Potential of legume diversification in soil fertility management and food security for resource poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa
By: Joseph Kalonga, Ernest R Mbega, Kelvin Mtei
Key Words: Soil fertility, Legume diversification, Food security, Agroecology, Resource poor farmers
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(6), 192-205, December 2017.
Certification: jbes 2017 0155 [Generate Certificate]
Declines in soil fertility and its effect on crop production is a major problem in sub Saharan Africa. It is a major factor limiting crop production and consequently food security in agrarian communities. The causes of soil fertility decline on smallholder farms in Southern and East Africa include continuous cropping without sufficient soil replenishment, degradation through erosion and leaching, and limited biological nitrogen-fixation. Using inorganic fertilizers to address this problem doesn’t add organic matter and is not accessible for small scale farming communities who cannot access fertilizer or afford the high costs of purchase. In this review, we explore the literature on legume diversification as part of a sustainable approach to fertility management. Legumes in the farming systems can improve soil fertility through the rhizobium-legume symbiotic relationship (referred to as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), and have the potential to enhance soil organic matter and conserve other soil resources as well. In addition legumes can provide multipurpose roles by contributing food, fodder and fuel to households. The information that is compiled in this review is vital to guide research efforts and farmers to integrate more relevant legume crops into their farming systems, particularly those types of legumes which produce large amounts of vegetative biomass that can be used to ameliorate soil fertility for enhanced food production and security.
Potential of legume diversification in soil fertility management and food security for resource poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abate T, Orr A. 1981. Research and development for tropical legumes: towards a knowledge-based strategy. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 10, 1-12.
Abate T, Alene AD, Bergvinson D, Shiferaw B, Silim S, Orr A, Asfaw S. 2012. Tropical grain legumes in Africa and south Asia: Knowledge and opportunities. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
Amede T. 2004. Pathways for fitting legumes into the farming systems of East African highlands: A dual approach. Soil Fert Net and CIMMYT.
Andrews M, Andrews ME. 2017. Specificity in Legume-Rhizobia Symbioses. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18, 705.
Argaw A, Tsigie A. 2017. The inorganic N requirement, nodulation and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as influenced by inherent soil fertility of eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Nutrition 40(13), 1842-1855.
Baddeley JA, Jones S, Topp CFE, Watson CA, Helming J, Stoddard FL. 2014. Legume Futures Report 1-5.
Baijukya F, Mukalama J, Waswa W, Boahen S, Jibrin J, Sanginga J, Chataika B. 2013. Identified soyabean, common bean, cowpea and groundnut varieties with high Biological Nitrogen Fixation potential identified in N2Africa impact zones.
Banjarnahor D, Scholberg J, Almekinders C. 2015. Legume-based diversification; lessons learned from the small-scale farmers in the semi-arid Tanzania. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia (Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 667-672).
Bationo A, Waswa B, Kihara J, Kimetu J. 2007. Advances in integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and opportunities (p. 1091). Dordrecht Springer.
Bohlool BB, Ladha JK, Garrity DP, George T. 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective. In Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture (pp. 1-11). Springer Netherlands.
Burstin J, Gallardo K, Mir RR, Varshney RK, Duc G. 2011. 20 Improving Protein Content and Nutrition Quality. Biology and breeding of food legumes 314.
CGIAR Research Program on Grain Legumes. 2016. People. Planet. Pulses. Palangana India.
Chianu JN, Nkonya EM, Mairura FS, Chianu, Justina N, Akinnifesi FK. 2011. Biological nitrogen fixation and socioeconomic factors for legume production in sub-Saharan Africa. In Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2 (pp. 309-329). Springer Netherlands.
Chibarabada TP, Modi AT, Mabhaudhi T. 2017. Expounding the Value of Grain Legumes in the Semi-and Arid Tropics. Sustainability 9(1), 60.
Chikowo R, Mapfumo P, Nyamugafata P, Giller KE. 2004. Woody legume fallow productivity, biological N 2-fixation and residual benefits to two successive maize crops in Zimbabwe. Plant and Soil 262(1), 303-315.
Chikowo R, Snapp S. 2016. Doubled-up legume technology: Boosting land productivity by intercropping two grain legumes with different growth habits.
Chukwuka KS. 2009. Soil fertility restoration techniques in sub-Saharan Africa using organic resources. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(3), 144-150.
Danso SKA, Eskew DL. 1998. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation. Plant and Soil 141, 29-34.
Devi MJ, Sinclair TR, Beebe SE, Rao IM. 2013. Comparison of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes for nitrogen fixation tolerance to soil drying. Plant and Soil 364(1-2), 29-37.
Duranti M. 2006. Grain legume proteins and nutraceutical properties. Fitoterapia 77(2), 67-82.
Ebert AW. 2014. Potential of underutilized traditional vegetables and legume crops to contribute to food and nutritional security, income and more sustainable production systems. Sustainability 6(1), 319-335.
Egbe MO, Alhassan GA, Ijoyah M, Onyilo M. 2013. Nodulation, nitrogen yield and fixation by bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) landraces intercropped with cowpea and maize in Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Agricultural Science 1(4), 15-28.
Egbutah EU, Obasi MO. 2016. Productivity, Nitrogen Fixation and Grain Yield of Legumes Intercropped with Roselle in Southern and Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Continental J. Agricultural Science 10 (2): 1 – 14, 10, 105-118.
Ennin SA, Dapaah HK, Abaidoo RC. 2004. Nitrogen credits from Cowpea, Soybean, Groundnut and Mucuna to Maize in rotation. West African Journal of Applied Ecology 6(1).
Eriksen J, Søegaard K, Askegaard M, Hansen EM. 2010. Forage legume impact on soil fertility and N balance. NJF report 6 (3), 61-65.
FAO. 2005.The importance of soil organic matter. FAO SOILS BULLETIN. Retrieved from http://www. fao.org/3/a-a0100e.pdf
FAO. 2006. Food Security (2), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/forestry/13128-0e6f36f27e00910 55bec28ebe830f46b3.pdf
Gepts P. 2004. Crop domestication as a long-term selection experiment. Plant breeding reviews 24(Part 2), 1-44.
Gibson AH, Dreyfus BL, Dommergues YR. 1982. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in the tropics. In Microbiology of tropical soils and plant productivity (pp. 37-73). Springer Netherlands.
Haque I, Jutzi S. 1984. Nitrogen fixation by forage legumes in sub-Saharan Africa Potential and limitations 23-27.
Haque I, Lupwayi NZ. 2017. Nitrogen fixation by annual forage legumes and its contribution to succeeding wheat in the Ethiopian highlands. Journal of plant nutrition 23(7), 963-977.
Henao J, Baanante C, Henao J, Baanante C. 2006. Agricultural production and soil nutrient mining in Africa: Implications for resource conservation and policy development.
International Trade Centre (ITC) . 2016. United Republic of TanzaniaValue Chain Roadmap for Pulses.Geneva Switzerland.
Jessica M, Gary V, Ramsay J. 2014. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agricultural Systems 501.
Johnston GW, Vaupel S, Kegel FR. 2001. Crop and farm diversification provide social benefits. California Agriculture 49(1), 10-16.
Katunga MMD, Muhigwa BJB, Kashala KJC, Kambuyi M, Nyongombe N, Maass BL, Peters M. 2014. Agro-Ecological Adaptation and Participatory Evaluation of Multipurpose Tree and Shrub Legumes in Mid Altitudes of Sud-Kivu, DR Congo. American Journal of Plant Sciences 5(13), 2031.
Kerr Bezner R, Snapp S, Chirwa M, Shumba L, Msachi R. 2007. Participatory research on legume diversification with Malawian smallholder farmers for improved human nutrition and soil fertility. Experimental Agriculture 43(4), 437-453.
Kim JB. 2005. Pathogen, insect and weed control effects of secondary metabolites from plants. Han’guk Eungyong Sangmyong Hwahakhoeji 48(1), 1-15.
Kinsey N. 2012. Managing Soil Fertility and Organic Matter. Retrieved from https://mosesorganic.org/wp-content/uploads/Publications/Fact_Sheets/08ImportanceOrganicMatterToFertility.pdf
Koenen E JM, Vos JM, Atchison GW, Simon MF, Schrire BD, Souza ERDe, Hughes CE. 2013. South African Journal of Botany Exploring the tempo of species diversi fi cation in legumes 89, 19-30.
Kumwenda JD, Waddington SR, Snapp SS, Jones RB, Blackie MJ. (1996). Soil fertility management research for the maize cropping systems of smallholders in southern Africa: A review.
Lindemann W, Glover R. 2007. Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes. Cooperative Extension Service, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces 1-4.
Lobell DB, Gourdji SM. 2012. The influence of climate change on global crop productivity. Plant Physiology 160(4), 1686-1697.
Lupwayi NZ, Kennedy AC, Chirwa RM. 2011. Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Plant Science 5(1), 1-7.
Malingreau J, Eva H, Maggio A. 2012. NPK: Will there be enough plant nutrients to feed a world of 9 billion in 2050. Foresight and Horizon Scanning Series. JRC70936, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
Mapfumo AE, Chanasyk DS, Baron VS, Naeth MA. 2000. Society for Range Management Grazing Impacts on Selected Soil Parameters under Shortterm Forage Sequences on Grazing impacts term forage sequences selected soil parameters under 53(5), 466-470.
Martins JCR, De Freitas ADS, Menezes RSC, Sampaio EV, De SB. 2015. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 50(2), 178-184.
Massawe PI, Mtei KM, Munishi LK, Ndakidemi PA. 2016. Existing practices for soil fertility management through cereals-legume intercropping systems 3(2), 80-91.
Massawe PI, Mtei K, Munishi KL, Ndakidemi AP. 2017. Effects of Rhizobiuminoculation and cropping systems on macronutrients uptake and partitioning in two legumes (Common bean and Lablab). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 51(3), 206-213.
Matusso JMM, Mungwe JN, Mucheru-Muna M. 2012. Potential role of cereal-legume intercropping systems in integrated soil fertility management in smallholder farming systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management 3(3), 162-174.
Mendonça ED S, Lima PC, Guimarães, GP. 2017. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 41.
Messina MJ. 1999. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. The American journal of clinical nutrition 70(3), 439s-450s.
Miyamoto C, Ketterings Q, Cherney J, Kilcer T. 2008. Nitrogen fixation. Agronomy sheet series. Fact Sheet 39. Management Spear Program Cornell University.
Montanez A. 2000. Overview and case studies on biological nitrogen fixation: Perspectives and limitations. FAO, Case Study B 2, 1-11.
Moyin-jesu EI. 2015. Use of different organic fertilizers on soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield parameters of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L). International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 4(4), 291-298.
Mungai LM, Snapp S, Messina JP, Chikowo R, Smith A, Anders E. 2016. Smallholder farms and the potential for sustainable intensification. Frontiers in plant science 7.
Mugendi JB, Njagi EM. 2010. Effects of processing techniques on the nutritional composition and anti-nutrient content of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens L.). African Journal of Food Science 4(4), 156-166.
Mugwe J, Mugendi D, Odee D, Mairura F. 2009. Effect of selected organic materials and inorganic fertilizer on the soil fertility of a Humic Nitisol in the central highlands of Kenya. Soil Use and Management 25(4), 434-440.
Ncube B, Dimes JP, Van-Wijk MT, Twomlow SJ, Giller KE. 2009. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in south-western Zimbabwe: Unravelling the effects of water and nitrogen using a simulation model. Field Crops Research 110(2), 173-184.
Nglade JUA, Illen GIB. 2015. Relationships for estimating N 2 fixation in legumes incidence for N balance of legume-based cropping systems in Europe, 6(March) 1-24.
Njira K, Nalivata PC, Kanyama-phiri GY, Lowole MW. 2012. Biological nitrogen fixation in sole and doubled-up legume cropping systems on the sandy soils of Kasungu, Central Malawi. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 3(9), 224-230.
Njoku DN, Muoneke CO. 2008. Effect of Cowpea Planting Density on Growth, Yield and Productivity of Component Crops in Cowpea/Cassava Intercropping System 7(2), 106-113.
Nyasasi BT, Kisetu E. 2014. Determination of land productivity under maize-cowpea intercropping system in agro-ecological zone of mount Uluguru in Morogoro, Tanzania. Global Journal of Agricultural Science 2, 147-157.
Oboh H, Osagie A, Omotosho A. 2010. Glycemic response of some boiled legumes commonly eaten in Nigeria. Diabetologia Croatica 39(4), 125-131.
Oliver K, Njira W, Nalivata PC, Kanyama GY, Lowole MW. 2013. Effects of sole cropped, doubled-up legume residues and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer on maize yields in Kasungu, Central Malawi. Agricultural Science Research Journals 3(3), 97-106.
Omondi JO, Mungai NW, Ouma JP, Patrick F. 2014. Effect of tillage on biological nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) varieties 8(8), 1140-1146.
Omotayo OE, Chukwuka KS. 2009. Soil fertility restoration techniques in sub-Saharan Africa using organic resources. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(3), 144-150.
One Acre Fund. 2014. Maize‐ Legume Intercropping. www.oneacrefund.org
Oono R, Denison FR, Kiers T. 2009. Controlling the reproductive fate of rhizobia: How universal are legume sanctions?. New Phytologist 183(4), 967-979.
Preissel S, Reckling M, Schläfke N, Zander P. 2015. Field Crops Research Magnitude and farm-economic value of grain legume pre-crop benefits in Europe a review. Field Crops Research 175, 64-79.
Rivas-Vega ME, Goytortúa-Bores E, Ezquerra-Brauer JM, Salazar-García MG,Cruz-Suárez LE, Nolasco H, Civera-Cerecedo R. 2006. Nutritional value of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) meals as ingredients in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone). Food Chemistry 97(1), 41-49.
Rochester IJ, Peoples MB, Constable GA, Gault RR. 2000. Faba beans and other legumes add nitrogen to irrigated cotton cropping systems. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40(2), 681-696.
Ronner E, Giller KE, Ronner E. 2013. N2Africa: Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa (No. 18). N2 Africa project.
Rosegrant MW, Ewing M, Yohe G, Burton I, Huq S, Valmonte-santos R. 2008 Climate change and agriculture: Threats and opportunities. Verlag nicht ermittelbar.Giz, 36.
Rovner AJ, Nansel TR, Gellar L. 2009. Research and Professional Briefs Diet on Blood Glucose Levels and Macronutrient Intake in Children with Type 1 Diabetes. YJADA 109(2), 303–307.
Rowe E, Giller KE. 2003. Legumes for soil fertility in southern Africa: Needs, potential and realities. Grain Legumes and Green Manures for Soil Fertility in Southern Africa: Taking Stock of Progress. Soil Fert Net-CIMMYT, Harare, Zimbabwe 15-19.
Saikia SP, Jain V. 2007. Biological nitrogen fixation with non-legumes: An achievable target or a dogma?. Current science 317-322.
Sanginga N. 2003. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in legume based cropping systems; a case study of West Africa farming systems. Plant and soil 252(1), 25-39.
Schröder JJ. 2014. The position of mineral nitrogen fertilizer in efficient use of nitrogen and land: a review. Natural resources 5(15), 936-948.
Sharifai AI. 1985. Improving Sustainability and Productivity of Drylands through Legumes 121-127.
Shiningayamwe EN. 2012. Crop Rotation as a Soil Fertility Improvement Strategy Using Different Legumes on a Pearl Millet Yield. Agricola, 40.
Shuaibu YM, Garba AA. 2015. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Bauchi state, Nigeria. African journal of food, agriculture, nutrition and development 15(3), 10060-10076.
Silva A, Uchida R. 2000. Essential nutrients for plant growth: nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms. Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils 31-55.
Silva J, Uchida R. 2000. Biological nitrogen fixation: Nature’s partnership for sustainable agricultural production. Plant nutrient management in Hawaii’s soils, approaches for tropical and subtropical agriculture. College of Tropical Ag. and Human Resources, Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa 121-126.
Singh BB, Musa A, Ajeigbe HA, Tarawali SA. 2011. Effect of feeding crop residues of different cereals and legumes on weight gain of Yankassa rams 2(2), 17-23.
Small FAA, Raizada MN. 2017. Mitigating dry season food insecurity in the subtropics by prospecting drought-tolerant, nitrogen-fixing weeds. Agriculture & Food Security 6(1), 23.
Smith A, Snapp S, Dimes J, Gwenambira C, Chikowo R. 2016. Doubled-up legume rotations improve soil fertility and maintain productivity under variable conditions in maize-based cropping systems in Malawi. Agricultural Systems 145, 139-149.
Smýkal P, Coyne CJ, Ambrose MJ, Maxted N, Blair MW, Berger J, Besharat N. 2017. Legume crops phylogeny and genetic diversity for science and breeding. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 34(1-3), 43-104.
Snapp S, Aggarwal VD, Chirwa R. 1998. Note on phosphorus and cultivar enhancement of biological nitrogen fixation and productivity of maize/bean intercrops in Malawi. Field crops research 58(3), 205-212.
Snapp S, Rohrbach D, Simtowe F, Thombozi J, Freeman H. A. 2002. Sustainable soil management options for Malawi: Can smallholder farmers grow more legumes?. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 91(1), 159-174.
Snapp SS, Blackie MJ, Gilbert RA, Bezner Kerr R, Kanyama-Phiri GY. 2010. Biodiversity can support a greener revolution in Africa. PNAS 107(48), 20840-20845.
Stagnari F, Maggio A, Galieni A, Pisante M. 2017. Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability: an overview. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 4(1), 2.
Staniak M, Księżak J, Bojarszczuk J. 2014. Mixtures of legumes with cereals as a source of feed for animals. In Organic Agriculture Towards Sustainability InTech.
Stein-bachinger K, Reckling M, Bachinger J, Hufnagel J, Koker W, Granstedt A. 2015. Ecological recycling agriculture to enhance agro-ecosystem services in the baltic sea region: guidelines for implementation Land 4(3), 737-753.
Subuola F, Widodo Y, Kehinde T. 2012. Processing and Utilization of Legumes in the Tropics. In Trends in Vital Food and Control Engineering InTech.
Sujatha G, Jayabalan N, Kumari BR. 2007. Rapid in vitro micropropagation of Cicer arietinum L. Hort. Sci 34(1), 1-5.
Sundström JF, Albihn A, Boqvist S, Ljungvall K, Marstorp H. 2014. Future threats to agricultural food production posed by environmental degradation, climate change, and animal and plant diseases-a risk analysis in three economic and climate settings. Food Security 6(2), 201-215.
Taa A, Tanner DG, Bennie ATP. 2002. Effect of stubble management, tillage and cropping sequence on the severity of take-all and eyespot diseases of wheat.
Tittonell P. 2015. Soil fertility and the role of soils for food security in developing countries. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 17).
Toomsan B, Limpinuntana V, Jogloy S, Patanothai A. 2004. Role of Legumes in Improving Soil Fertility and Increasing Crop Productivity in Northeast Thailand Rice-based System 67-91.
Truscott BL, Aranda D, Nagarajan P, Travaglini AL. 2009. A Closer Look at Crop Diversification in Organic Cotton Farming.
Tully K, Sullivan C, Weil R, Sanchez P. 2015. The state of soil degradation in sub-Saharan Africa: Baselines, trajectories, and solutions. Sustainability 7(6), 6523-6552.
Vanlauwe B, Descheemaeker K, Giller KE, Huising J, Merckx R, Nziguheba G, Wendt J. 2015. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation 491-508.
Waddington SR. 2002. Grain Legumes and Green Manures for Soil Fertility in Southern Africa : Taking Stock of Progress. (W. Stephen, Ed.). Harare Zimbabwe.
Watson CA., Atkinson D, Gosling P, Jackson LR, Rayns FW. 2002. Managing soil fertility in organic farming systems. Soil Use and Management 18(s1), 239-247.
Woomer PL. 2010. Biological nitrogen fixation and grain legume enterprise: Guidelines for N2Africa Master Farmers. CIAT-TSBF.
Yabuku H, Kwari JD, Ngala AL. 2010. N 2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia Inoculation in The Sandy Loam Soil Of Sudano-Sahelian Zone of North Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (2010), 18(2), 229-236 ISSN, 18, 229-236.
Zahran HH. 1999. Rhizobium -Legume Symbiosis and Nitrogen Fixation under Severe Conditions and in an Arid Climate 63(4), 968-989.
Zahran HH. 2001. Rhizobia from wild legumes: Diversity, taxonomy, ecology, nitrogen fixation and biotechnology. Journal of Biotechnology 91(2-3), 143-153.
Potential of legume diversification in soil fertility management and food security for resource poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 11(6), 192-205, December 2017.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)