Abundance and population profile of Helicostyla daphnis (Stylommatophora: Bradybaenidae), an endemic snail of Cebu, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2014
Views (189) Download (11)

Abundance and population profile of Helicostyla daphnis (Stylommatophora: Bradybaenidae), an endemic snail of Cebu, Philippines

Mary Joyce L. Flores
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 1), 477-491, July 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Helicostyla daphnis is a tree snail endemic to Cebu, Philippines. The study aimed to survey and compare the abundance and population profile (by age category) of Helicostyla daphnis in North Cebu and South Cebu in relation to season and other physicochemical factors. Sampling was done twice between April and September 2013. For snail sampling, a standardized direct search equivalent to a two-hour sampling effort in a total of eighteen quadrats in six sites was used. Elevation, air temperature, relative humidity, surface soil pH, and soil exchangeable calcium were measured on each quadrat. Independent t-test and Pearson correlation were used to relate abundance to the physicochemical variables. Snail abundance was significantly higher (p<0.01) during the dry season (dry=783 snails; wet=436). South Cebu had higher total abundance (dry = 477; wet = 284) compared to North Cebu (dry = 306; wet = 152). Adult snails dominated at 87% of total abundance during the dry season and 74% during the wet season. Neonates were present only during the wet season, contributing 5% to total abundance. The presence of eggs in both seasons could mean year-round reproduction; but increased egg abundance and significant presence of neonates imply higher reproductive activity during the wet season. Relative humidity and air temperature were the identified major determinants of abundance as they affect the species’ ability to avoid desiccation stress. The rate of harvesting of H. daphnis cannot also be ruled out as a factor affecting abundance between location.


Abbott RT. 1989. Compendium of landshells. Burlington, MA: American Malacologists, 1-240.

Alonso S, Berovides V. 1991. Densidad y variación morfológica de Zachrysia guanensis (Gastropoda: Camaenidae) en Pinar del Río, Cuba. Revista Biológica, 5, 97-105.

Alvarez J. 1991. Effects of treefall gaps on a tropical land snail community. MS thesis, Texas Tech University, Texas, USA, 1-72.

Baker, HB. 1958. Land snail dispersal. The Nautilus, (71), 141-148.

Barrientos Z. 2000. Population dynamics and spatial distribution of the terrestrial snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae) in a tropical environment. Revista de Biología Tropical, 48(1), 71-87.

Baur B, Cremene C, Groza G, Schileyko AA, Baur A, Erhardt A. 2007. Intensified grazing affects endemic plant and gastropod diversity in alpine grasslands of the Southern Carpathian mountains (Romania). Biologia Bratislava, 62(2), 438-445.

Beier CM, Woods AM, Hotopp KP, Gibbs JP, Mitchell MJ, Dovčiak M, Leopold DJ, Lawrence GB, Page BD. 2012. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42, 1141-1152.

Bouchet P, Rocroi J-P. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. 47th Ed. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks, 1-397.

Coney CC. 2001. Snails. In: Hildyard A, ed. Endangered wildlife and plants of the world. New York: Marshal Cavendish Company, 1338-1343.

Cook A. 2001. Behavioural ecology: on doing the right thing, in the right place at the right time. In: Barker GM, ed. The biology of terrestrial mollusks. Oxford Univ. Press, 447-487.

Cowie RH. 1985. Microhabitat choice and high temperature tolerance in the land snail Theba pisana (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Journal of Zoology (London), 207, 201-211.

Dallinger R, Berger B, Triebskorn-Köhler R, Köhler H. 2001. Soil biology and ecotoxicology. In: Barker GM, ed. The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. Wallingford: Cabi Publishing, 489-525.

de Chavez E, de Lara AV. 2011. Diversity and spatial distribution patterns of macro land snails in Mount Makiling forest reserve, Philippines. Asia Life Sciences, 20(1), 183-197.

Dittbrenner N, Lazzara R, Kohler HR, Mazzia C, Capowiez Y, Triebskorn R. 2009. Heat tolerance in Mediterranean land snails: histopathology after exposure to different temperature regimes. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 75, 9-18.

Heaney LR, Regalado JC Jr. 1998. Vanishing treasures of the Philippine rain forest. Chicago: The Field Museum, 1-85.

Heatwole H, Heatwole A. 1978. Ecology of the Puerto Rican comaenid tree snails. Malacologia 17, 241-315.

Heller J. 2001. Life history strategies. In: Barker GM, ed. The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. Wallingford: Cabi Publishing, 413-445.

Henwood K. 1975. A field tested thermoregulation model for two diurnal Namib Desert tenebrionid beetles. Ecology, 56, 1329-1342.

Horner HT, Wagner BL. 1980. The association of druse crystals with the developing stomium of Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae) anthers. American Journal of Botany, 67, 1347-1360.

Hotopp KP. 2002. Land snails and soil calcium in central Appalachian mountain forests. Southeastern Naturalist, 1, 27-44.

Juřičková L, Horsák M, Cameron R, Hylandere K, Míkovcová A, Hlavác JČ, Rohovec J. 2008. Land snail distribution patterns within a site: The role of different calcium sources. European Journal of Soil Biology, 44, 172-179.

Liew T-S, Schilthuizen M, bin Lakim M. 2010. The determinants of land snail diversity along a tropical elevational gradient: insularity, geometry and niches. Journal of Biogeography, 37(6), 1071-1078.

Lomolino MV. 2001. Elevation gradients of species-density: Historical and prospective views. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10, 3-13.

Malaki ABB, Cruz RVO, Bantayan NC, Racelis DA, Buot IE Jr., Florece LM. 2013. Landscape pattern impacts on the population density and distribution of black shama (Copsychus cebuensis Steere) in Argao Watershed Reserve, Argao, Cebu, Philippines. ISRN Biodiversity, 2013, 1-10.

Martin K, Sommer M. 2004. Relationships between land snail assemblage patterns and soil properties in temperate–humid forest ecosystems. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 531-545.

McQuaid CM, Branch GM, Frost PGH. 1979. Aestiavation behaviour and thermal relations of the pulmonate Theba pisana in a semi-arid environment. Journal of Thermal Biology, 4, 47-55.

Miclat S, Soriaga R, Walpole P. 2004. Communities and watershed governance, Visayas, Philippines. In: Poffenberger M, Smith-Hanssen K, eds. Community forest management trends in Southeast Asia. Bohol, Philippines: Asia Forest Network, 62 p.

Nekola JC, Smith TM. 1999. Terrestrial gastropod richness patterns in Wisconsin carbonate cliff communities. Malacologia, 41, 253-269.

Ondina P, Mato S, Hermida J, Outeiro A. 1998. Importance of soil exchangeable cations and aluminium content on land snail distribution. Applied Soil Ecology, 9, 229-232.

Patil JV, Ekhande A, Padate G. 2012. A study of terrestrial molluscs with respect to their species richness, relative abundance and density in Toranmal Reserve Forest, North Maharashtra, India. European Journal of Zoological Research, 1(2), 26-30.

Perrott JK, Levin II, Hyde EA. 2007. Morphology, distribution and desiccation in the brown garden snail (Cantareus aspersus) in northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 31(1), 60-67.

Pinili LA. March 2011. Town introduces snail food. SunStar Cebu. Retrieved 07 June 2014 from http://www.sunstar.com.ph/cebu/local-news/2011/03/13/town-introduces-snail-food-144577

Pomeroy DE. 1968. Dormancy in the land snail Helicella virgate (Pulmonata: Helicidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 16, 857-869.

Sallam A, El-Wakeil N. 2012. Biological and ecological studies on land snails and their control. In: Larramendy ML, Soloneski S, eds. Integrated pest management and pest control – current and future tactics. Coratia: InTech, 413-444.

Schilthuizen M, Chai H-N, Kimsin TE, Vermeulen JJ. 2003. Abundance and diversity of land-snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) on limestone hills in Borneo. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 51(1), 35-42.

Schilthuizen M, Rutjes HA. 2001. Land snail diversity in a square kilometre of tropical rainforest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 67, 417-423.

Sen S, Ravikanth G, Aravind NA. 2012. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 4(11), 3029-3037.

Solem A. 1984. A world model of land snail diversity and abundance. In: Solem A, van Bruggen AC, eds. World-wide snails: biogeographical studies on non-marine mollusca. Leiden, the Netherlands: Universal Book Services, 6-22.

Smith RL, Smith TM. 2000. Ecology and field biology. 6th ed. CA, U.S.A.: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, 1-720.

Talisay City Planning and Development Office (CPDO). 2001. Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2001-2010). Talisay City: Office of the City Planning and Development Coordinator.

Tarbuck EJ, Lutgens FK, Tasa D. 2013. The earth: an introduction to physical geology. 11th ed. USA: Prentice Hall. 912 p.

Tattersfield P, Warui CM, Seddon MB, Kiringe JW. 2001. Land-snail faunas of afromontane forests of Mount Kenya, Kenya: ecology, diversity and distribution patterns. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 843-861.

Tompa AS. 1976. A comparative study of the ultrastructure and mineralogy of land snail eggs. Journal of Morphology, 150, 861-888.

van Bruggen AC. 1995. Biodiversity of mollusca: time for a new approach. In: van Bruggen AC, Wells SM, Kemperman TCM, eds. Biodiversity and conservation of the mollusca. Oegstgeest-Leiden: Backhuys Publishers, 1-19.

Wäreborn I. 1969. Land molluscs and their environments in an oligotrophic area in southern Sweden. Oikos, 20, 461-479.

Yom-Tov Y. 1971. Body temperature and light reflectance in two desert snails. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 39, 319-326.