Review: Impact of salinity on physico-chemical properties of plants
By: Zohaib Ahmad, Qaiser Shakeel, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Muhammad Samsam Raza, Muhammad Abdulqadir Hassan Kharal, Rizwan Ghafar, Absar-ul-Haq Khalid, Warda Modassar Saddique, Muhammad Farooq Haider
Key Words: Salinity, Types of salinity, Impact of salinity, Wheat, Vegetables
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(1), 33-43, January 2021.
Certification: jbes 2021 0328 [Generate Certificate]
Salinity is a major key issue in an agricultural system that is caused by poor agricultural practices. Salt stress has adverse effects on biomass production and the yield of the crops. The yield of cash crops is mostly affected by salt stress. Wheat and other vegetable crops that are an important part of our daily food are severely affected by salt stress. The gross production of these significant crops is decreased due to the high level of salt stress. Salt stress is responsible for decreasing the number of leaves per plant and the leaf area is adversely affected due to salinity as well. Photosynthetic pigments are also severely decreased due to salt stress. Inorganic ions are also affected due to salinity like the concentration of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl¯) ion increased under salt stress. While the concentration of potassium (k) and calcium Ca2+ is decreased. Salt stress also alters the physiology of the plants. In the biochemical process, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), phenolics, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbic acid are significantly elevated while glycine betaine (GB), leaf-free proline and total soluble proteins are decreased. Salinity affects the plant from germination to till its death. It is one of the important problems of abiotic stress that decreases the yield of agricultural commodities. It is a matter of immense to develop strategies to compete with this issue. Otherwise, severe yield losses have occurred and we may face the food shortage issue due to salinity.
Review: Impact of salinity on physico-chemical properties of plants
Ahmed M, Magsi H, Ali A. 2016. Comparing the economic efficiency of wheat productivity in different cropping systems of Sindh. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, September.
Abraham E, Rig G, Székely G, Nagy R, Koncz C, Szabados L. 2003. Light-dependent induction of proline biosynthesis by abscisic acid and salt stress is inhibited by brassino steroid in Arabidopsis. Plant Molecular Biology 51, 363-372.
Adams PH. 1989. Effects of constant and ﬂuctuating salinity on the yield, quality and calcium status of tomatoes. Journal of horticultural science 64, 725-732.
Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Salem MA, Nabi G, Sharma S. 2010. Roles of Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Critical Review of Biotechnology 30, 161-175.
Ahmad P, Sharma S. 2008. Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants. Plant Soil Environment 54, 89-99.
Ahmad P. 2010. Growth and antioxidant responses in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to combined effect of gibberellic acid and salinity. Archives of agronomy and soil science 56, 575-588.
Ahmad P, Prasad MNV. 2012. Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York.
Alenzi FQ, El-Bolkiny, Yel-S, Salem ML. 2010. Protective effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone against toxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide. Journal of biomedical science 61, 33-36.
Alvino A, D’Andria R, Delfine S, Lavini A, Zanetti P. 2000. Effect of water and salinity stress on radiation absorption and efficiency in sunflower. Italian journal of agronomy 4, 53-60.
Apel K, Hirt H. 2004. Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annual review of plant biology 55, 3733-99.
Ashraf M, Harris PJC. 2013. Photosynthesis under stressful environments: An overview. Photosynthetica 51, 163-190.
Ashraf M. 2001. Relationships between growth and gas exchange characteristics in some salttolerant amphidiploid Brassica species in relation to their diploid parents. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45, 155-163.
Ashraf MY, Akhtar K, Sarwar G, Ashraf M. 2005. Role of rooting system in salt tolerance potential of different guar accessions. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25, 243-249.
Ashraf M, Foolad MR. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment-a shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-salne conditions. Advances in Agronomy 88, 223-271.
Ashraf MY, Ali Y, Qureshi TM. 1994. Effect of salinity on photosynthetic efficiency and yield of rice genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 72-74.
Atlassi PV, Nabipour M, Meskarbashee M. 2009. Effect of Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Fluorescence, Na+ and K+ Ions Content in Rape Plants (Brassica napus L.). Asian Journal of Agriculture 3, 28-37.
Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Vadez V, Sharma KK. 2008. Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in plants: retrospect and prospects. Plant Cell Reports 27, 411-424.
Cheeseman JM. 2007. Hydrogen peroxide and plant stress: a challenging relationship. Plant Stress 1, 4-15.
Delfine S, Alvino A, Zacchini M, Loreto F. 1998. Consequences of salt stress on conductance to CO2 diffusion, Rubisco characteristics and anatomy of spinach leaves. Functional Plant Biology 25, 395-402.
Fisarakis I, Chartzoulakis K, Stavrakas D. 2001. Response of Sultana vines (V. vinifera L.) on six rootstocks to NaCl salinity exposure and recovery. Agricultural Water Management 51, 13-27.
Flexas J, Diaz-Espejo A, Galmés J, Kaldenhoff R, Medrano H, Ribas-Carbo M. 2007. Rapid variations of mesophyll conductance in response to changes in CO2 concentration around leaves. Plant Cell Environment 30, 1284-1298.
Garg N, Manchanda G. 2008. Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiology of Plant 30, 595-618.
Ghulam C, Foursy A, Fares K. 2002. Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany 47, 39-50.
Giuffrida F, Scuderi D, Giurato R, Leonardi C. 2013. Physiological response of broccoli and cauliflower as affected by NaCl salinity. Acta Horticulture 1005, 435-441.
Goreja WG. 2003. Black seed: nature’s miracle remedy. New York: Amazing Herbs Press. Biochemical pharmacology 23, 1327-1331.
Grattan S, Grieve C. 1998. Salinity-mineral nutrient relationships in horticulture crops. Science Horticulture 78, 115-127.
Grattan SR, Grieve CM. 1992. Mineral element acquisition and growth response of plant grown in saline environments. Agriculture ecosystems and environment 38, 275-300.
Gulzar S, Khan M, Ungar I. 2003. Salt tolerance of a coastal salt marsh grass. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 34, 2595-2605.
Hendawy S, Elhua Y, Yakout GM, Awad AM, Hafiz SE, Schmidhalter U. 2005. Evaluating Salt Tolerance of Wheat Genotypes Using Multiple Parameters. European Journal of Agronomy 22, 243-253.
Ishfaq M. 2017. Perspective of salt-affected soil in Pakistan. Research gate 13-17.
James R, Rivelli A, Munns R, von Caemmerer S. 2002. Factors affecting CO2 assimilation, leaf injury and growth in salt-stressed durum wheat. Functional Plant Biology 29, 139-313.
Kaur G, Kumar S, Nayyar H, Upadhyaya HD. 2008. Cold stress injury during the pod-ﬁlling phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): effects on quantitative and qualitative components of seeds. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Sciences 194, 457-464.
Kaymakanova M, Stoeva N. 2008. Physiological reaction of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to salt stress. General and Applied Plant Physiology 34, 177-188.
Koyro H. 2006. Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and solute composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Plantago coronopus (L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany 56, 136-146.
Läuchli A, Grattan SR. 2007. Plant growth and development under salinity stress. In Advances in Molecular Breeding toward Drought and Salt Tolerant Crops; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlandspp 45, 1-32.
Lu C, Qiu N, Lu Q, Wang B, Kuang T. 2002. Does salt stress lead to increased susceptibility of photosystem II to photo inhibition and changes in photosynthetic pigment composition in halophyte Suaeda salsa grown outdoors. Plant Science 163, 1063-1068.
Maggio A, Miyazaki S, Veronese P, Fujita T, Ibeas J, Damsz B, Narasimhan M, Hasegawa P, Joly R, Bressan R. 2002. Does proline accumulation play an active role in stress induced growth reduction. The Plant Journal 31, 699-712.
Maggio A, De Pascale S, Fagnano M, Barbieri G. 2011. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments. Italalian Journal of Agronomy 59, 651-681.
Mansour MA. 2000. Protective effects of thymoquinone and desferrioxamine against hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in mice. Life science 66, 2583-2591.
Mantri N, Patade V, Penna S, Ford R, Pang E. 2012. Abiotic stress responses in plants: present and future. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York, pp 1-19.
Marcelis LFM, Van Hooijdonk J. 1999. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plant Soil 215, 57-64.
Mer RK, Prajith PK, Pandya DH, Pandey AN. 2000. Effect of salts on germination of seeds and growth of young plants of Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Cicer arietinum and Brassica juncea. Journal of agronomy and crop sciences 185, 209-217.
Mittler R, Blumwald E. 2010. Genetic engineering for modern agriculture: challenges and perspective. Annual Review of Plant Biology 61, 443-462.
Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M. 2004. Salinity upregulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. Journal of experimental botany 55, 1105-1113.
Munns R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell and Environment 25, 239-250.
Munns R. 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytologist. 167, 645-663.
Munns R, Tester M. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu. Rev.Plant biology 59, 651-681.
Munns R. 1988. Causes of Varietal differences in Satl tolerance. In: International congress of plant physiology, New Delhi, India pp. 960-968.
Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, Richard AJ, Condon AG, Megan PL, Evans SL, Schachtman DP, Hare RA. 2002. Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant Soil 247, 93-105.
Murakezy P, Nagy Z, Duhazé C, Bouchereau A, Tuba Z. 2003. Seasonal changes in the levels of compatible osmolytes in three halophytic species of inland saline vegetation in Hungary. Journal of Plant Physiology 160, 395-401.
NFDC. 2003. Fertilzers and Their Use in Pakistan. 3rd Edition, NFDC, Islamabad.
Pandey AN, Thakrar NK. 1997. Effect of chloride salinity on survival and growth of Prosopis chilensis seedlings. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 38, 145-148.
Paranychianakis NV, Chartzoulakis KS. 2005. Irrigation of Mediterranean crops with saline water: From physiology to management practices. Agriculture ecosystems and environment 106, 171-187.
Parida A, Das A, Das P. 2002. NaCl stress causes changes in photosynthetic pigments, proteins, and other metabolic components in the leaves of a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, in hydroponic cultures. Journal of Plant Biology 45, 28-36.
Parvaiz A, Satyawati S. 2008. Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants-a review. Plant Soil and Environment 54, 89-96.
Pitman MG, Läuchli A. 2002. Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystems. In: Läuchli, A., Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment–plants–molecules. Kluwer, Dordrecht pp 3-20.
Qados A, Amira MS. 2011. Effect of Salt Stress on Plant Growth and Metabolism of Bean Plant (Vicia faba L.). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 10, 7-15.
Rahman M, Kayani SA, Gul S. 2000. Combined effects of temperature and salinity stress on corn cv. Sunahry. Pakistan journal of biological sciences 3(9), 1459-1463.
Rodríguez M, Canales E, Borrás-Hidalgo O. 2005. Molecular aspects of abiotic stress in plants. Biotechnological Application 22, 1-1.
Romero-Aranda R, Soria T, Cuartero J. 2001. Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Science 160, 265-272.
Romero-Aranda M, Jurado O, Cuartero J. 2006. Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status. Journal of plant physiology 163, 847855
Salem ML. 2005. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed. International immunopharmacology 5, 1749-1770.
Schachtmann PD, Munns R. 1992. Sodium Accumulation in Leaves of Triticum Species That Differ in Salt Tolerance. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 19(3), 331 – 340.
Shannon MC, Grieve CM. 1998. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia horticulturae 78, 5-38.
Sharma PC. 2003. Salt Tolerance of Indian Mustard: Factor Affecting Growth and Yield. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 22, 368-372.
Shirazi MU, Asif SM, Khanzada MA, Khan, Mohammad A. 2001. Growth and ion accumulation in some wheat genotypes under NaCl stress. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciencesi 4, 388-391.
Siler B, Misic D, Filipovic B, Popovic Z, Cvetic T, Mijovic A. 2007. Effects of Salinity on in Vitro Growth and Photosynthesis of Common Centaury (Centaurium erythraea N. A. Kalhoro et al. 2271 Rafn.). Archives of Biological Sciences 59, 129-134.
Snapp SS, Shennan C, Bruggen AV. 1991. Effects of salinity on severity of infection by Phytophthora parasitica Dast., ion concentrations and growth of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. New Phytologist 119, 275-284.
Hossain SMd. 2019. Present scenario of globel salt affected soils,its management and importance of salinity research. International Research journal of Biological Sciences 1(1), 1-3.
Shewry RP. 2009. Darwin Review: Wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 6(6), 1537-1553.
Taiz L, Zeiger E. 2002. Plant Physiology, 3rd ed.; Publisher Sinauer: Sunderland, UK p. 690.
Thakur P, Kumar S, Malik JA, Berger JD, Nayyar H. 2010. Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environmental and Experimental Botany 67, 429-443.
Torabi M, Halim RA. 2010.Variation of root and shoot growth and free proline accumulation in Iranian alfalfa ecotypes under salt stress. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 8(3&4), 323-327.
Vorasoot N, Songsri P, Akkasaeng C, Jogloy S, Patanothai A. 2003. Effect of water stress on yield and agronomic characters of peanut. Songklanakarin. Journal of Science and Technology 25, 283-288.
Wilson C, Read J, Abo-Kaseem E. 2002. Effect of Mixed Salt Salinity on Growth and Ion Uptake of Quinon and a Wheat Variety. Journal of Plant Nutrition 25, 2689-2704.
Yeo AR, Salinity, In-Plant Solute Transport, Yeo AR, Flowers TJ, Eds, Blackwell: Oxford, UK. 2007. pp. 340-365.
Zhao GQ, Ma BL, Ren CZ. 2007. Growth, Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Ion Consent of Naked Oat in Response to Salinity. Crop Science 47, 123-131.
Zheng Y, Xu X, Li Z, Yang X. 2009. Differential Responses of Grain Yield and Quality to Euphytica, Salinity between Wheat Cultivars. Seeds Sciences and Biotechnology 3, 40-43.
Zribi L, Gharbi F, Rezgui F, Rejeb S, Nahdi H, Rejeb MN. 2009. Application of chlorophyll ﬂuorescence for the diagnosis of salt stress in tomato “Solanum lycopersicum (variety Rio Grande)”. Scientia horticulturae 120, 367-372.
Review: Impact of salinity on physico-chemical properties of plants.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(1), 33-43, January 2021.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)