International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate concentration varies Daily, Weekly and Seasonaly in Pittsburg’s Wastewater, Kansas

By: Balsam Abdulaziz Alessa

Key Words: Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, LAS, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment plant.

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 14(1), 151-161, January 2019.

Certification: jbes 2019 0115 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LAS) is a biodegradable surfactant, which is commonly utilized industrially and domestically. Concentrations of LAS had never been examined in Pittsburg’s Wastewater Treatment Plant because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit does not specify any standard for LAS in Pittsburg’s wastewater. This study monitored influent and effluent LAS concentrations three times per day (10:00, 14:30, and 19:00), every day for 12 weeks February 24, 2014 – May 18, 2014). Concentrations were determined by the Methylene Blue Active Substances method. There was very little variation in the effluent concentrations which were much lower (one tenth) and more consistent (0.27 – 0.53mg/L) than those in the influent. LAS concentrations in influent were highly variable by the time of the day, day of the week, and week of the study period. Three weeks that were lower in influent LAS concentrations coincided with university activities (17 March – 22 April – 5 May). These three weeks were significantly different from almost all the other weeks but were not significantly different from each other. They coincided with certain university activities. College students may have a large impact on influent LAS concentrations because they make up 25% of Pittsburg’s population. The week of March 17 was spring break when many of the students were out of town, and the other two weeks were during final exams. During these two weeks, students probably are not doing much laundry. The effectiveness of Pittsburg’s Wastewater Treatment Plant was 90%, which is similar to others reported in the literature.

| Views 22 |

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate concentration varies Daily, Weekly and Seasonaly in Pittsburg’s Wastewater, Kansas

APHA Standard Methods. 2000. (22nd ed.) Method 5540 C.

ASTM D. 2330-02. Methylene Blue Active Substances.

Chemetrics.com. 2010. Detergents (anionic surfactants, MBAS) SAM Kit.

www.chemetrics.com/product/product?product_id=490&from_search=true (accessed JAN 13, 2014).

CLER.com (The Council for LAB/LAS Environmental Research). 2014. Environmental And Other Benefits Of Replacing ABS With LAS. www.cler.com/facts/environ.html (accessed MAY 29, 2014).

Dionex.com. 2009. Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate in Treatment Plant Wastewater Streams Using On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection. www.dionex.com/en-us/webdocs. Retrieved from www.dionex.com: http://www. dionex.com/en-us/webdocs/81963-AN219-HPLC-LAS-Surfactant-Wastewater- (accessed Jan 13, 2014).

Flores G, Badillo C, Cortazar M, Hipolito C, Perez R, Sanchez I. 2010. Toxic Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, Anthracene and Their Mixture on Growth of a Microbial Consortium Isolated From Polluted Sediment. Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental 26(1), 39-46.

Holt M, Mitchell G, Watkinson R, 1992. The Environmental Chemistry, Fate and Effects of Non Ionic Surfactants In Anthropogenic Compounds, The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry- , Springer -Verlag ed, Berlin, 3, F:89144.

Hon-Nami H, Hanya T. 2013. Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates in River, Estuary and Bay Water. Water Research a journal of the International Water Association 14(9), 1251-1256.

Huang B, Wang D. 1994. Effects of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) on the Respiratory Functions of Tigerperch (Terapon Jarbua). Zoological Studies 33(3), 205-210.

Ihs.com. 2012. Linear Alkylate Sulfonates. www.ihs.com/products/chemical/planning/ ceh/linear-alkylate.aspx (accessed Feb 10, 2014).

Khleifat M. 2006. Biodegradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate by a Two-Member Facultative Anaerobic Bacterial Consortium. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39, 1030-1035.

Lara-Martin P. Gómez-Parra A. Sanz J. González-Mazo E. 2010. Anaerobic Degradation Pathway of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in Sulfate-Reducing Marine Sediments. Environmental Science Technology 44(5), 1670-1676.

Lewis M. 1991. Chronic and Sublethal Toxicities of Surfactants to Aquatic Animals: A Review and Risk assessment. Water Resourses 25(1), 101-113.

Mathur A, Gupta B, Singh A, Srivastava M, Raizada R. 2000. Dermal Toxicity of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate and Quinalphos in Guinea Pigs. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 19(1), 43-53.

Mathur A, Raizada R, Srivastava M, Singh A. 2005. Effect of Dermal Exposure to Paraphenylenediamine and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate in Guinea pigs. U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health 18(4), 238-40.

McAvoy D, Dyer S, Fendinger N, Eckhoff W, Lawrence D, Begley W. 2009. Removal of Alcohol Ethoxylates, Alkyl Ethoxylate Sulfates, and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates in Wastewater Treatment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17, 1705-1711.

Oliveira L, Costa R, Duarte C, Silva E, Varesche M. 2010. Anaerobic Degradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate in Fluidized Bed Reactor. Brazillian Journal of Chemical Engineering 27(4), 539-543.

Olkowska E, Ruman M, Polkowska Z. 2014. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 2014, 769708-15.

Rothschild W. 2009. On Complex Formation in Equimolar Chloroform-Benzene Solution: A Revisit by Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Orientational Correlation States Superposition. Journal of Molecular Liquids 150(1-3), 68-72.

Sablayrolles C, Montréjaud-Vignoles M, Silvestre J, Treilhou M. 2009. Trace Determination of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates: Application in Artificially Polluted Soil – Carrots Systems. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry 23, 65-71.

Sanderson H, Dyer S, Price B, Nielsen A, van Compernolle R, Selby M, Stanton K, Evans A, Ciarlo M, Sedlak R. 2006. Occurrence and Weight-of-Evidence Risk Assessment of Alkyl Sulfates, Alkyl Ethoxysulfates, and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in River Water and Sediments. U.S National Library Of Medicine National Institutes Of Health 15:368(2-3), 695-712.

Sanz J, Culubret E, Ferrer J, Moreno A, Berna J. 2003. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS) in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. Biodegradation 14(1), 27-64.

SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2013. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

UNEP (United Nation Environmental Program). 2005. Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate. www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/las.pdf (accessed Jan 29, 2014).

USEPA Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. 1983. Method 425.1.

Varsha J, Mishra K, Madhuri S, Govind P. 2011. Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate, a Detergent Induced Toxicity on the Gill of Puntius Ticto Fish. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2(1), 76-78.

Whelan M, Egmond R, Guymer I, Lacoursière J, Vought L, Finnegan C, Fox K, Sparham C, O’Connor C, Vaughan M, Pearson J. 2008. The Behavior of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Under Direct Discharge Conditions in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Water Research 14(20), 4730-40.

Ying G. 2006. Fate, Behavior, and Effects of Surfactants and Their Degradation Products in the Environment. Environment International 32(30), 417-431.

Balsam Abdulaziz Alessa.
Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate concentration varies Daily, Weekly and Seasonaly in Pittsburg’s Wastewater, Kansas.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 14(1), 151-161, January 2019.
https://innspub.net/jbes/linear-alkylbenzene-sulfonate-concentration-varies-daily-weekly-seasonaly-pittsburgs-wastewater-kansas/
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update