Microbial abundance, physicochemical properties and heavy metals of mangrove swamp water of river Ethiope Sapele, in comparison with the source at Umutu

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Research Paper 11/03/2024
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Microbial abundance, physicochemical properties and heavy metals of mangrove swamp water of river Ethiope Sapele, in comparison with the source at Umutu

Osayamen Collins Udinyiwe, Andrew Edosa Omoregie
Int. J. Micro. Myco.18( 3), 1-14, March 2024.
Certificate: IJMM 2024 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Mangrove swamps are distinct and diverse coastal ecosystems located in tropical and subtropical regions. This study was carried out to evaluate the microbial abundance, heavy metals, and physicochemical properties of mangrove swamp water of River Ethiope Sapele, in comparison with the source at Umutu. The microbial isolates were identified using standard microbiological techniques and the values for physicochemical and heavy metal parameters were obtained using standard methods. The total heterotrophic bacteria counts ranged from 5.7±0.9 x 105 cfu/mL to 10.3±1.2 x 105 cfu/mL, while the total fungi counts ranged from 3.3±0.3 x 105 cfu/mL to 5.0±1.5 x 105 cfu/mL. The probable bacterial isolates identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Rhodococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtillis, Proteus mirabilis, Chromatium okenii, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli. While the probable fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Candida utilis., Epicoccum spp., Aspergillus flavus and Rhodococcus glutinis. The Physicochemical analysis carried out revealed values for respective parameters to include pH, ranging from 5.07±0.21 to 6.47±0.39, temperature (26.37±0.09 oC to 26.70±0.51 oC), and BOD (1.08±0.02 mg/L to 2.67±0.16 mg/L). While the heavy metal analysis revealed values to include Cadmium ranging from 0.15±0.03 mg/L to 2.59±0.07a mg/L, Chromium (0.16±0.02 mg/L to 1.23±0.04 mg/L), and Zinc (0.46±0.02 mg/L to 8.47±0.07ab mg/L). Most of the physicochemical and heavy metals parameters analyzed did not fall within the standard values set by World Health Organization for drinking water. This study was able to reveal that there was more pollution at the Sapele axis of River Ethiope than its source at Umutu, due to human activities, including the release of untreated waste into the river from surrounding industries and municipalities.

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