z, Huang L. 2014. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 468, 843-853.

Jaishankar M, Tseten T, Anbalagan N, Mathew BB, Beeregowda KN. 2014. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 7, 60-72.

USEPA. 1986. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual; EPA/540/1–86; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.

Morais S, e Costa FG, de Lourdes Pereira M. 2012. Heavy metals and human health. Environmental Health-Emerging Issues and Practice, InTech.

Hernández-Bonilla D, Escamilla-Núñez C, Mergler D, Rodríguez-Dozal S, Cortez-Lugo M, Montes S, Tristán-López L, Catalán-Vázquez M, Schilmann A, Riojas-Rodriguez H. 2016. Effects of manganese exposure on visuoperception and visual memory in Schoolchildren. Neurotoxicology 57, 230-240.

Zarei MH, Hosseini Shirazi SF, Aghvami M, Salimi A, Pourahmad J. 2018. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of nickel on human blood lymphocytes. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 28, 79-86.

Vilahur N, Vahter M, Broberg K. 2015. The epigenetic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure. Current Environmental Health Reports 2, 195-203.

Singh KP, Mohan D, Sinha S, Dalwani R. 2004. Impact assessment of treated/untreated wastewater toxicants discharged by sewage treatment plants on health, agricultural, and environmental quality in the wastewater disposal area. Chemosphere 55, 227-255.

Ipeaiyeda AR, Onianwa PC. 2011. Pollution effect of food and beverages effluents on the Alaro river in Ibadan City, Nigeria. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 25,

Brewer GJ. 2010. Copper toxicity in the general population, Elsevier.

Wang Y, Qiao M, Liu Y, Zhu Y. 2012. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, 690-698.

Thyssen JP, Linneberg A, Menné T, Johansen JD. 2007. The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population–prevalence and main findings. Contact Dermatitis 57, 287-299.

Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Ashfaq A, Ashraf M, Yasmin S. 2014. Assessment of heavy metal and metalloid levels in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil of Sargodha, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 46, 1805-1810.

Chen X, Gan C, Zhu G, Jin T. 2013. Benchmark dose for estimation of cadmium reference level for osteoporosis in a Chinese female population. Food and Chemical Toxicology 55, 592-595.

Lăcătuşu R. 1998. Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals, in “Land Information Systems. Developments for planning the sustainable use of land resources”, European Soil Bureau, EUR 17729,

Atgin RS, El-Agha O, Zararsız A, Kocataş A, Parlak H, Tuncel G. 2000. Investigation of the sediment pollution in Izmir Bay: trace elements. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy  55, 1151-1164.

Ho HH, Swennen R, Van Damme A. 2010. Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine sediments near Cua Ong Harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geologica belgica

Muller G. 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River.

Çevik F, Göksu MZL, Derici OB, Fındık Ö. 2009. An assessment of metal pollution in surface sediments of Seyhan dam by using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and statistical analyses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 152, 309.

Liu J, Zhuo Z, Sun S, Ning X, Zhao S, Xie W, Wang Y, Zheng L, Huang R, Li B. 2015. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Six Municipal Sludges from Guangzhou and Their Potential Ecological Risk Assessment for Agricultural Land Use. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24,

Amin B, Ismail A, Arshad A, Yap CK, Kamarudin MS. 2009. Anthropogenic impacts on heavy metal concentrations in the coastal sediments of Dumai, Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 148, 291-305.

Cao H-c, Luan Z-q, Zhang X-l. 2009. Potential ecological risk of cadmium, lead and arsenic in agricultural black soil in Jilin Province, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 23, 57-64.

Abrahim G, Parker R. 2008. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 136, 227-238.

Wei-Xin L, ZHANG X-X, Bing W, Shi-Lei S, Yan-Song C, Wen-Yang P, Da-Yong Z, CHENG S-P. 2008. A comparative analysis of environmental quality assessment methods for heavy metal-contaminated Soil. Pedosphere 18, 344-352.

Cheng J-l, Zhou S, Zhu Y-w. 2007. Assessment and mapping of environmental quality in agricultural soils of Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19, 50-54.

Bhattacharya A, Routh J, Jacks G, Bhattacharya P, Mörth M. 2006. Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Västerbotten district (Northern Sweden). Applied Geochemistry 21, 1760-1780.

Mahmood A, Malik RN. 2014. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 7, 91-99.

Malik RN, Husain SZ, Nazir I. 2010. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 42, 291-301.

Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, Shah MT. 2010. Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety  73, 1820-1827.

Hussain A, Alamzeb S, Begum S. 2013. Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food Chemistry 136, 1515-1523.

Muhammad S, Shah MT, Khan S. 2011. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb–Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchemical Journal 99, 67-75.

Khan MU, Malik RN, Muhammad S. 2013. Human health risk from heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan. Chemosphere 93, 2230-2238.

Jamali M, Kazi T, Arain M, Afridi H, Jalbani N, Memon A. 2007. Heavy metal contents of vegetables grown in soil, irrigated with mixtures of wastewater and sewage sludge in Pakistan, using ultrasonic‐assisted pseudo‐digestion. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 193, 218-228.

Khan S, Ahmad I, Shah MT, Rehman S, Khaliq A. 2009. Use of constructed wetland for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 3451-3457.

SDA. 2009. Sarhad Development Authority Department of planning and development, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Govt. of Pakistan.

Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 611-619.

Fytianos K, Katsianis G, Triantafyllou P, Zachariadis G. 2001. Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 67, 0423-0430.

DCR. 2017. Sixth Census Report of Pakistan, Department of statistics Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Government of Pakistan.

Hussain R, Khattak SA, Shah MT, Ali L. 2015. Multistatistical approaches for environmental geochemical assessment of pollutants in soils of Gadoon Amazai Industrial Estate, Pakistan. Journal of Soils and Sediments 15, 1119-1129.

Yang Z, Lu W, Long Y, Bao X, Yang Q. 2011. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 108, 27-38.

Hutchison D, Jeffrey P. 2012. Chemical methods of rock analysis, Elsevier.

Qingjie G, Jun D, Yunchuan X, Qingfei W, Liqiang Y. 2008. Calculating pollution indices by heavy metals in ecological geochemistry assessment and a case study in parks of Beijing. Journal of China University of Geosciences 19, 230-241.

Caeiro S, Costa MH, Ramos T, Fernandes F, Silveira N, Coimbra A, Medeiros G, Painho M. 2005. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: an index analysis approach. Ecological Indicators 5, 151-169.

Fagbote EO, Olanipekun EO. 2010. Evaluation of the status of heavy metal pollution of soil and plant (Chromolaena odorata) of Agbabu Bitumen Deposit Area, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 5, 241-248.

Lokeshwari H, Chandrappa G. 2006. Heavy Metals Content in Water, Water Hyacinth and Sediments of Lalbagh Tank, Bangalore (India). Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering 48, 183-188.

Wei X, Gao B, Wang P, Zhou H, Lu J. 2015. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 112, 186-192.

Aiman U, Mahmood A, Waheed S, Malik RN. 2016. Enrichment, geo-accumulation and risk surveillance of toxic metals for different environmental compartments from Mehmood Booti dumping site, Lahore city, Pakistan. Chemosphere 144, 2229-2237.

Ali MU, Liu G, Yousaf B, Abbas Q, Ullah H, Munir MAM, Fu B. 2017. Pollution characteristics and human health risks of potentially (eco) toxic elements (PTEs) in road dust from metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Chemosphere 181, 111-121.

Sutherland R. 2000. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39, 611-627.

Sinex S, Helz G. 1981. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Environmental Geology 3, 315-323.

Harikumar P, Nasir U, Rahman MM. 2009. Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 6, 225-232.

Ahdy HH, Khaled A. 2009. Heavy metals contamination in sediments of the western part of Egyptian Mediterranean Sea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3, 3330-3336.

Hakanson L. 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Research 14, 975-1001.

Yang Q-w, Xu Y, Liu S-j, He J-f, Long F-y. 2011. Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74, 1664-1669.

Tomlinson D, Wilson J, Harris C, Jeffrey D. 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33, 566.

Wei B, Yang L. 2010. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchemical Journal 94, 99-107.

USEPA. 2001. United States Environmental Protection, Agency . Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00-002B; National Center for Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 1997. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Exposure Factors Handbook; PA/600/P-95/002F. EPA; Office of Research and Development: Washington, DC, USA)

EPA U. 1996. Soil screening guidance technical background document, office of solid waste and emergency response, EPA/540/R-95/128.

USEPA. 2001. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00-002B; National Center for Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2001. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume III—Part A, Process for Conducting Probabilistic Risk Assessment; EPA540-R-02-002; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA. 2001. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites; OSWER 9355.4-24; Office of solid waste and emergency response: Washington, DC, USA.

W.H.O. 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations, World Health Organization.

ESAG. 2009. Environmental Site Assessment Guideline; DB11/T656–2009; Adelaide Airport: Adelaide, Australia.

USEPA. 2002. United States Environmental Protection, Agency. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook; EPA-600-P-00e002B; National Center for Environmental Assessment: Washington, DC, USA.

Lu X, Wang L, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D. 2010. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 173, 744-749.

Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Science of the Total Environment 408, 726-733.

EPA A. 1989. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A), EPA/540/1-89/002.

USEPA. 2000. US Department of Energy. RAIS: Risk Assessment Information System; US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management: Washington, DC, USA.

Chen X, Lu X, Yang G. 2012. Sources identification of heavy metals in urban topsoil from inside the Xi’an Second Ringroad, NW China using multivariate statistical methods. Catena 98, 73-78.

Mohmand J, Eqani SAMAS, Fasola M, Alamdar A, Mustafa I, Ali N, Liu L, Peng S, Shen H. 2015. Human exposure to toxic metals via contaminated dust: Bio-accumulation trends and their potential risk estimation. Chemosphere 132, 142-151.

Lim H-S, Lee J-S, Chon H-T, Sager M. 2008. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au-Ag mine in Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 96, 223-230.

Adakole J, Abolude D. 2009. Studies on effluent characteristics of a metal finishing company, Zaria–Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 1, 54-57.

Shabbaj II, Alghamdi MA, Shamy M, Hassan SK, Alsharif MM, Khoder MI. 2017. Risk Assessment and Implication of Human Exposure to Road Dust Heavy Metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, 36.

Li H-H, Chen L-J, Yu L, Guo Z-B, Shan C-Q, Lin J-Q, Gu Y-G, Yang Z-B, Yang Y-X, Shao J-R. 2017. Pollution characteristics and risk assessment of human exposure to oral bioaccessibility of heavy metals via urban street dusts from different functional areas in Chengdu, China. Science of the Total Environment 586, 1076-1084.

Wang M, Markert B, Chen W, Peng C, Ouyang Z. 2012. Identification of heavy metal pollutants using multivariate analysis and effects of land uses on their accumulation in urban soils in Beijing, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184, 5889-5897.

Nisar Muhammad, Mohammad Nafees.
Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(5), 367-380, May 2018.
https://innspub.net/jbes/geo-chemical-investigation-health-risk-assessment-potential-toxic-elements-industrial-wastewater-irrigated-soil-geo-statistical-approach/
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update