International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Review on reported importance and previous conservation investigations of a threatened food tree species Pentadesma butyracea

By: M. Mouyohoun Kouagou, Honore SS Biaou, Imorou Ouorou Barre Fousseni, Jonas A Djenontin, Armand K Natta

Key Words: Effective conservation strategy, Optimal habitat size, Synergetic disturbances, Pentadesma butyracea

J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(3), 31-46, March 2021.

Certification: jbes 2021 0328 [Generate Certificate]


Most of multi-use species are declining in the wide habitat in spite of the variety of the conservation recommendations formulated by researchers. This may be due to the fact that a large part of researches focused on their socio-economic importance than the conservation of those species. Pentadesma butyracea is a multi-uses tree species that occurs from Sierra Leone to Gabon in dense Guineo-Congo rainforest and in gallery forests in the Dahomey-Gap of the dry corridor. This work used 56 studies to synthetize the importance of Pentadesma butyracea, enumerate the main threats to species persistence and test if probability of suggesting conservation strategies varied according to main fields of research, the conservation focus and the statement of conservation aim in the study. Our synthesis showed that although 68.75% asked conservation questions, only 43.75% suggested strategies for conservation of Pentadesma butyracea species and/or its habitat, gallery forests. We found 11 combinations of disturbances and 3 isolated disturbances which can simultaneously occur in the wild. We recommended for Pentadesma butyracea and it habitat effective conservation to limit gallery forest width reduction and fragmentation, to enforce the law regarding the minimum distance between farmer field and the gallery forest. Studies on multi-uses trees species must explicitly involve the viability of remnant populations and set the threshold viable habitat size. We also recommend to disentangle drivers of Pentadesma butyracea populations decline using update and accurate mathematical and statistical tools.

| Views 11 |

| Views 11 |

Review on reported importance and previous conservation investigations of a threatened food tree species Pentadesma butyracea

Abbiw DK. 1990. Useful plants of Ghana: African uses of wild and cultivated plants (Intermedia). London: Kew.

Aissi MV, Tchobo FP, Natta A, Piombo G, Villeneuve P, Sohounhloue DCK, Soumanou MM. 2011. Effet des prétraitements post-récolte des amandes de Pentadesma butyracea (Sabine) sur la technologie d’extraction en milieu réel et la qualité du beurre. OCL 18(6), 384-392.

Akoègninou A, Van der Burg W, Van der Maesen LJ. 2006. Flore Analytique Du Bénin.

Alitonou G, Avlessi F, Sohounhloue DCK, Bessière JM, Menut C. 2010. Chemical and biological investigation on volatile constituents of Pentadesma butyracea sabine (Clusiaceae) from Benin. Journal of Essential Oil Research 22(2), 138-140.

Amissah L. 2014. Functional traits, drought performance, and the distribution of tree species in tropical forests of Ghana. PhD Thesis. Wageningen University, Wageningen, NL.

Avocèvou-Ayisso C. 2011. Etude de la viabilité des populations de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine et de leur socio-économie au Bénin. Thèse de Doctorat. Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Republique du Benin.

Avocèvou-Ayisso C, Avohou TH, Oumorou M, Dossou G, Sinsin BA. 2011. Ethnobotany of Pentadesma butyracea in Benin: A quantitative approach. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 9, 151-166.

Avocèvou-Ayisso C, Sinsin BA, Adeagbidi A, Dossou G, Van Damme P. 2009. Sustainable use of non-timber forest products: Impact of fruit harvesting on Pentadesma butyracea regeneration and financial analysis of its products trade in Benin. Forest Ecology and Management (257), 1930 1938.

Ayegnon BP, Kayodé APP, Gnanvi G, Madodé Y, Balbine A, Azokpota P, Soumanou M, Hounhouigan JD. 2015a. Screening of the kernels of Pentadesma butyracea from various growing sites of Benin and evaluation of their antioxidant pigments content. African Journal of Biotechnology 14, 1- 10.

Ayegnon BP, Kayodé APP, Nassia I, Barea B, Tchobo FP. 2009. Effects of storage conditions on the fatty acid composition of the butter of tallow tree (Pentadesma butyracea). Journal of Applied Biosciences 8630-8638.

Ayegnon BP, Kayodé AP, Tchobo FP, Azokpota P, Soumanou M, Hounhouigan DJ. 2015b. Profiling the quality characteristics of the butter of Pentadesma butyracea with reference to shea butter. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture,

DOI 10.1002/jsfa.7052

Badoussi E, Azokpota P, Madodé YE, Kayodé PAP, Dossou A, Soumanou M, Hounhouigan DJ. 2014. Variations in the traditional processing methods of Pentadesma butyracea butter in northern Benin. Food Chain 4(3), 261-274

Badoussi E, Azokpota P, Madodé YE, Amoussou BF, Tchobo FP, Kayodé APP, Dossou A, Soumanou MM, Hounhouigan DJ. 2015a. Effet des opérations unitaires d’extraction sur le rendement et la qualité du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea produit en milieu traditionnel au Bénin. Journal of Applied Bioscences 86, 7976-7989.

Badoussi E, Azokpota P, Madodé YE, Tchobo FP, Fagla B, Kayodé APP, Soumanou MM, Hounhouigan DJ. 2015b. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma butyracea kernels during butter production. African Journal of Biotechnology 14, 2777-2785.

Badoussi E, Madode YE, Amoussou BF, Azokpota P, Tchobo FP, Kayode APP, Soumanou MM, Hounhouigan JD. 2016. Optimisation de la torréfaction des amandes de P. butyracea pour la production du beurre. Annales Des Sciences Agronomiques 20(2), 107-123.

Baker WL. 2006. Fire and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34, 177-185.

Bamps P. 1972. Répartition de Pentadesma en Afrique. Bulletin Du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 41, 430-432.

Brook B, Sodhi N, Bradshaw C. 2008. Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23(8), 453-460.

Brooks ME, Kristensen K, van Benthem KJ, Magnusson A, Berg CW, Nielsen A, Skaug HJ, Maechler M, Bolker BM. 2017. Glmmtmb Balances Speed and Flexibility Among Packages for Zero-inflated Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling. The R Journal 9(2), 378-400.

Bruna E, Fiske I, Trager M. 2009. Habitat fragmentation and plant populations: is what we know demographically irrelevant. Journal of Vegetation Science 20, 569-576.

Bruna EM. 2003. Are plant populations in fragmented habitats recruitment limited? Tests with an Amazonian herb. Ecology 84, 932-947.

Bruna EM, Oli MK. 2005. Demographic effects of habitat fragmentation on a tropical herb: Life-table response experiments. Ecology 86(7), 1816-1824.

Burney DA, Flannery TF. 2005. Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20, 395-401.

Busch J, Ferretti-Gallon K. 2017. What drives deforestation and what stops it. A metaanalysis. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 11, 3-23.

Caswell H. 2001. Matrix population models: Construction, analysis, and interpretation (2nd Ed.). Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.

Ceperley N, Montagnini F, Natta AK. 2010. Significance of sacred sites for riparian forest conservation in Central Benin. Bois et Forets Des Tropiques 303, 5-23.

Cote I, Darling E, Brown CJ. 2016. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 283.

Curran L, Webb C. 2000. Experimental tests of the spatiotemporal scale of seed predation in mast-fruiting Dipterocarpaceae. Ecological Monographs 70, 129-148.

Dencausse L, Nsourankoua H, Artaud J, Clamou JL. 1995. Comparison of the lipidic compositions of butters of Pentadesma and the shea tree. OCL 2, 143-147.

Dicko A, Sorotori S, Honoré B, Natta A, Gado C, Kouagou M. 2016. Influence des pressions anthropiques sur la structure des populations de Pentadesma butyracea au Bénin. VertigO 16, 0-21.

Didham R, Tylianakis J, Gemmell N, Rand T, Ewers R. 2007. Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 489-496.

Dosso K, Konate S, Akoua T, Kouakou M. 2011. The study of unburned savanna sections serving as temporary refuges for insects . An experiment in a tropical humid savanna in Côte d’ Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences 39, 2607-2617.

Easterling MR, Ellner SP, Dixon PM. 2000. Size-specific sensitivity: applying a new structured population model. Ecology 81, 694-708.

Ellner SP, Rees M. 2007. Stochastic stable population growth in integral projection models: theory and application. Journal of Mathematical Biology 54, 227-256.

Emanuel PL, Shackletoncm, Baxter JS. 2005. Modeling the sustainable harvest of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra fruits in the South African lowveld. Forest Ecol ogy and Management 214, 91-103.

Ewédjè E-EBK. 2012. Biologie de la reproduction, phylogéographie et diversité de l’arbre à beurre Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae)implications pour sa conservation au Bénin. PhD Thesis. Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Ewédjè E-EBK, Ahanchédé A, Hardy OJ, Ley AC. 2015. Reproductive biology of Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae), source of a valuable non timber forest product in Benin. Plant Ecology and Evolution 148(2), 213-228.

Ewédjè E, Ahanchédé A, Hardy O. 2017. Breeding system, gene dispersal and small-scale spatial genetic structure of a threatened food tree species, Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae) in Benin. Conservation Genetics 18(4), 799-811.

Ewédjè E, Parmentier I, Natta A, Ahanchédé A, Hardy O. 2012. Morphological variability of the tallow tree, Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae), in Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59, 625-633.

Fahrig L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34, 487-515.

Fletcher RJ, Didham RK, Banks-Leite C, Ewers RM, Rosindell J, Holt RD, Haddad NM. 2018a. Is habitat fragmentation good for biodiversity. Biological Conservation 226, 9-15.

Fletcher RJ, Reichert BE, Holmes K. 2018b. The negative effects of habitat fragmentation operate at the scale of dispersal. Ecology 99(10), 2176-2186.

Frank B, Piccolo J, Baret P. 2011. A review of ecological models for brown trout: towards a new demogenetic model. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 20, 167-198.

Fritts T, Rodda G. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: A case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29, 113-140.

Gaoue OG, Gado C, Natta AK, Kouagou M. 2018. Recurrent fruit harvesting reduces seedling density but increases the frequency of clonal reproduction in a tropical tree. Biotropica 50(1), 69-73.

Gaoue OG, Horvitz CC, Ticktin T, Steiner UK, Tuljapurkar S. 2013. Defoliation and bark harvesting affect life-history traits of a tropical tree. Journal of Ecology 101(6), 1563-1571.

Gaoue OG, Ticktin T. 2010. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences on the demography of African mahogany. Conservation Biology 24(2), 605-614.

Gaoue OG, Kouagou M, Natta A, Gado C. 2017. Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size. PLoS ONE 12(8), e0183964.

Gaoue O, Ticktin T. 2008. Impacts of bark and foliage harvest on Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae) reproductive performance in Benin. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 34-40.

Goswami VR, Vasudev D, Oli MK. 2014. The importance of conflict-induced mortality for conservation planning in areas of human-elephant co-occurrence. Biological Conservation 176, 191-198.

Guedje NM, Lejoly J, Nkongmeneck BA, Jonkers WBJ. 2003. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests. Forest Ecology and Management 177, 231-244.

Houédjissin SS, Azokpota P, Assogbadjo A, Ahanhanzo C, Hounhouigan JD. 2016. Traditional classification, perception, and preferences for tallow tree (Pentadesma butyracea Sabine) Organs in Benin: Implications for domestication and conservation. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 503, 491-503.

Houédjissin SS, Dangou SJ, Azokpota P, Cacaï G, Agbidinoukoun A, Hounhouigan DJ, Ahanhanzo C. 2015. Régénération in vitro de l’arbre à suif (Pentadesma butyracea Sabine), une espèce ligneuse à usages multiples (LUM) vulnérable au Bénin. European Scientific Journal 11(21), 150-167.

Isaza C, Bernal R, Galeano G, Martorell C. 2017. Demography of Euterpe precatoria and Mauritia flexuosa in the Amazon: application of integral projection models for their harvest. Biotropica 49(5), 653-664.

Karp DS, Frishko LO, Echeverri A, Zook J, Juárez P, Chan K. 2018. Agriculture erases climate-driven β-diversity in Neotropical bird communities. Global Change Biology 24, 338-349.

Kolb A. 2005. Reduced reproductive success and offspring survival in fragmented populations of the forest herb Phyteuma spicatum. Journal of Ecology 93(6), 1226-1237.

Kouagou M, Ahoundjinou O, Biaou S, Keita N, Natta A. 2018. Impact of fragmentation on tree diversity, density and structure of P. butyracea Sabine Clusiaceae population in Benin (West-Africa). International Journal of Biology and Chemical Sciences 12(5), 1965-1975.

Lankoande B, Ouedrago A, Boussim IJ, Lykke AM. 2017. Identification of determining traits of seed production in Carapa procera and Pentadesma butyracea, two native oil trees from riparian forests in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Biomass and Bioenergy 102, 37-43.

Laurance WF, Useche DC. 2009. Environmental synergisms and extinctions of tropical species. Conservation Biology 23, 1427-1437.

Laurance W, Lovejoy T, Vasconcelos H, Bruna E, Didham R, Stouffer P, Sampaio E. 2002. Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: A 22-year investigation. Conservation Biology 16, 605-618.

Lawes MJ, Adie H, Russell-Smith J, Murphy B, Midgley JJ. 2011. How do small savanna trees avoid stem mortality by fire. The roles of stem diameter, height and bark thickness. Ecosphere 2, 1-13.

Lefcheck J. 2016. PIECEWISESEM: Piecewise structural equation modelling in R for ecology, evolution, and systematics. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 7, 573-579.

Lenta BN, Kamdem LM, Ngouela S, Tantangmo F, Devkota KP, Boyom FF, Tsamo E. 2011. Antiplasmodial constituents from the fruitpericarp of Pentadesma butyracea. Planta Med 77, 377-379.

Malcolm J, Liu C, Neilson R, Hansen L, Hannah L. 2006. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conservation Biology 20, 538-548.

Mandle L, Ticktin T, Zuidem PA. 2015. Resilience of palm populations to disturbance is determined by interactive effects of fire, herbivory and harvest. Journal of Ecology 103, 1032-1043.

Melo FPL, Lemire D, Tabarelli M. 2007. Extirpation of large-seeded seedlings from the edge of a large Brazilian Atlantic forest fragment. Ecoscience 14, 124-129.

Metcalf CJE, McMahon SM, Salguero-Gomez R, Jongejan E. 2013. IPMpack: an R package for integral projection models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4, 195-200.

Mora C, Metzger R, Rollo A, Myers RA. 2007. Experimental simulations about the effects of overexploitation and habitat fragmentation on populations facing environmental warming. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 274, 1023-1028.

Natta A. 2003. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin: phytodiversity, phytosociology and spatial distribution of tree species. PhD. Thesis. Wageningen University.

Natta AK, Adomou AC, Tchabi VI, Sogbegnon AR, Mensah GABA. 2011a. Inventaire, typologie et structure des populations naturelles de Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae) de la chaîne de l’Atacora au Nord-Ouest du Bénin. Bulletin de Recherche Agronomique du Bénin 70, 10-24.

Natta A, Yedomonhan H, Zoumarou-Wallis N, Houndehin J, Ewédjè E, Glele Kakai RL. 2011b. Typologie et structure des populations naturelles de Pentadesma butyracea dans la zone soudano-guineenne du Benin. Annales Des Sciences Agronomiques 15(2), 217-243.

Natta AK, Sogbégnon R, Tchobo F. 2010. Connaissances Endogènes et Importance du Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae) pour les Populations Autochtones au Nord-Ouest Bénin. Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 4, 18-25.

Natta A, Sinsin B, van der Maesen L. 2002. Riparian forest, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin. Notulae Florae Beninensis 4. Botanische Jahrbucher 124, 55-69.

Natta A, Zoumarou-Wallis N, Akossou AY, Houndehin J. 2013. Effets de l’eau et de la lumière sur la germination des graines de Pentadesma butyracea Sabine au centre Bénin. Annales de l’Universite de Parakou, Série : Sciences Naturelles et Agronomiques 2(2), 9-15.

Neuenschwander P, Sinsin BA, Goergen G. 2011. Protection de la nature en Afrique de l’Ouest: une liste rouge pour le Benin. Nature conservation in West Africa: Red List for Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ning-Hua T, Chang-Jiu J, Tala FM, Wabo KH, Zeng G, Tane P. 2015. A prenylated xanthone and antiproliferative compounds from leaves of Pentadesma butyracea. Phytochemistry Letters 326-330.

Noudogbessi J, Natta A, Tchobo F, Bogninou G, Bothon F, Bossou A, Figueredo G, Chalard P, Chalchat JC, Sohounhloue D. 2013. Phytochemical screening of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) acclimated in Benin by GC/MS. ISRN Analytical Chemistry 1-8.

Picard N, Liang J. 2014. Matrix Models for Size-Structured Populations: Unrealistic Fast Growth or Simply Diffusion? PLoS ONE 9(6).

Pivello V. 2011. The use of fire in the Cerrado and Amazonian Rainforests of Brazil: Past and present. Fire Ecology 7, 24-39.

Poschlod P, Bonn S. 1998. Changing dispersal processes in the central European landscape since the last ice age: An explanation for the actual decrease of plant species richness in different habitats. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 47, 27-44.

Pounds JA, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Consuegra JA, Fogden MPL, Foster PN, La Marca E, Masters KL, Merino-Viteri A, Puschendorf R, Ron SR, Sánchez-Azofeifa GA, Still CJ, Young BE. 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439, 161-167.

Price S, Gittleman J. 2007. Hunting to extinction: Biology and regional economy influence extinction risk and the impact of hunting in artiodactyls. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 274, 1845-1851.

R Core Team. 2018. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from

Rachman O, Balfas J. 1987. Machining properties of wood species from West Java. Journal-Penelitian-Hasil-Hutan 4, 54-64.

Raponda-Walker A, Sillans R. 1961. Useful plants of Gabon (Paul Leche). Paris, France.

Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbourmg, Panetta FD, West CJ. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6(2), 93-107.

Rutledge D. 2003. Landscape indices as measures of the effects of fragmentation: can pattern reflect process. Department of Conservation, Wellington: Science Internal Series 98.

Salzmann U, Hoelzmann P. 2005. The Dahomey Gap: an abrupt climatically induced rain forest fragmentation in West Africa during the late Holocene. The Holocene 15(2), 1-10.

Sama B, Sacandé M, Schmidt LH. 2007. Pentadesma butyracea Sabine. Seed Leaflet.

Schmidt I, Mandle L, Ticktin T, Gaoue O. 2011. What do matrix population models reveal about the sustainability of non-timber forest product harvest. Journal of Applied Ecology. 48, 815-826.

Schreckenberg K. 1996. Forest, fields and markets: A study of indigenous Tress products in the Woody savannas of the Bassila region. University of London, UK.

Sharp AC, Barclay MVL, Chung AYC, Ewers RM. 2019. Tropical logging and deforestation impacts multiple scales of weevil beta-diversity. Biological Conservation 234, 172-179

Sinsin BA, Sinadouwirou A. 2003. Valorisation socio-économique et pérennité du Pentadesma butyracea Sabine en galeries forestières au Bénin. Cahiers Agricultures 12, 75-79.

Sinsin B, Avocévou C. 2007. Pentadesma butyracea Sabine. (van der Vossen HAM, Mkamilo GS, Eds.) (PROTA 14:).

Sizer N, Tanner E. 1999. Responses of woody plant seedlings to edge formation in a lowland tropical rainforest, Amazonia. Biological Conservation 91, 135-142.

Sutherland WJ, Adams WM, Aronson RB, Aveling R, Blackburn TM, Broad S, Ceballos G, Côté IM, Cowling RM, Da Fonseca GAB, Dinerstein E, Ferraro PJ, Fleishman E, Gascon C, Hunter Jr M, Hutton J, Kareiva P, Kuria A, Macdonald DW, Mackinnon K, Madgwick FJ, Mascia MB, McNeely J, MilnerGulland EJ, Moon S, Morley CG, Nelson S, Osborn D, Pai M, Parsons ECM, Peck LS, Possingham H, Prior SV, Pullin AS, Rands MRW, Ranganathan J, Redford KH, Rodriguez JP, Seymour F, Sobel J, Sodhi NS, Stott A, Vance-Borland K, Watkinson AR. 2009. One hundred questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity. Conservation Biology 23, 557-567.

Tabarelli M, Cardosa da Silva JM, Gascon C. 2004. Forest fragmentation, synergisms and the impoverishment of neotropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 13, 1419-1425.

Tala MF, Wabo HK, Zeng GZ, Ji CJ, Tane P, Tan NH. 2013. A prenylated xanthone and antiproliferative compounds from leaves of Pentadesma butyracea. Phytochemistry Letters 6, 326-330.

Taubert F, Fischer R, Groeneveld J, Lehmann S, Müller MS, Rödig E, Wiegand T, Huth A. 2018. Global patterns of tropical forest fragmentation. Nature 554, 519-522.

Tchobo FP, Natta AK, Barea B, Barouh N, Piombo G, Pina M, Villeneuve P, Soumanou MM, Sohounhloue DCK. 2007. Characterization of Pentadesma butyracea sabine butters of different production regions in Benin. Journal of American Oil Chemical Society 84, 755-760.

Ticktin T. 2004. The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(1), 11-21.

Ticktin T, Ganesan R, Paramesha M, Setty S. 2012. Disentangling the effects of multiple anthropogenic drivers on the decline of two tropical dry forest trees. Journal of Applied Ecology 49(4), 774-784.

Ticktin T, Mondragón D, Gaoue O. 2016. Host genus and rainfall drive the population dynamics of a vascular epiphyte. Ecosphere 7(11), e01580.

Tindano B, Bayala B, Doukoure M, Belemtougri R, Tamboura H, Sawadogo L. 2017. Phytochemical composition, acute toxicity and phytohormonal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Pentadesma butyracea (Clusiaceae Sabine (1824)) seeds. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 11(42), 656-664.

Wabo HK, Kikuchi H, Katou Y, Tane P, Oshima Y. 2010. Xanthones and Abenzophenone from the roots of Pentadesma butyracea and their antiproliferative activity. Phytochemistry Letters 3, 104-107.

White L, Albernethy K. 1996. Guide de la végétation de la Réserve de la Lopé. Gabon. Libreville: ECOFAC.

Wintle BA, Kujala H, Whitehead A, Cameron A, Veloz S, Kukkala A, Gordon A, Lentini PE, Cadenhead NCR, Bekessy SA, Moilanen A. 2019. Global synthesis of conservation studies reveals the importance of small habitat patches for biodiversity. PNAS 116(3), 909-914

Zelefack F, Guilet D, Fabre N, Bayet C, Chevalley S, Ngouela S, Dijoux-Francamg. 2009. Cytotoxic and antiplasmodial Xanthones from Pentadesma butyracea. Journal of Natural Products 72, 954-957.

M. Mouyohoun Kouagou, Honore SS Biaou, Imorou Ouorou Barre Fousseni, Jonas A Djenontin, Armand K Natta.
Review on reported importance and previous conservation investigations of a threatened food tree species Pentadesma butyracea.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(3), 31-46, March 2021.
Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
innspub logo
english language editing
    Publish Your Article
    Submit Your Article
Email Update