A review on seaweeds and its bioactive compounds: Implication to the WIO ecosystem health

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/02/2022
Views (432) Download (36)

A review on seaweeds and its bioactive compounds: Implication to the WIO ecosystem health

Asha S Ripanda, Deodata V Mtenga
Int. J. Biosci.20( 2), 300-313, February 2022.
Certificate: IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Seaweeds available in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) provide several benefits including income, nutrients, medicine and as primary producers, they are foundation species important for marine ecosystems capable of modifying their surrounding abiotic and biotic environments. The WIO coastprovides natural and necessary environments for seaweed existence. In this review article the potential of seaweeds and their bioactive compounds was investigated; their contribution to the provision of ecosystem services; medicinal and nutritional value for the wellbeing of the WIO ecosystem. It was observed that seaweeds and their bioactives have the potential to humans, other animals, agriculture, and the whole ecosystem. Therefore, for the sustainability of the WIO ecosystem, the potential given by seaweeds and their bioactives in the provision of nutrients, mitigation of health conditions, organic farming, and restoration of environments must be utilized.


Abbott DW, Aasen IM, Beauchemin KA, Grondahl F, Gruninger R, Hayes M, Huws S, Kenny DA, Krizsan SJ, Kirwan SFJA. 2020. Seaweed And Seaweed Bioactives For Mitigation of Enteric Methane: Challenges And Opportunities 10, 2432.

Abdillah A, Alamsjah M, Sugijanto NN. 2021. Antioxidant Properties From Seaweeds Kappaphycus Alvarezii, Euchema Spinosum And Sargasum Sp. Using Different Solvent. Iop Conference Series: Earth And Environmental Science, 2021. Iop Publishing, 012034.

Abedin M, Wang D, Mcdonnell M, Lehmann U, Kelekar A. 2007. Autophagy Delays Apoptotic Death In Breast Cancer Cells Following Dna Damage. J Cell Death Differentiation 14, 500-510.

Admassu H, Gasmalla MAA, Yang R, Zhao W. 2018. Identification of Bioactive Peptides With Α-Amylase Inhibitory Potential From Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates of Red Seaweed (Porphyra Spp). Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry 66, 4872-4882.

Alboofetileh MH, Ali Abdollahi Mehdi. 2021. Seaweed Proteins As A Source of Bioactive Peptides. Current Pharmaceutical Design 27, 1342-1352.

Ambika SSK. 2015. Antifungal Activity Of Aqueous And Ethanol Extracts of Seaweeds Against Sugarcane Red Rot Pathogen (Colletotrichum falcatum). J Scientific Research Essays 10, 232-235.

Amina Kabir Khanzada WS, Kazi TG. Samina Kabir, Shahzadi Soofia. 2007. Antifungal Activity, Elemental Analysis And Determination of Total Protein of Seaweed, Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin From The Coast Of Karachi. Pak. J. Bot 39, 931-937.

Archana Pal MCK, Ajay Kumar. 2014. Bioactive Compounds And Properties Of Seaweeds—A Review. Open Access Library Journal 1, 1-17.

Babaranti OA. 2019. Tracing Nutrients And Contaminants In Nearshore Food Web. University Of Otago.

Bandara A, Dehejia R, Lavie-Rouse S. 2017. Access To Household Resources And Human Development: Evidence From Survey Data For Tanzania. Journal of Human Development Capabilities 18, 399-423.

Banu AT, Ramani PS, Murugan A. 2020. Effect Of Seaweed Coating On Quality Characteristics And Shelf Life Of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Food Science And Human Wellness 9, 176-183.

Basir A, Desniar Ristyanti WK, Tarman K. 2020. Physical Treatments to Induce The Antibacterial And Antioxidant Activities of Green Algae Halimeda Sp. From Seribu Islands, North Jakarta, Indonesia. Iop Conference Series: Earth And Environmental Science 414, 012002.

Batini NW, Rodolfo. 2021. Conserving The Oceans. J The Economics Of Sustainable Food: Smart Policies For Health The Planet 201.

Beal CM, Gerber LN, Thongrod S, Phromkunthong W, Kiron V, Granados J, Archibald I, Greene CH, Huntley ME. 2018. Marine Microalgae Commercial Production Improves Sustainability of Global Fisheries and Aquaculture. Sci Rep 8, 15064.

Bhuyar P, Rahim M, Sundararaju S, Maniam G, Govindan NJGJOES, Management. 2020. Antioxidant And Antibacterial Activity of Red Seaweed Kappaphycus Alvarezii Against Pathogenic Bacteria 6, 47-58.

Bonanno G, Veneziano V, Piccione VJSOTTE. 2020. The Alga Ulva Lactuca (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) As A Bioindicator Of Trace Element Contamination Along The Coast Of Sicily, Italy 699, 134329.

Boyd CE, D’abramo LR, Glencross BD, Huyben DC, Juarez LM, Lockwood GS, Mcnevin AA, Tacon AG, Teletchea F, Tomasso JrJRJJOTWAS. 2020. Achieving Sustainable Aquaculture: Historical And Current Perspectives And Future Needs And Challenges 51, 578-633.

Buschmann AH, Camus C, Infante J, Neori A, Israel Á, Hernández-González MC, Pereda SV, Gomez-Pinchetti JL, Golberg A, Tadmor-Shalev NJEJOP. 2017. Seaweed Production: Overview of The Global State of Exploitation, Farming And Emerging Research Activity 52, 391-406.

C Hellio GB, Pons AM, Le Gal Y, Bourgougnon N. 2000. Inhibition of The Development of Microorganisms (Bacteria and Fungi) By Extracts of Marine Algae From Brittany, France. Applied Microbiology And Biotechnology 54, 543-549.

Chapman V, Chapman D. 1980. Sea Vegetables (Algae As Food For Man). Seaweeds And Their Uses. Springer.

Chater PI, Wilcox MD, Houghton D, Pearson JPJF, Function. 2015. The Role of Seaweed Bioactives In The Control Of Digestion: Implications For Obesity Treatments 6, 3420-3427.

Chojnacka K, Saeid A, Witkowska Z, Tuhy L. 2012. Biologically Active Compounds In Seaweed Extracts-The Prospects For The Application. The Open Conference Proceedings Journal,

Cırık GTAS. Sea Vegetables. Vegetables – Importance of Quality Vegetables To Human Health.

Clercq MWAED. 1997. Sulfated Polysaccharides Extracted From Sea Algae As Potential Antiviral Drugs. Gen. Pharmac 29, 497-511.

Corino C, Modina SC, Di Giancamillo A, Chiapparini S, Rossi R. 2019. Seaweeds In Pig Nutrition. Animals (Basel) 9.

Cornish ML, Monagail MM, Critchley AT. 2020. The Animal Kingdom, Agriculture⋯ And Seaweeds. Journal of Marine Science And Engineering 8.

Damonte EB, Matulewicz MC, Cerezo AS. 2004. Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides As Antiviral Agents. J Current Medicinal Chemistry 11, 2399-2419.

Dhargalkar VK. 2015. Uses Of Seaweeds In The Indian Diet For Sustenance And Well-Being. J Sci Cult 80, 192-202.

Dolganyuk V, Belova D, Babich O, Prosekov A, Ivanova S, Katserov D, Patyukov N, Sukhikh SJB. 2020. Microalgae: A Promising Source Of Valuable Bioproducts 10, 1153.

Dolorosa M, Purwaningsih S, Anwar E. Utilization of Kappaphycus Alvarezii And Sargassum Plagyophyllum From Banten As Cosmetic Creams. Iop Conference Series: Earth And Environmental Science, 2020. Iop Publishing, 012008.

Dookie M, Ali O, Ramsubhag A, Jayaraman JJSH. 2021. Flowering Gene Regulation In Tomato Plants Treated With Brown Seaweed Extracts 276, 109715.

Duarte CM, Wu J, Xiao X, Bruhn A, Krause-Jensen DJFIMS. 2017. Can Seaweed Farming Play A Role In Climate Change Mitigation And Adaptation? J Frontiers In Marine Science 4, 100.

El Zawawy N, El Shafay S, Abomohra AEF. 2020. Macroalgal Activity Against Fungal Urinary Tract Infections: In vitro Screening and Evaluation Study. J Rendiconti Lincei. Scienze Fisiche E Naturali 31, 165-175.

Evans FD, Critchley AT. 2014. Seaweeds For Animal Production Use. Journal of Applied Phycology 26, 891-899.

Fernando IS, Sanjeewa KA, Samarakoon KW, Lee WW, Kim HS, Ranasinghe P, Gunasekara U, Jeon YJ. 2018. Antioxidant And Anti-Inflammatory Functionality of Ten Sri Lankan Seaweed Extracts Obtained by Carbohydrase Assisted Extraction. J Food Science Biotechnology 27, 1761-1769.

Garcia AN, Stein EM, Villela LZ, Yokoya NS, Neto PC, De Carvalho LRJRDBMYO. 2020. Dichotomaria Marginata (Rhodophyta) As A Bioindicator For Marine Pollution: An Overview About Its Metabolites And Adsorbed Pollutants 55, 128-141.

Ghislain Moussavou DHK. 2014. Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obonou , Cyr Abel Ogandaga Maranguy , Sylvatrie-Danne Dinzouna-Boutamba, Dae Hoon Lee, Ordelia Gwenaelle Manvoudou Pissibanganga, Kisung Ko, Jae In Seo And Young Kug Choo 2014. Anticancer Effects Of Different Seaweeds On Human Colon And Breast Cancers. Mar. Drugs  4898-4911.

Gomaa HH, Elshoubaky GA. 2016. Antiviral Activity Of Sulfated Polysaccharides Carrageenan From Some Marine Seaweeds. J International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 7, 34-42.

Gurib-Fakim A. 2006. Medicinal Plants: Traditions of Yesterday And Drugs of Tomorrow. J Molecular Aspects Of Medicine 27, 1-93.

Hay MEJAROMS. 2009. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, And Ecosystems 1, 193-212.

Heng Yi CYSLHS. 2001. Screening For Antibacterial And Antifungal Activities In Some Marine Algae From The Fujian Coast of China With Three Different Solvents. Chinese Journal Of Oceanology And Limnology 19, 327-331

Hentati F, Tounsi L, Djomdi D, Pierre G, Delattre C, Ursu AV, Fendri I, Abdelkafi S, Michaud P. 2020. Bioactive Polysaccharides From Seaweeds. Molecules 25.

Hossain MS, Sharifuzzaman S, Nobi MN, Chowdhury MSN, Sarker S, Alamgir M, Uddin SA, Chowdhury SR, Rahman MM, Rahman MS. 2021. Seaweeds Farming For Sustainable Development Goals And Blue Economy In Bangladesh. J Marine Policy 128, 104469.

Howard J, Sutton-Grier A, Herr D, Kleypas J, Landis E, Mcleod E, Pidgeon E, Simpson SJFIE, Environment T. 2017. Clarifying The Role Of Coastal And Marine Systems In Climate Mitigation 15, 42-50.

Jaj Sunilson RS, Anandarajagopal K. 2009. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis, Elemental Determination And Antibacterial Screening Of Codium Decorticatum- A Marine Green Algae. International Journal Of Biological Chemistry 3, 84-89.

Jampílek J, Kráľová KJPGPMFSB, Management AS. 2021. Seaweeds As Indicators And Potential Remediators of Metal Pollution 51-92.

Jiang HBL, Xiao-Hui Deng, Bin Liu, Ling-Mei Qiu, Bao-Sheng. 2020. Adaptive Mechanisms of The Model Photosynthetic Organisms, Cyanobacteria, To Iron Deficiency. J Microbial Photosynthesis 197-244.

K Indira SB, Srinivasan M, Bragadeeswaran S, Balasubramanian T. 2013. Evaluation of In vitro Antimicrobial Property of Seaweed (Halimeda Tuna) From Tuticorin Coast, Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast Of India. African Journal of Biotechnology 12, 284-289.

Kadam SU, O’donnell CP, Rai DK, Hossain MB, Burgess CM, Walsh D, Tiwari BK. 2015. Laminarin From Irish Brown Seaweeds Ascophyllum Nodosum And Laminaria Hyperborea: Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, Characterization And Bioactivity. Mar Drugs 13, 4270-80.

Kandale A, Meena A, Rao M, Panda P, Mangal A, Reddy G, Babu R. 2011. Marine Algae: An Introduction, Food Value And Medicinal Uses. Journal of Pharmacy Research 4, 219-221.

Kennish MJ. 2000. Marine Pollution And Other Anthropogenic Impacts. Practical Handbook Of Marine Science. Crc Press.

Khanavi M, Nabavi M, Sadati N, Shams Ardekani M, Sohrabipour J, Nabavi SMB, Ghaeli P, Ostad SNJBR. 2010. Cytotoxic Activity Of Some Marine Brown Algae Against Cancer Cell Lines 43, 31-37.

Kimathi AG, Wakibia JG, Gichua MKJWIOJOMS. 2018. Growth Rates Of Eucheuma Denticulatum And Kappaphycus Alvarezii (Rhodophyta; Gigartinales) Cultured Using Modified Off-Bottom And Floating Raft Techniques On The Kenyan Coast. J Western Indian Ocean Journal Of Marine Science 17, 11-24.

Kolanjinathan K, Ganesh P, Saranraj P. 2014. Pharmacological Importance Of Seaweeds: A Review. World Journal Of Fish And Marine Sciences 6, 1-15.

Kubavat D, Trivedi K, Vaghela P, Prasad K, Vijay Anand GK, Trivedi H, Patidar R, Chaudhari J, Andhariya B, Ghosh AJLD, Development. 2020. Characterization Of A Chitosan‐Based Sustained Release Nanofertilizer Formulation Used As A Soil Conditioner While Simultaneously Improving Biomass Production Of Zea Mays L. 31, 2734-2746.

Lafarga T, Acién-Fernández FG, Garcia-Vaquero M. 2020. Bioactive Peptides And Carbohydrates From Seaweed For Food Applications: Natural Occurrence, Isolation, Purification, And Identification. Algal Research 48, 101909.

Langton RW, Augyte S, Price N, Forster J, Noji T, Grebe G, Gelais AS, Byron CJ. 2019. An Ecosystem Approach To The Culture Of Seaweed, Us Department Of Commerce, National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration ….

Latifah LA, Soekamto NH, Tahir AJPJ. 2020. Green Algae Halimeda Macroloba In Spermonde Archipelago: Phytochemical And In Vitro Antibacterial Studies. J Pharmacognosy Journal 12.

Le Moal M, Gascuel-Odoux C, Ménesguen A, Souchon Y, Étrillard C, Levain A, Moatar F, Pannard A, Souchu P, Lefebvre AJSOTTE. 2019. Eutrophication: A New Wine In An Old Bottle? 651, 1-11.

Levent B, Öztekin A, Şahin F, Arici E, Özsandikçi UJMF, Research A. 2018. An Overview Of The Black Sea Pollution In Turkey 1, 66-86.

Lipton JSAAP. 2004. Biopotential Of Ulva Fasciata And Hypnea Musciformis Collected From The Peninsular Coast Of India. Journal Of Marine Science And Technology 12, 1-6.

Liu H, Tan X, Guo J, Liang X, Xie Q, Chen SJJOS, Sediments. 2020. Bioremediation Of Oil-Contaminated Soil By Combination Of Soil Conditioner And Microorganism 20, 2121-2129.

Lomartire S, Marques JC, Gonçalves AMJEI. 2021. The Key Role Of Zooplankton In Ecosystem Services: A Perspective Of Interaction Between Zooplankton And Fish Recruitment 129, 107867.

Lucy Mohapatra P, Ramachandra Panigrahy, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra. 2013. Therapeutic Health Booster: Seaweeds Against Several Maladies. Indian Journal Of Geo-Marine Sciences 42, 538-546.

Macartain P, Gill CI, Brooks M, Campbell R, Rowland IR. 2007. Nutritional Value Of Edible Seaweeds. Nutrition Reviews 65, 535-543.

Machado L, Magnusson M, Paul NA, Kinley R, De Nys R, Tomkins N. 2016. Identification Of Bioactives From The Red Seaweed Asparagopsis Taxiformis That Promote Antimethanogenic Activity In Vitro. J Journal Of Applied Phycology 28, 3117-3126.

Macreadie PJ, Jessie Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M Bellgrove, Alecia. 2017. Seagrasses And Macroalgae: Importance, Vulnerability And Impacts. J Climate Change Impacts On Fisheries Aquaculture: A Global Analysis 729-770.

Maluin FN, Hussein MZJM. 2020. Chitosan-Based Agronanochemicals As A Sustainable Alternative In Crop Protection 25, 1611.

Mannino G, Campobenedetto C, Vigliante I, Contartese V, Gentile C, Bertea CMJB. 2020. The Application Of A Plant Biostimulant Based On Seaweed And Yeast Extract Improved Tomato Fruit Development And Quality 10, 1662.

María José Pérez, Falqué E, Domínguez H. 2016. Antimicrobial Action Of Compounds From Marine Seaweed. Mar Drugs.

Mashjoor S, Yousefzadi M, Esmaeili MA, Rafiee RJC. 2016. Cytotoxicity And Antimicrobial Activity Of Marine Macro Algae (Dictyotaceae And Ulvaceae) From The Persian Gulf 68, 1717-1726.

Mateo JP, Campbell I, Cottier-Cook EJ, Luhan MRJ, Ferriols VMEN, Hurtado AQJJOAP. 2021. Understanding Biosecurity: Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Seaweed Farmers In The Philippines 33, 997-1010.

Mhadhebi L, Mhadhebi A, Robert J, Bouraoui A. 2014. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory And Antiproliferative Effects Of Aqueous Extracts Of Three Mediterranean Brown Seaweeds Of The Genus Cystoseira. J Iranian Journal Of Pharmaceutical Research: Ijpr 13, 207.

Michalak I. 2020. The Application Of Seaweeds In Environmental Biotechnology. Advances In Botanical Research. Elsevier.

Moussavou G, Kwak DH, Obiang-Obonou BW, Maranguy CAO, Dinzouna-Boutamba SD, Lee DH, Pissibanganga OGM, Ko K, Seo JI, Choo YK. 2014. Anticancer Effects Of Different Seaweeds On Human Colon And Breast Cancers. J Marine Drugs 12, 4898-4911.

Msuya FE, Buriyo A, Omar I, Pascal B, Narrain K, Ravina JJ, Mrabu E, Wakibia JG. 2014. Cultivation And Utilisation Of Red Seaweeds In The Western Indian Ocean (Wio) Region. J Journal Of Applied Phycology 26, 699-705.

Mukherjee A, Patel JS. 2020. Seaweed Extract: Biostimulator Of Plant Defense And Plant Productivity. International Journal Of Environmental Science And Technology 17, 553-558.

N Yuvaraj PK, Satishkumar R, Paari KA, Pattukumar V, Arul V. 2011. Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of Cladophora Glomerata Against Multidrug Resistant Human Pathogen Acinetobacter Baumannii And Fish Pathogens. World Journal Of Fish And Marine Sciences 3, 51-57.

Nabti E, Jha B, Hartmann A. 2017. Impact Of Seaweeds On Agricultural Crop Production As Biofertilizer. International Journal Of Environmental Science And Technology 14, 1119-1134.

Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Buschmann AH, Bush SR, Cao L, Klinger DH, Little DC, Lubchenco J, Shumway SE, Troell MJN. 2021. A 20-Year Retrospective Review Of Global Aquaculture 591, 551-563.

Novoa AV, Andrade-Wartha ER, Linares AF, Genovese MI, González AEB, Vuorela P, Costa A, Mancini-Filho JJRBDF. 2011. Antioxidant Activity And Possible Bioactive Components In Hydrophilic And Lipophilic Fractions From The Seaweed Halimeda Incrassata. J Revista Brasileira De Farmacognosia 21, 53-57.

Nurjanah NMA, Effionora Luthfiyana, Novi Hidayat, Taufik. 2017. Identification Of Bioactive Compounds Of Seaweed Sargassum Sp. And Eucheuma Cottonii Doty As A Raw Sunscreen Cream. J Proceedings Of The Pakistan Academy Of Sciences: B. Life Environmental Sciences 54, 311-318.

Olasehinde TA, Olaniran AO, Okoh AI. 2019. Macroalgae As A Valuable Source Of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds For The Treatment Of Alzheimer’s Disease. Mar Drugs 17.

P Ferraces-Casais, Lage-Yusty MA, Quirós ARBD, López-Hernández J. 2011. Evaluation Of Bioactive Compounds In Fresh Edible Seaweeds. Food Anal. Methods 2012, 828-834.

Pereira L. 2011. A Review Of The Nutrient Composition Of Selected Edible Seaweeds. In: Pomin, V. H. (Ed.) Seaweed: Ecology, Nutrient Composition Medicinal Uses Pomin, Vh, Ed. Usa: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Pérez-Lloréns JL. 2020. Microalgae: From Staple Foodstuff To Avant-Garde Cuisine. J International Journal Of Gastronomy Food Science And Human Wellness 21, 100221.

Perez GA. 2021. Us Seaweed Farming: How We Can Remedy And Revolutionize Our Industrialized Food System.

Rajauria G, Abu-Ghannam N. 2013. Isolation And Partial Characterization Of Bioactive Fucoxanthin From <I>Himanthalia Elongata</I> Brown Seaweed: A Tlc-Based Approach. International Journal Of Analytical Chemistry 802573.

Rathour RK, Mehta S, Sharma P, Bhatia RK, Bhatt AKJBUW. 2021. Seaweed Cultivation And Its Biobusiness Status Around The World. J Bioremediation Using Weeds 151.

Razafimandimbison SG, Kainulainen K, Wikström N, Bremer BJAJOB. 2017. Historical Biogeography And Phylogeny Of The Pantropical Psychotrieae Alliance (Rubiaceae), With Particular Emphasis On The Western Indian Ocean Region 104, 1407-1423.

Renato C, Pereira M, Brazil, Costa-Lotufo. 2012. Bioprospecting For Bioactives From Seaweeds: Potential, Obstacles And Alternatives. Brazilian Journal Of Pharmacognosy 22, 894-905.

Rick TC, Erlandson JM, Jew NP, Reeder-Myers LA. 2013. Archaeological Survey, Paleogeography, And The Search For Late Pleistocene Paleocoastal Peoples Of Santa Rosa Island, California. J Journal Of Field Archaeology 38, 324-331.

Roberts JAG. 2004. China To Chinatown: Chinese Food In The West, Reaktion Books.

Roleda MY, Marfaing H, Desnica N, Jónsdóttir R, Skjermo J, Rebours C, Nitschke UJFC. 2019. Variations In Polyphenol And Heavy Metal Contents Of Wild-Harvested And Cultivated Seaweed Bulk Biomass: Health Risk Assessment And Implication For Food Applications 95, 121-134.

Roveta C, Annibaldi A, Afghan A, Calcinai B, Di Camillo CG, Gregorin C, Illuminati S, Pulido Mantas T, Truzzi C, Puce SJAS. 2021. Biomonitoring Of Heavy Metals: The Unexplored Role Of Marine Sessile Taxa 11, 580.

Saidani KBF, Benabdesselam F, Touati N. 2012. Antifungal Activity Of Methanolic Extracts Of Four Algerian Marine Algae Species. African Journal Of Biotechnology 11(39), 11, 9496-9500.

Samina Hyder Haq GAR, Moudhi Abdullah Al-Mutlaq, Sundus Ali Naji, Maha Al-Mogren, Sarah Al-Rashed, Qura Tul Ain, Abir Abdullah Al-Amro, Adnan Al-Mussallam. 2019. Antioxidant, Anticancer Activity And Phytochemical Analysis Of Green Algae, Chaetomorpha Collected From The Arabian Gulf. Nature Reports 9, 18906.

Sangha JS, Kelloway S, Critchley AT, Prithiviraj B. 2014. Chapter Seven – Seaweeds (Macroalgae) And Their Extracts As Contributors Of Plant Productivity And Quality: The Current Status Of Our Understanding. In: Bourgougnon, N. (Ed.) Advances In Botanical Research. Academic Press.

Shi Q, Wang A, Lu Z, Qin C, Hu J, Yin J. 2017. Overview On The Antiviral Activities And Mechanisms Of Marine Polysaccharides From Seaweeds. J Carbohydrate Research 453, 1-9.

Tano SA, Eggertsen M, Wikström SA, Berkström C, Buriyo A, Halling CJM, Research F. 2017. Tropical Seaweed Beds As Important Habitats For Juvenile Fish 68, 1921-1934.

Thépot V, Campbell AH, Paul NA, Rimmer MA. 2021. Seaweed Dietary Supplements Enhance The Innate Immune Response Of The Mottled Rabbitfish, Siganus Fuscescens. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 113, 176-184.

Tiwari BK, Troy DJ. 2015. Chapter 1 – Seaweed Sustainability – Food And Nonfood Applications. In: Tiwari, B. K. & Troy, D. J. (Eds.) Seaweed Sustainability. San Diego: Academic Press.

Todd PA, Heery EC, Loke LH, Thurstan RH, Kotze DJ, Swan CJO. 2019. Towards An Urban Marine Ecology: Characterizing The Drivers, Patterns And Processes Of Marine Ecosystems In Coastal Cities 128, 1215-1242.

Tregarot E, Touron-Gardic G, Cornet CC, Failler PJED. 2020. Valuation Of Coastal Ecosystem Services In The Large Marine Ecosystems Of Africa 36, 100584.

V Gnanavela, Roopan SM, Rajeshkumar S. 2019. Aquaculture: An Overview Of Chemical Ecology Of Seaweeds (Food Species) In Natural Products. Aquaculture 507, 1-6.

Van Ginneken V, De Vries EJAJOPS. 2018. Seaweeds As Biomonitoring System For Heavy Metal (Hm) Accumulation And Contamination Of Our Oceans. J American Journal Of Plant Sciences 9, 1514.

Van Ginneken VJAJOS, Technology. 2017. The Photosynthetic System Of The Seaweeds: The Seaweed Paradox 8, 6567-6571.

Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos DA, Leto-A, Tziveleka, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Vassilios Roussis, Anargyros Loukis, Constantinos Vagias. 2003. Acetylene Sesquiterpenoid Esters From The Green Alga Caulerpa Prolifera. J. Nat. Prod 21-24.

Verkleij FJBA, Horticulture. 1992. Seaweed Extracts In Agriculture And Horticulture: A Review 8, 309-324.

Vieira TM, Moldão-Martins M, Alves VDJF. 2021. Composite Coatings Of Chitosan And Alginate Emulsions With Olive Oil To Enhance Postharvest Quality And Shelf Life Of Fresh Figs (Ficus Carica L. Cv.‘Pingo De Mel’) 10, 718.

Wade R, Augyte S, Harden M, Nuzhdin S, Yarish C, Alberto FJPB. 2020. Macroalgal Germplasm Banking For Conservation, Food Security, And Industry 18, E3000641.

Wang H, Ooi EV, Ang PO. 2008. Antiviral Activities Of Extracts From Hong Kong Seaweeds. J Journal Of Zhejiang University Science B 9, 969-976.

Weigel BL, Pfister CAJEMR. 2021. Oxygen Metabolism Shapes Microbial Settlement On Photosynthetic Kelp Blades Compared To Artificial Kelp Substrates 13, 176-184.

Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H, Suzuki M. 2009. The Okinawan Diet: Health Implications Of A Low-Calorie, Nutrient-Dense, Antioxidant-Rich Dietary Pattern Low In Glycemic Load. J Journal Of The American College Of Nutrition 28, 500s-516s.

Wm Hassan SHS, Aida Fisheries. 2018. Gc/Ms Identification And Applications Of Bioactive Seaweed Extracts From Mediterranean Coast Of Egypt. J Egyptian Journal Of Aquatic Biology 22, 1-21.

Yao Y, Wang X, Chen B, Zhang M, Ma JJAO. 2020. Seaweed Extract Improved Yields, Leaf Photosynthesis, Ripening Time, And Net Returns Of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum Mill.) 5, 4242-4249.

Youzhi W, Jincheng W, Shiqiang S, Pinhua R, Runkai W, Shihui L, Liqi X, Feng ZJIJOBM. 2020. Preparation And Application Properties Of Sustainable Gelatin/Chitosan Soil Conditioner Microspheres 159, 685-695.

Zheng Y, Jin R, Zhang X, Wang Q, Wu J. 2019. The Considerable Environmental Benefits Of Seaweed Aquaculture In China. Stochastic Environmental Research And Risk Assessment 33, 1203-1221.