A critical assessment of quality status of selected sachet water in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2012
Views (260) Download (5)

A critical assessment of quality status of selected sachet water in Calabar Municipality, Nigeria

MA Abua, AI Iwara, UW Ibor, TD Deekor, EE Ewa, CJ Lasisi
Int. J. Biosci.2( 2), 19-26, February 2012.
Certificate: IJB 2012 [Generate Certificate]


Nigeria is endowed with abundant surface and sub-surface water resources, yet most urban areas are still faced with the challenges of providing potable and adequate water supply for its residents. The use of water is restricted by it quality which makes it unhealthy for a particular use. This paper assessed the water quality status of five sachet water in Calabar Municipality with the aim of comparing their physico-chemical parameters with those permissible by World Health Organization (WHO). Purposive sampling technique was employed to select five widely consumed sachet water with National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) registration numbers in five retail shops across the Metropolis. The result revealed that the physico-chemical parameters found in the selected sachet water samples did not vary (p>0.05), as their proportions were within the same range and ideal for consumption. Also, the analysis revealed that Blue Rose sachet water was adjudged the most suitable for consumption as the proportions of its parameters were within WHO permissible limits; this was followed by Marian sachet water, while Laura and Dukon sachet water samples were fairly potable for consumption, because the proportions of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) far exceeded WHO maximum desirable limits for drinking water. Based on the findings, it was suggested among others that NAFDAC should critically monitor and carry out routine assessment of the site, water sources, equipment and chemical used by water factories. In addition, to maintain their suitability for consumption, regular monitoring of the sachet factories should be ensured by the concerned authorities.


Adamu GK, Adekiya OA. 2010. An Assessment of Water Quality of Boreholes around selected Landfills in Kano Metropolis. African Scientist (11), 21595-6881.

Adelekan BA, Alawode AO. 2011. Contributions of Municipal Refuse Dumps to Heavy Metals Concentrations in Soil Profile and Groundwater in Ibadan Nigeria. Journal of Applied Biosciences 40, 2727 – 2737.

Afangideh, AI, Njar GN, Ewa EE, Eli HD, Iwara AI. 2011. Assessment of Water Quality Status of Borehole in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State. International Journal of Biosciences 1(5), 71-76.

APHA 1985. Standard Methods for the Examination Water and Waste Water. American Water Works, Association and Water Pollution Control Federation (16) 1076, American Public Health Association Washington DC.

Asuquo PE. 1989. Water Quality of the Calabar River, Nigeria. International Journal for Tropical Ecology 30(1).

Ayoade JO. 1988. Tropical Hydrology and water Resources. London: Macmillan.

Ayoade JO, Oyebande BL. 1978. Water Resources” in Oguntoyibo, I. S. (eds) A Geography of Nigeria Development. Ibadan: Heinenmann publishers.

Chukwu O. 2008. Analysis of Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir Waste in Minna, Nigeria. Research Journal of Diary Science 2(4), 74-77.

Ewa EE, Iwara AI, Adeyemi JA, Eja EI, Ajake AO, Otu CA. 2011. Impact of Industrial Activities on Water Quality of Omoku Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria. Sacha Journal of Environmental Studies 1(2), 8 – 16.

Eze BE, Abua, MA. 2003. Water Resources Management. Calabar: Ushie Printers and Publishing Co. Ltd.

Fadas AG. 2007. Health Implications of Portable Urban Water Supply in Sokoto Metropolis in Mamman, A.B.et al (eds) Urbanization, Resource Exploitation and Environmental Stability in Nigeria. Book of Proceedings of the 49th ANG, UNIABUJA.

Oyebande BL. 1978. Urban Water Supply Planning and Management in Nigeria. Geo-journal 2(5).

Oyebande BL. 1981. The Hydrology of Urban Water Supply: A case study of Jos in Sada, P.O. and Ohuntoyibo, J. S. (eds) Urbanization Processes and Problems in Nigeria. Ibadan: Ibadan University press.

Oyegun RO. 2001. Environmental Problems of Water Resource Development : A Geographical Perspective in Ofomata, G. E. and Phil-Eze, P. O. (eds) Geographical Perspectives on Environmental Problems and Management in Nigeria. Enugu: Jamoe Publishers (Nig).

WHO UNICEF. 2006. Meeting the MG-Ds Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenges of the Decade. Washington D.C.