Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Review Paper | January 1, 2022

| Download 4

A Review on the Occurrence and Impacts of Nutrient Pollution in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Countries

Asha Ripanda, Hossein Miraji

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.20(1), 154-165, January 2022


JBES 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Nutrient pollution significantly threatens ecosystem health globally and is aggravated by anthropogenic activities. In this case, algae grow faster than the ecosystem can handle. Apart from other reported effects, some algae blooms are toxic and produce toxins, leading to the deterioration of ecosystem health. These blooms are becoming prevalent, hence the possibility of increased diseases to the entire ecosystem and unsustainability. In many parts of the world, nutrient contamination poses a significant hazard to human health and the ecosystem. Effects of excessive nutrients in the environment include excessive growth of algae. Apart from the difficulties of handling excess nitrogen in the air that make it difficult to breathe, reduce visibility, affect plant growth, a recently reported altering the gut microbiome of a territorial reef fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) contamination in the Sub-Saharan African environment in various matrices including water, groundwater, wastewater, soil, sediments and surface waters to inform policy. In this case, this study investigates the status of nutrient pollution in Sub Saharan Africa, the potential source of nutrient pollution, the reported effects of nutrient pollution; How to overcome nutrient pollution in the environment. Among the measures recommended for nutrient, pollution management includes decreased use of fertilizers and pesticides or organic farming and considerations during the choice of detergents, soaps and household cleaners to nutrient-free products for environmental conservation.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

A Review on the Occurrence and Impacts of Nutrient Pollution in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Sub-Saharan Countries

Adams J, Taljaard S, Van Niekerk L, Lemley DJAJOAS. 2020. Nutrient Enrichment As A Threat To The Ecological Resilience And Health Of South African Microtidal Estuaries 45, 23-40.

Akorede M, Hizam H, Ab Kadir M, Aris I, Buba Sjr, Reviews Se. 2012. Mitigating The Anthropogenic Global Warming In The Electric Power Industry 16, 2747-2761.

Alex R, Kitalika A, Mogusu E, Njau Kjg. 2021. Sources of Nitrate In Ground Water Aquifers of The Semiarid Region of Tanzania. 2021.

Alsterhag E, Petersson L. 2004. Nutrient Loading In The Kafue River Between Mazabuka And Kafue Town, Zambia. J Uppsala University.

Assessment Er. 2003. Overview Of Freshwater And Marine Toxicity Tests: A Technical Tool For.

Asteggiante, Geis Lg. 2013. Utilizing Herbicide Degradation Products And Artificial Sweeteners As Stable Tracers To Examine Agricultural And Urban Nutrient Sources Within Two Tributaries Of The Chesapeake Bay.

Backer L. C. 2002. Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (Cyanohabs): Developing A Public Health Response. J Lake Reservoir Management 18, 20-31.

Bai Z, Lu J, Zhao H, Velthof Gl, Oenema O, Chadwick D, Williams Jr, Jin S, Liu H, Wang M. 2018. Designing Vulnerable Zones Of Nitrogen And Phosphorus Transfers To Control Water Pollution In China. Acs Publications.

Banadda E, Kansiime F, Kigobe M, Kizza M, Nhapi Ijwp. 2009. Landuse-Based Nonpoint Source Pollution: A Threat To Water Quality In Murchison Bay, Uganda. J Water Policy 11, 94-105.

Bashar R. 2018. Evaluation Of Phosphorus Removal /Recovery Processes During Municipal Wastewater Treatment, The University Of Wisconsin-Madison.

Bateganya NL, Nakalanzi D, Babu M, Hein TJET. 2015. Buffering Municipal Wastewater Pollution Using Urban Wetlands In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Of Masaka Municipality, Uganda 36, 2149-2160.

Bhagowati B, Ahamad Ku, Hydrobiologyje. 2019. A Review On Lake Eutrophication Dynamics And Recent Developments In Lake Modeling 19, 155-166.

Bormann Fh, Likens Ge. 1967. Nutrient Cycling. J Science Of The Total Environment 155, 424-429.

Camargo J, Ward JJC. 1992. Short-Term Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrate (Nano3) To Non-Target Freshwater Invertebrates 24, 23-28.

Camargo J, Ward JJC. 1995. Nitrate (No3N) Toxicity To Aquatic Life: A Proposal Of Safe Concentrations For Two Species Of Nearctic Freshwater Invertebrates 31, 3211-3216.

Camargo Ja, Alonso A, Salamanca Ajc. 2005. Nitrate Toxicity To Aquatic Animals: A Review With New Data For Freshwater Invertebrates 58, 1255-1267.

Camargo Ja, Alonso Ájei. 2006. Ecological And Toxicological Effects Of Inorganic Nitrogen Pollution In Aquatic Ecosystems: A Global Assessment 32, 831-849.

Carmichael W. 2008. A World Overview—One-Hundred-Twenty-Seven Years Of Research On Toxic Cyanobacteria—Where Do We Go From Here? J Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms: State Of The Science Research Needs 105-125.

Chadwick Dr, Williams Jr, Lu Y, Ma L, Bai Z, Hou Y, Chen X, Misselbrook Th. 2020. Strategies To Reduce Nutrient Pollution From Manure Management In China. Frontiers Of Agricultural Science Engineering 7, 45-55.

Chen X, Strokal M, Van Vliet Mt, Stuiver J, Wang M, Bai Z, Ma L, Kroeze C. 2019. Multi-Scale Modeling Of Nutrient Pollution In The Rivers Of China. Environmental Science Technology 53, 9614-9625.

Cherotich S, Abong Od, Onyatta JJCSIJ. 2021. Assessing The Seasonal Changes On Physicochemical Parameters And Major Nutrient Levels In Water And Sediments From Sulal River, Bureti Sub County, Kericho County, Kenya 46-58.

Christopher A, Muhand O, Baraka L, Kuguru, Gregory M, Wagner, Mbije Ne, Ohman MC. 2003. Environmental Effects On The Distribution Of Corallimorpharians In Tanzania. Ambio Journal Of Human Environment.

Council Nr. 1992. Restoration Of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, And Public Policy, National Academies Press.

Cui S, Shi Y, Groffman Pm, Schlesinger Wh, Zhu Gjpotnaos Y. 2013. Centennial-Scale Analysis Of The Creation And Fate Of Reactive Nitrogen In China (1910-2010) 110, 2052-2057.

Dabya Jt, Jagob C. 2002. Microbial And Nutrient Pollution Of Coastal Bathing Waters In Mauritius. Environment International 27, 555-566.

Daily G. 2003. What Are Ecosystem Services. J Global Environmental Challenges For The Twenty-First Century: Resources, Consumption Sustainable Solutions 227-231.

Deangelis Dl. 2012. Dynamics Of Nutrient Cycling And Food Webs, Springer Science & Business Media.

Degregori S, Casey Jm, Barber Phjmpb. 2021. Nutrient Pollution Alters The Gut Microbiome Of A Territorial Reef Fish. J Marine Pollution Bulletin  169, 112522.

Dorgham MM. 2014. Effects Of Eutrophication. Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences And Control. Springer.

Dubey D, Dutta V. 2020. Nutrient Enrichment In Lake Ecosystem And Its Effects On Algae And Macrophytes. Environmental Concerns And Sustainable Development. Springer.

Egor M, Mbabazi J, Ntale Mjijocm, Research E. 2014. Heavy Metal And Nutrient Loading Of River Rwizi By Effluents From Mbarara Municipality, Western Uganda 2, 36-47.

Elias JDJIJOE. 2020. Response Of Tropical African Macroinvertebrates With Varying Tolerances To Different Levels Of Nitrate And Phosphate. J International Journal Of Ecology 2020.

Ferreira V, Castagneyrol B, Koricheva J, Gulis V, Chauvet E, Graça Ma. 2015. A Meta‐Analysis Of The Effects Of Nutrient Enrichment On Litter Decomposition In Streams. J Biological Reviews 90, 669-688.

Gwali U, Nhapi I, Ngombwa A, Banadda N, Nsengimana Hj, Kimwaga R, Nansubuga IJTOEEJ. 2011. Modelling Of Nonpoint Source Pollution In Akagera Transboundary River In Rwanda 4.

Gondwe MJ, Masamba W, Murray-Hudson M. 2017. Water Balance And Variations Of Nutrients And Major Solutes Along A River Transect Through The Okavango Delta, Botswana. J Botswana Notes Records 49, 26-43.

Grant VA. 2020. Water Quality Of Stormwater Runoff Into Lake Wānaka, New Zealand. University Of Otago.

Gu B, Ge Y, Chang Sx, Luo W, Chang JJGEC. 2013. Nitrate In Groundwater Of China: Sources And Driving Forces 23, 1112-1121.

Hallegraeff G. 2003. Harmful Algal Blooms: A Global Overview. J Manual On Harmful Marine Microalgae 33, 1-22.

Hranova R, Nkambule S, Mwandira S. 2005. Diffuse Pollution Of Urban Rivers–Case Studies In Malawi And Swaziland. Diffuse Pollution Of Water Resources. Crc Press.

Janse Jh, Van Puijenbroek PJ. 1998. Effects Of Eutrophication In Drainage Ditches. Nitrogen, The Confer-Ns. Elsevier.

Joshi UM. 2010. Chemical Contaminants In Urban Runoff: Characteristics, Sources And Low Cost Treatment.

Sakadevan K, Nguyen ML. 2017. Livestock Production And Its Impact On Nutrient Pollution And Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Advances In Agronomy 141.

Kaimba A, De, Villiers S, Wambua SJFIES. 2019. Does Protection Of Marine Areas Safeguard Coral Reefs From Human-Source Pollution? 7, 89.

Khalik W, Abdullah M, Padli N, Amerudin N. 2013. Assessment On Nutrient Status In Water And Sediment Quality Of Bertam River, Cameron Highlands. J International Journal Of Chemical Sciences 11, 709-720.

Kuwayama Y, Olmstead Sm, Wietelman Dc, Zheng J. 2020. Trends In Nutrient-Related Pollution As A Source Of Potential Water Quality Damages: A Case Study Of Texas, Usa. Science Of The Total Environment 724, 137962.

Ladu Jlc, Loboka Mk, Lukaw YS. 2012. Integrated Constructed Wetland For Nitrogen Elimination From Domestic Sewage: The Case Study Of Soba Rural Area In Khartoum South, Sudan. J Natural Science 10, 30-36.

Lapointe BE, Herren LW, Paule AL. 2017. Septic Systems Contribute To Nutrient Pollution And Harmful Algal Blooms In The St. Lucie Estuary, Southeast Florida, Usa. Harmful Algae 70, 1-22.

Leip A, Billen G, Garnier J, Grizzetti B, Lassaletta L, Reis S, Simpson D, Sutton Ma, De Vries W, Weiss Fjerl. 2015. Impacts Of European Livestock Production: Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorus And Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, Water Eutrophication And Biodiversity 10, 115004.

León LF, Lam D, Mccrimmon C, Swayne DA. 2003. Watershed Management Modelling In Malawi: Application And Technology Transfer. J Environmental Modelling Software 18, 531-539.

Li PJ, Health E. 2020. To Make The Water Safer 1-6.

Li S, Yuan Z, Bi J, Wu HJSOTTE. 2010. Anthropogenic Phosphorus Flow Analysis Of Hefei City, China. J Science Of The Total Environment 408, 5715-5722.

Lintern A, Mcphillips L, Winfrey B, Duncan J, Grady C. 2020. Best Management Practices For Diffuse Nutrient Pollution: Wicked Problems Across Urban And Agricultural Watersheds. J Environmental Science Technology 54, 9159-9174.

Lugendo BR, Kimirei IA. 2021. Anthropogenic Nitrogen Pollution In Mangrove Ecosystems Along Dar Es Salaam And Bagamoyo Coasts In Tanzania. Marine Pollution Bulletin 168, 112415.

Lyimo TJ. 2009. Microbial And Nutrient Pollution In The Coastal Bathing Waters Of Dar Es Salaam. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst 19, S27-S37.

Malale M, Subira MJT, Technology JOE. 2018. Surface Water Quality In Peri-Urban Areas In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: The Case Of Ng’ombe River 37.

Marsalek J, Cisneros BJ, Karamouz M, Malmquist PA, Goldenfum JA, Chocat B. 2008. Urban Water Cycle Processes And Interactions: Urban Water Series-Unesco-Ihp, Crc Press.

Mccord A, Stefanos S, Tumwesige V, Lsoto D, Kawala M, Mutebi J, Nansubuga I, Larson Rjra, Systems F. 2020. Anaerobic Digestion In Uganda: Risks And Opportunities For Integration Of Waste Management And Agricultural Systems 35, 678-687.

Mcfall-Ngai M, Hadfield MG, Bosch TC, Carey HV, Domazet-Lošo T, Douglas AE, Dubilier N, Eberl G, Fukami T, Gilbert SF. 2013. Animals In A Bacterial World, A New Imperative For The Life Sciences. J Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences 110, 3229-3236.

Nahayo L, Li L, Kayiranga A, Karamage F, Mupenzi C, Ndayisaba F, Nyesheja Emjajoar. 2016. Agricultural Impact On Environment And Counter Measures In Rwanda 11, 2205-2212.

Nhapi I, Tirivarombo S. 2004. Sewage Discharges And Nutrient Levels In Marimba River, Zimbabwe. J Water Sanitation‐Related Diseases The Changing Environment 30, 107-113.

Niyotwambaza Ch, Nhapi I, Wali UG, Tabaro SR. 2010. Nutrient Distribution In A Fish Pond At Rwasave Fish Farming And Research Station, Rwanda. J Rwanda Journal 21, 29-49.

Nyenje P, Foppen J, Uhlenbrook S, Kulabako R, Muwanga AJSOTTE. 2010. Eutrophication And Nutrient Release In Urban Areas Of Sub-Saharan Africa—A Review 408, 447-455.

Nyenje PM, Foppen JW, Kulabako R, Muwanga A, Uhlenbrook S. 2013. Nutrient Pollution In Shallow Aquifers Underlying Pit Latrines And Domestic Solid Waste Dumps In Urban Slums. J Environ Manage 122, 15-24.

Okuku EO, Imbayi KL, Omondi OG, Wayayi WVO, Sezi MC, Maureen KM, Mwangi S, Oduor N. 2019. Decadal Pollution Assessment And Monitoring Along The Kenya Coast. Monitoring Of Marine Pollution. Intechopen.

Orians GH, Milewski Avj BR. 2007. Ecology Of Australia: The Effects Of Nutrient‐Poor Soils And Intense Fires. J Biological Reviews 82, 393-423.

Scheren Pagm, Zanting Ha, Lemmens Amc. 2000. Estimation Of Water Pollution Sources In Lake Victoria, East Africa: Application And Elaboration Of The Rapid Assessment Methodology. Journal Ofenvironmental Management 58, 235-248.

Pantaleo P, Komakech HC, Mtei KM, Njau KNJWP. 2018. Contamination Of Groundwater Sources In Emerging African Towns: The Case Of Babati Town, Tanzania. J Water Practice Technology 13, 980-990.

Patricia M, Glibert, Arthur Hw, Beusen, John A, Harrison, Hans H, D€Urr, Alexander F, Bouwman, Laruelle GG. 2018. Changing Land-, Sea-, And Airscapes: Sources Of Nutrient Pollution Affecting Habitat Suitability For Harmful Algae. Changing Land-, Sea-, And Airspaces.

Peng Z, Ma X, Chen X, Coyte Pcjes, Research P. 2021. The Impacts Of Pollution And Its Associated Spatial Spillover Effects On Ill-Health In China 1-10.

Rahman SM, Eckelman MJ, Onnis-Hayden A, Gu AZ. 2016. Life-Cycle Assessment Of Advanced Nutrient Removal Technologies For Wastewater Treatment. J Environmental Science Technology 50, 3020-3030.

Sanseverino I, Conduto D, Pozzoli L, Dobricic S, Lettieri TJEC. 2016. Joint Research Centre Institute For Environment & Sustainability 2016. Algal Bloom And Its Economic Impact.

Schröder J, Scholefield D, Cabral F, Hofman Gjes, Policy. 2004. The Effects Of Nutrient Losses From Agriculture On Ground And Surface Water Quality: The Position Of Science In Developing Indicators For Regulation 7, 15-23.

Selman M, Greenhalgh SJRRJ. 2010. Eutrophication: Sources And Drivers Of Nutrient Pollution. J Renewable Resources Journal 26, 19-26.

Shaviv A, Mikkelsen RJFR. 1993. Controlled-Release Fertilizers To Increase Efficiency Of Nutrient Use And Minimize Environmental Degradation-A Review 35, 1-12.

Shayo S, Limbu Smjl, Research R, Management. 2018. Nutrient Release From Sediments And Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Advancing Our Understanding Of Eutrophication Sources In Lake Victoria, Tanzania 23, 312-323.

Silbiger NJ, Nelson CE, Remple K, Sevilla JK, Quinlan ZA, Putnam Hm, Fox MD, Donahue MJ. 2018. Nutrient Pollution Disrupts Key Ecosystem Functions On Coral Reefs. J Proceedings Of The Royal Society 285, 20172718.

Sinkala T, Mwala M, Mwase E. Application Of Pollutant Reduction And Weed Utilization As Management Measures For Aquatic Weeds In The Lower Kafue River, Zambia.

Su H, Kang W, Li Y, Li ZJEP. 2021. Fluoride And Nitrate Contamination Of Groundwater In The Loess Plateau, China: Sources And Related Human Health Risks 286, 117287.

Theoneste S, Vincent Nm, Xavier NF. The Effluent Quality Discharged And Its Impacts On The Receiving Environment Case Of Kacyiru Sewerage Treatment Plant, Kigali, Rwanda.

Tomascik T, Sander FJMB. 1985. Effects Of Eutrophication On Reef-Building Corals 87, 143-155.

Tomascik T, Sander FJMB. 1987. Effects Of Eutrophication On Reef-Building Corals 94, 53-75.

Turyahabwe R, Mulinya C, Shivoga WA. 2020. Influence Of Land Use/Cover On Water Quality In The River Sironko Catchment Area, Eastern Uganda.

Ukwe C, Ibe C. 2010. A Regional Collaborative Approach In Transboundary Pollution Management In The Guinea Current Region Of Western Africa. J Ocean Coastal Management 53, 493-506.

Vitousek PM, Naylor R, Crews T, David MB, Drinkwater L, Holland E, Johnes P, Katzenberger J, Martinelli L, Matson PJS. 2009. Nutrient Imbalances In Agricultural Development 324, 1519-1520.

Vushe A. 2019. Nitrate-Nitrogen Pollution And Attenuation Upstream Of The Okavango Delta In Angola And Namibia. Agriculture And Ecosystem Resilience In Sub Saharan Africa. Springer.

Vushe A, Von Landsberg L, Groengroeft A, Mashauri DA. 2016. Nitrate Leaching In Irrigated Inorganic Agriculture: A Case Study Of Mashare Commercial Farm In Namibia, Okavango River Basin. J African Journal Of Agricultural Research 11, 2871-2881.

Walumona JR, Odoli CO, Raburu P, Amisi FM, Murakaru MJ, Kondowe BN, KaundaArara BJL, Research R. 2021. Spatio‐Temporal Variations In Selected Water Quality Parameters And Trophic Status Of Lake Baringo, Kenya 26, E12367.

Wang M, Ma L, Strokal M, Ma W, Liu X, Kroeze CJES. 2018. Hotspots For Nitrogen And Phosphorus Losses From Food Production In China: A County-Scale Analysis 52, 5782-5791.

Woltersdorf L, Scheidegger R, Liehr S, Döll P. 2016. Municipal Water Reuse For Urban Agriculture In Namibia: Modeling Nutrient And Salt Flows As Impacted By Sanitation User Behavior. J Journal Of Environmental Management 169, 272-284.

Worm B, Lotze HKJL. 2006. Effects Of Eutrophication, Grazing, And Algal Blooms On Rocky Shores 51, 569-579.

Zgambo A. 2003. An Investigation Of The Amount And Environmental Impact Of Chemical Fertilizers And Pesticides Running Off From Commercial And Traditional Farmlands In The Upper Kaleya Catchment, Mazabuka, Zambia.

Zhang H, Xu Y, Cheng S, Li Q, Yu HJSOTTE. 2020. Application Of The Dual-Isotope Approach And Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model To Identify Nitrate In Groundwater Of A Multiple Land-Use Area In Chengdu Plain, China 717, 137134.

Zohdi E, Abbaspour M. 2019. Harmful Algal Blooms (Red Tide): A Review Of Causes, Impacts And Approaches To Monitoring And Prediction. J International Journal Of Environmental Science Technology 16, 1789-1806.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background