J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(2), 222-226, August 2014
Heavy metals are found naturally in the earth. In very small amounts, many of these metals are necessary to support life. However, in larger amounts, they become toxic. The microorganisms may be indigenous to a contaminated area or they may be isolated from elsewhere and brought to thecontaminated site. Binding of metal elements to bacterial surface is due to the anionic properties of the bacterial envelope that is able to absorb metal cations. Phytoremediation is the name given to a set of technologies that use different plants as a containment, destruction, or an extraction technique. Phytoremediation efforts have largely focused on the use of plants to accelerate degradation of organic contaminants, usually in concert with root rhizosphere microorganisms, or remove hazardous heavy metals from soils or water. Phytoremediation consists of different plant-based technologies such as rhizofiltration, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization, and phytorestoration.
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