International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Wing shape variations in Calopteryx splendens along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometric analysis

By: Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr, June Ian C. Dedel, Ivan Cris B. Delabahan, Maria Anita Ayaton, Manilyn A. Busia, Nova P. Billuga, Mafi Kamille A. Angco, Honelyn C. Havana

Key Words: Odonata, Morphology, Fluctuating asymmetry, Agusan del Norte

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(3), 73-92, March 2018.

Certification: jbes 2018 0004 [Generate Certificate]


Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) quantifies the degree of variations from a perfect symmetry and therefore expected to reflect the state of genomic and ecological stress undergone by the single species and or populations throughout its development. It identifies the extent of differences from the symmetry of left and right sides of the organisms, as both sides are expected to be identical from its genetic activity and within the environment they inhabit. In this study, geometric morphometric was utilized to measure wing shape variation in the populations of Calopteryx splendens. A total of 120 samples consisting of 30 males and 30 females were randomly collected each of the latitudinal gradient and subjected to Procrustes ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by means of Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) software. In the three factors analyzed: individuals, sides, and individual × sides result shows that the collected samples from the high altitude displayed high significant difference (P<0.0001) in the female forewings and hindwings while male forewings and hindwings showed partly non-significant. Whereas, the collected samples from the lower altitude result shows high significant difference (P<0.0001) in the female and male forewings while female and male hindwings shown partly non-significant. It implies that latitudinal gradients could influence wing shape pattern and phenotypic variability was evident between species of the same lineage. Further, utilizing geometric morphometrics is essential in identifying wing shape variations and co-variations among species relatively of the same ancestry.

| Views 92 |

Wing shape variations in Calopteryx splendens along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometric analysis

Abbott JC. 2005. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Texas and the South Central United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.344 p.

Arnqvist G, Rowe L. 2005. Sexual conflict. Princeton University. Press, Princeton, NJ.

Bechley G. 2002. Accessed 05 January,

Bergstrom CA, Reimchen TE. 2002. Geographical variation in asymmetry in Gasterosteus aculeatus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77, 9-22.

Betts CR, Wootton RJ, Biology. 1988. Wing shape and flight behavior in butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea): A preliminary analysis. Journal of Experimental 138, 271-288.

Bots J, Breuker CJ, Van Kerkhove A, Van Dongen S, De Bruyn L, Van Gossum H. 2009. Variation in flight morphology in a female polymorphic damselfly: intraspecific, intrasexual, and seasonal differences. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 87, 86-94.

Cabuga CC Jr. Masendo CBE, Hernando BJH, Joseph CCD, Velasco JPB, Angco MKA, Ayaton MA,  Obenza OLP, Jumawan JH, Jumawan JC, Requieron EA, Torres MAJ, Havana HC. 2016. Relative warp analysis in determining morphological variation and sexual dimorphism between sexes of flathead goby (Glossogobius giuris). Computational Ecology and Software. 6(3):109-119.

Carle FL. 1982.  Society International Odonatologica. (Rapid Communication.) 4(66).

Carpentero ER, Tabugo SRM. 2014 Determining developmental instability via fluctuating asymmetry in the shell shape of Arctica islandica Linn. 1767 (Ocean quahog). European Journal of Zoological Research 3(3), 1-7.

Clarke GM, Brand GW, Whitten MJ. 1986. Fluctuating asymmetry: A technique for measuring developmental stress caused by inbreeding. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 39, 145-153.

Demayo CG, Harun SA, Torres MAJ. 2011. Procrustes analysis of wing shape divergence among sibling species of Neurothemis Dragonflies, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5(6), 748-759.

Dudley R. 2000. The Biomechanics of Insect Flight: Form, Function, Evolution. Princeton University Press.

Fairbairn DJ, Blanckenhorn WU & Sz´ekely, T. 2007. Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Fraser FC. 1957. A reclassification of the order Odonata, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Gangestad SW, Thornhill R. 1997. The evolutionary psychology of extrapair sex: the role of fluctuating asymmetry. Evolution and Human Behaviour. 18(2), 69–88.

Gatz AJ. 1979. Community organization in fishes as indicated by morphological features. Evolution. 60, 711-718.

Green AJ. 2000. The scaling and selection of sexually dimorphic characters: an example using the Marbled Teal. Journal of Avian Biology 31, 345-350.

Grodnitsky DL. 1999. Form and Function of Insect Wings: the Evolution of Biological Structures. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. 2001 Past: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontological Electronica 4(1), 1-9.

Hayashi F. 1990. Convergence of insular dwarfism in damselflies (Euphaea) and dobsonflies (Protochermes). Freshwater Biology. 23, 219-231.

Hennig W. 1981. Insect phylogeny, Wiley, New York.

Hermita JM, Gorospe JG, Torres MAJ, Lumasag JL, Demayo CG. 2013. Fluctuating asymmetry in the body shape of the mottled spinefoot fish, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn, 1782) collected from different bays in Mindanao Island, Philippines. Science International (Lahore) 25(4), 857-861.

Johansson F, Soderquist M, Bokma F. 2009. Insect wing shape evolution: independent effects of migratory and mate guarding flight on dragonfly wings. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97, 362–372.

Karl TR, Trenberth KE. 2003. Modern global climate change. Science. 302, 1719-1723.

Klingenberg CP, McIntyre GS. 1998. Geometric morphometrics of developmental instability: analysing patterns of fluctuating asymmetry with Procrustes methods. Evolution. 52(5), 1363-1375.

Kokko H, Brooks R. 2003. Sexy to die for? Sexual selection and the risk of extinction. Annual Zoologica Fennici, 40, 207-219.

Lee YH, Lin CP. 2012. Morphometric and genetic differentiation of two sibling gossamer–wing damselflies, Euphaea formosa and E. yayeyamana, and adaptive trait divergence in subtropical East Asian islands. Journal of Insect Science 12(53), 1-17.

Lomolino MV, Riddle BR, Brown JH. 2005. Biogeography, 3rd edition. Sinauer Associates.

Losos JB, Sinervo B. 1989. The effect of morphology and perch size on sprint performance in Anolis lizards. Journal Experimental Biology. 145, 23-30.

Marquez E. 2007. Sage: symmetry and asymmetry in geometric data version 1.05 (compiled 09/17/08).  Available online at:

Mayr E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard University. Press, Cambridge.

Mc Nab BK. 1994. Energy conservation and the evolution of flight lesssness in birds. The American Naturalist 144, 628-642.

Mcpeek MA. 1990. Behavioral differences between Enallagma species (Odonata) influencing differential vulnerability to predators. Ecology 71, 1714-1726.

Nagel L, Schluter D. 1998. Body size, natural selection, and speciation in sticklebacks. Evolution 52, 209-218.

Natividad EC, Dalundong AO, Ecot J, Requieron EA, Jumawan JH, Torres MJ. 2015. Ecological health status of Goby (Glossogobius celebius) using fluctuating asymmetry in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines. AACL Bioflux. 8(3), 323-331.

Norberg UM. 1989. Vertebrate Flight, Mechanics, Physiology, Morphology, Ecology and Evolution. Berlin: 322, Springer-Verlag.

Outomuro D, Johansson F. 2011. The effects of latitude, body size, and sexual selection on wing shape in a damselfly. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 102, 263–274.

Palmer AR, Strobeck C. 1986. Fluctuating asymmetry – measurement, analysis, patterns. Annual Review Ecology and Systematics 17, 391-421.

Palmer TN, Raisanen J. 2002. Quantifying the risk of extreme seasonal precipitation events in a changing climate. Nature 415, 512-514.

Palmer AR, Strobeck C. 2003. Fluctuating asymmetry analyses revisited. In Developmental instability: Causes and consequences. Polak M. (Ed), Oxford University Press, New York.1-77.

Pfau HK. 1991. Advances Odonatology. 5, 109-141.

Rankin DJ, Arnqvist G. 2008. Sexual dimorphism is associated with population fitness in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Evolution. 62, 622-630.

Rehn AC. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of higher-level relationships of Odonata. Systematics Entomology 28, 181-239.

Ribak G, Pitts ML, Wilkinson GS, Swallow JG. 2009. Wing shape, wing size, and sexual dimorphism in eye-span in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98, 860–871.

Riget FF, Bechshoft TG, Wiig O, Soone C. 2008. Fluctuating asymmetry in metric traits; a practical example of calculating asymmetry, measurement error and repeatability. Annual Zoologica Fennici.15, 32-38.

Sadeghi S, Adriaens D, Dumont HJ. 2009. Geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape variation in ten European populations of Calopteryx splendens (Harris, 1782) (Zygoptera: Odonata). Odonatologica 38, 343-360.

Samuels ML, Casella G, McCabe GP. 1991.  Interpreting blocks and random factors: Rejoiner. Journal of the American Statistical Association 86, 798-808.

Savriama Y, Gomez JM, Perfectti F, Klingenberg CP. 2012. Geometric morphometrics of corolla shape: dissecting components of symmetric and asymmetric variation in Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist 196, 945-954.

Schlichting CD, Pigliucci M. 1998. Phenotypic evolution: A reaction norm perspective. Phenotypic evolution: A reaction norm perspective. 387.

Stoks R. 2001. Food stress and predator– induced stress shape developmental performance in a damselfly. Oecologia 127, 222-229.

Svensson EI, Friberg M. 2007. Selective predation on wing morphology in sympatric damselflies. The American Naturalist. 170, 101-112.

Taylor PD, Merriam G. 1995. Wing morphology of a forest damselfly is related to landscape structure. Oikos 73, 43-48.

Tillyard RJ, Fraser FC. 1940. A reclassification of the order Odonata based on some new interpretations of the venation of the dragonfly wing. Australian Zoologist 9, 124-396.

Trueman WH. 1996. Odonatologica, 2, 559-72.

Van Valen L. 1962 A study of fluctuating asymmetry. Evolution.16:125–142.

Via S, Lande R. 1985. Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39, 505-522.

Walker JA. 1997. Ecological morphology of lacustrine three spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. (Gastersteidae) body shape. Biological Journal of Linnean Society. 61, 3-50.

Whittaker RJ, Fernández-Palacios JM. 2007. Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. Oxford University Press.

Willig MR, Kaufmann DM, Stevens RD. 2003. Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale and synthesis. Annual Review Ecological Evolution of Systematics. 34, 273–309.

Wootton RJ, Kukalová-Peck J. 2000. Flight adaptations in Palaeozoic Palaeoptera (Insecta). Biological Reviews 75, 129-167.

Yuto CMM, Lumogdang L, Tabugo SRM. 2016. Fluctuating asymmetry as an Indicator of Ecological Stress in Rhinocypha colorata (Odonata: Chlorocyphidae) in Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines. Entolomology and Applied Science Letters. 3(1), 13-20.

Zakharov VM. 1992. Population phenogenetics. Analysis of developmental stability in natural population. Acta Zoologica Fennica. 191, 7-30.

Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr, June Ian C. Dedel, Ivan Cris B. Delabahan, Maria Anita Ayaton, Manilyn A. Busia, Nova P. Billuga, Mafi Kamille A. Angco, Honelyn C. Havana.
Wing shape variations in Calopteryx splendens along a latitudinal gradient using geometric morphometric analysis.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 12(3), 73-92, March 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update