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A Review on the Occurrence and Impacts of Nutrient Pollution in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Countries

Asha Ripanda, Hossein Miraji

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.20(1), 154-165, January 2022

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Abstract

Nutrient pollution significantly threatens ecosystem health globally and is aggravated by anthropogenic activities. In this case, algae grow faster than the ecosystem can handle. Apart from other reported effects, some algae blooms are toxic and produce toxins, leading to the deterioration of ecosystem health. These blooms are becoming prevalent, hence the possibility of increased diseases to the entire ecosystem and unsustainability. In many parts of the world, nutrient contamination poses a significant hazard to human health and the ecosystem. Effects of excessive nutrients in the environment include excessive growth of algae. Apart from the difficulties of handling excess nitrogen in the air that make it difficult to breathe, reduce visibility, affect plant growth, a recently reported altering the gut microbiome of a territorial reef fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) contamination in the Sub-Saharan African environment in various matrices including water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediments and surface waters to inform policy. In this case, this study investigates the status of nutrient pollution in Sub Saharan Africa, the potential source of nutrient pollution, the reported effects of nutrient pollution; How to overcome nutrient pollution in the environment. Among the measures recommended for nutrient, pollution management includes decreased use of fertilizers and pesticides or organic farming and considerations during the choice of detergents, soaps and household cleaners to nutrient-free products for environmental conservation.

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A Review on the Occurrence and Impacts of Nutrient Pollution in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Countries

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