International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Effect of sowing dates on germination of common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart) solms in Central Iraq

By: Adnan Hussein Alwakgga, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed

Key Words: Sowing dates, Water hyacinth, Seed germination

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(1), 1-8, July 2018.

Certification: jbes 2018 0110 [Generate Certificate]


Keeping in view, the importance of water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart.) Solms in reducing the biological diversity, this research was aimed to determine the seed germination percentage in suitable environmental condition in order to stop its further extension to improve the long-term management particularly in Diyala province. This study included the identification of the seed ability to germinate and the environmental circumstances affecting the propagation of the water Hyacinth plant by seed. Three sowing dates of different months for seed were selected (March, April and May). The experiment was designed with three replicates using the Randomized Complete Block Design. The results of the experiment indicated the seed germination average was 84% in general and germination occured only at the temperature range of 28-35 ºC that went through three stages (Germination, floating and growth of the plant).The plant produced six to seven daughter plants within nine to eleven days after floating. The seed sown on the 20th of March (the first date) needed 43 days to germinate. The percentage of time saving of the floating time laps in the third sowing reached 44.54%. The seed sown on the 20th of March provided advanced plant height 13.2cm.The third seed sowing date of the 20th of May showed higher root length 25.45cm. Leaf area indicated 1.743 m2 in the third seed sowing. Green plant weight as the first seed sowing date reached 4775.2gm/m2. The present information will be usefull to manage this invasive plant through the world.

| Views 316 |

| Views 316 |

Effect of sowing dates on germination of common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart) solms in Central Iraq

Albano P, Coetzee JA, Ruiz Téllez T, Hill MP. 2011. A first report of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) soil seed banks in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 3, 795-800.

Barrett SCH. 1989. Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water Hyacinth) II.Seed production in natural populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 17, 113-124.

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, Chester EW. 2003. Ecological aspects of seed dormancy-break and germination in Heteranthera limosa (Pontederiaceae) a summer annual weed of rice fields. Weed Research 43, 3–107.

Center TD, Van TK, Dray FA, Franks SJ,Rebelo MT, Pratt PD, Rayamajhi MB. 2005. Her bivory alters competitive interactions between two invasive aquatic plants. Biological Control. 33,173-185

Center TD, Hill MP, Cordo H, Julien MH. 2002. Water Hyacinth in biological control of invasive plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-4, 41-64 p.

Gao T, Thomas GL, Pauley GB. 1990. Effects of canopy formation by floating and submergent aquatic water hyacinth on the water quality of two shallow Pacific Northwest Lakes. Aquatic Botany38,231-248.

Gao-Lei, Bo L. 2004. The study of a specious invasive plant, water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Achievements and challenges.Acta-Phytoecologica-Sinica28, 735–752.

GIC, Grupo. 2006. de Investigación en Biología de la Conservación de la Universidad de Extremadura. Informesobredistribución y biologíareproductora del jacinto de Agua en el Guadiana, 12 vols., Diciembre de 2006, Confederación Hidrógráfica del Guadiana, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Badajoz, España, 2,247 p.…Guadiana/95de79fe-0c7c-4fe1-b788-6

Gopal B. 1987.Aquatic plant studies1.Water Hyacinth. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Gunnarsson C, Petersen CM.2007. Water Hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production: a literature review. Waste Management 27, 117–129.

Heard TA, Winterton SL. 2000.Interactions between nutrient status and weevil her bivory in the biological control of water Hyacinth. Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 117-127.

Julien MH, Orapa W.1999.Structure and management of a successful biological control project for water hyacinth. In: M.P.Hill, M.H. Julien and T.D. Center (Eds) proceeding of the first IOBC Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological and Integrated Control of water Hyacinth.16-19 November Harare, Zimbabwe 123-134 p.

Martinez JM, Gomez BMA.2007.Integrated control of Eichhornia crassipes by using insects and plant pathogens in Mexico. Crop Protection 26, 1234-1238.

Pieterse AH, Murphy KJ. 1993. Aquatic weeds: the ecology and management of nuisance aquatic vegetation. Oxford University Press.593 p.

Riddin T, Adams JB. 2009. The seed banks of two temporarily open/closedestuaries in South Africa. Aquatic Botany 90, 328–332.

Toy NA. 2005. Water Hyacinth adaptation to higher saline levels. Oxford University Press, New York.

Ueki K, Ito M, Oki Y. 1979. Seed production and germination of Eichhornia crassipes in Japan .Proceedings of the Seventh Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 257-260.

Wilson JR, Holst N, Rees M.2005.Determinants and patterns of population growth in water Hyacinth. Aquatic Botany81, 51–67.

Wright AD, Purcell MF. 1995. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach .In :RH. Groves, R.C.H. Shepherd and R.G. Richardson.(Eds). The Biology of Australian Weeds.111-121.

Zhang Y, Zhang D, Barrett S. 2010. Genetic uniformity characterizes the invasive spread of water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a clonal aquatic plant. MoleculerEcology19,1774-1786.


Adnan Hussein Alwakgga, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed.
Effect of sowing dates on germination of common water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart) solms in Central Iraq.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 13(1), 1-8, July 2018.
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update