A Study of the impacts of different characteristics of geological formations in producing various erosion forms (Case Study: Watershed basin Hio and Shalamzar)

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Research Paper 01/09/2014
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A Study of the impacts of different characteristics of geological formations in producing various erosion forms (Case Study: Watershed basin Hio and Shalamzar)

Mohammad Momeni, Abolfazl Moeini, Hassan Ahmadi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 3), 86-94, September 2014.
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Abstract

Soil erosion is highly regarded as a risk to human welfare and even its existence. Using the characterization of soil formations of a region originating from geological formations, the nature and circumstances of the occurrence of erosion can be found. In the present study, in order to evaluate the possible effects of various characteristics of geological formations of Elika, Shemshak and Late Quaternary for the occurrence of sheet, rill and gully erosion, aerial photo interpretation was attempted. On the aerial photos, dominant erosion forms were separated in order that the primary erosion map could be prepared. Then on any of the forms of erosion on each formation, two profiles were excavated. Thus a total of six profiles were constructed. Since sampling was performed at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, a total of 36 samples were produced and then transported to the laboratory. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity (EC), pH and organic matter were measured for each sample. For the analysis of data, Excell and SPSS software were used. The results showed that the aggregate stability depends on the organic matter content, electrical conductivity and absorption ratio. The higher goes the sodium adsorption ratio, the greater goes aggregate stability and the lower goes the erosion. At the same sodium adsorption ratio, soil with higher soil electrical conductivity is more resistant to erosion. Likewise, the soils with higher organic matter content, showed more resistance. Since soil acidity (pH) was not significantly different in the three types of erosion, it can be said in conclusion that this parameter has no significant effect on the rate of erosion.

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