Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Active metabolites of some lichens growing in Georgia

Research Paper | December 1, 2019

| Download 4

Badridze Gulnara, Chkhubianishvili Eva, Rapava Luara, Kikvidze Medea, Chigladze Lali, Tsiklauri Nino, Tsilosani Ketevan, Kupradze Inga, Chanishvili Shota

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.15( 6), 1-15, December 2019


JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The purpose of the presented investigation was to study the content of active metabolites in lichen species: Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) A. Massal, Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor, Peltigera canina (L.) Willd., Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. var. furfuracea, Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach., Xanthoparmelia stenophylla (Ach.) Ahti & D. Hawksw growing in Georgia. The primary and secondary metabolites of photo- and micobiont, in particular photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, proline, total phenols, soluble carbohydrates, total proteins and total antioxidant activity have been investigated. Spectrophotometrical and titration methods have been used for studies. Remarkably high content of carotenoids was discovered in Xanthoparmelia stenophylla compared to other tested species. Anaptychia ciliaris, Pseudovernia furfuracea and Ramalina farinacea were distinguished by the high content of chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins among the studied tree-inhabiting species. High content of proline was found in species: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata. Especially high content of phenols was determined in Peltigera canina. Ramalina pollinaria, Pseudovernia furfuracea, and Flavoparmelia caperata were distinguished by the high content of soluble carbohydrates, compared to other species. Content of total proteins was high in Ramalina farinacea, Pseudovernia furfuracea, and Flavoparmelia caperata. Hypogymnia physodes was distinguished by the high total antioxidant activity. Influence of the substrate on the quantitative characteristics of studied parameters was revealed. The same species of lichens may reveal different strategies of antioxidant defense according to environmental conditions. Cyanobionts seem to be more resistance to environmental conditions, compared to phycobiont.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Active metabolites of some lichens growing in Georgia

Akbulut G, Yildiz A. 2010. An Overview to Lichens: The Nutrient Composition of Some Species. Kafkas Üniv Fen Bil Enst Derg 3(2), 79-86.

Anjum F, Rishi V, Ahmed F. 2000. Compatibility of osmolytes with Gibbs energy of stabilization of proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1476(1), 75-84.

Anshakova VV, Karataeva EV, Kershengoltc BM. 2011. Bakery products quality improvement by means of the mechanically activated Bioadditives from lichens. Fund Res 8, 593-6.

Balarinova K, Bartak M, Hazdrova J, Hajek J, Jilkova J. 2014. Changes in photosynthesis, pigment composition and glutathione contents in two Antarctic lichens during a light stress and recovery. Photosynthetica 52(4), 538-547.

Barkman JJ. 1958. Phytosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. Assen, The Netherlands: van Gorcum & Comp. N.V.

Bates LS, Waldren RP, Treare ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39, 205-207.

Brodo IM. 1973. The lichens. Chapter 12, Substrate ecology. New York:Academic Press 401-441.

Brunauer G, Hager A, Grube M, Turk R, Stocker-Wörgötter E. 2007. Alterations in secondary metabolism of aposymbiotically grown mycobionts of Xanthoria elegans and cultured resynthesis stages. Plant Physiol Biochem 45, 146-151, DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.01.004.

Calatayud A, Deltoro VI, Barreno E, del Valle Tascon S. 1997. Changes in in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in lichen thalli as a function of water content and suggestion of zeaxanthin associated photoprotection. Physiologia Plantarum 101(1), 93-102.

Caruso A, Thor G. 2007. Importance of different tree fractions for epiphytic lichen diversity on Picea abies and Populus tremula in mature managed boreonemoral Swedish forests. Scand J Forest Res 22, 219-230.

Cox PA, Banack SA, Murch SJ, Rasmussen U, Tien G, Bidigare RR, Metcalf JS, Morrison LF, Codd GA, Bergman B. 2005. Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce b-N-methylaminoL-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102, 5074-5078.

Danilova NS. 1963. Determination of nitrates in plant material. Fiziologia rasteniy 10(4), 497-498.(Russian)

Ellis CJ. Crittenden, PD, Scrimgeour ChM. 2004. Soil as a potential source of nitrogen for matforming lichens. Can J Bot. 82, 145-149.

Elshobary ME. 2016. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina. Mycologia 108(4), 646-656.

Ermakov AI, Arasimovich VV, Iarosh VV, Peruanskiy IP, Lugovnikova GA, Ikonnikova MI. 1987. Methods of Plant Biochemical Investigation. Leningrad: Agropromizdat 85-120. (in Russian).

Favero-Longo SE, Piervittori R. 2010. Lichen-plant interactions. Journal of Plant Interactions 5(3), 163-177.

Fernandez-Moriano C, Gomez-Serranillos MP, Crespo A. 2016. Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review. Pharm Biol 54(1), 1-17. DOI: 10.3109 /13880209.2014.1003354.

Ferraris L, Abbatista-Gentile I, Matta A. 1987. Variations of phenolics concentrations as a consequence of stress that induce resistance to Fusarium wilt of tomato. J Plant Dis Protect 94, 624-629.

Foyer C, Noctor G. 2003. Redox sensing and signalling associated with reactive oxygen in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. Physiologia Plantarum 119(3), 355-364.

Gasulla F, Herrero J, Esteban-Carrasco A, Ros-Barcelo A, Barreno E, Zapata JM, Guera A. 2012. Edvances in Photosynthesis – Fundamental Aspects. In: Najafpour MM, Ed. Photosynthesis in Lichen: Light Reactions and Protective Mechanisms 149-174.

Gavrilenko VF, Ladigina ME, Khandobina LM. 1975. Big practical handbook in plant physiology. Moscow, Visshaia shkola 127-134. (Russian)

Hauck M. 2010. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens. Environmental Pollution 158(5), 1127-1133.

Hyvarinen M, Crittenden PD. 1998. Relationships between atmospheric nitrogen inputs and the vertical nitrogen and phosphorus concentration gradients in the lichen Cladonia portentosa. New Phytologist 140(3), 519-530.

Ihlen PG, Gjerde I, Saetersdal M. 2011. Structural indicators of richness and rarity of epiphytic lichens on Corylus avellana in two different forest types within a nature reserve in south-western Norway. Lichenologist 33, 215-229.

Kahkonen MP, Heinonen M. 2003. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanins and their aglycons. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(3), 628-633.

Koleva II, van Beek TA, Linssen JP, de Groot A, Evstatieva LN. 2002. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal 13, 8-17.

Koopmann R, Stevens H, Franzen-Reuter I, Frahm JP, Grote M. 2007. In vitro inhibition of soredial growth in the epiphytic lichen Physcia tenella (Ascomycetes: Lecanorales) by a variety of bark phenols. Lichenologist 39(6), 567-572.

Kosanic M, Rankovic B. 2011. Lichens as possible sources of antioxidants. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci 24(2), 165-170.

Kranner I, Beckett RP, Wornik S, Zorn M, Pfeifhofer HW. 2002. Revival of a resurrection plant correlates with its antioxidant status. Plant J. 31(1), 13-24.

Kranner I, Birtic S. 2005. A modulating role for antioxidants in desiccation tolerance. Integr Comp Biol 45, 734-740.

Kranner I, Cram WJ, Zorn M, Wornik S, Yoshimura I, Stabentheiner E, Pfeifhofer HW. 2005. Antioxidants and photoprotection in a lichen as compared with its isolated symbiotic partners. Proc. Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(8), 3141-6.

Kumar J, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Gupta D, Chaurasia OP, Arora R, Srivastava RB, Upreti DK. 2014. Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic Profile and Cytotoxic Effects of Saxicolous Lichens from Trans-Himalayan Cold Desert of Ladakh. PLoS ONE 9, 6:e98696. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098696.

Laufer Z, Beckett RP, Minibayeva FV, Luthje S, Bottger M. 2006. Occurrence of laccases in lichenized ascomycetes of the Peltigerinae. Mycol Res 110, 846-853.

Legaz E, Perez-Urria E, Avalos A, Vicente C. 1988. Epiphytic lichens inhibit the appearance of leaves in Quercus pyrenaica. Biochem System Ecol 16(3), 253-259.

Legaz ME, Monsoґ MA, Vicente C. 2004. Harmful effects of epiphytic lichens on trees. Recent Res Devel Agron Hortic 1, 1-10.

Lovdal T, Olsen KM, Slimestad R, Verheul M, Lillo C. 2010. Synergetic effects of nitrogen depletion, temperature, and light on the content of phenolic compounds and gene expression in leaves of tomato. Phytochemistry 71, 605-613.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NT, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem 139, 256-275.

Matysik J, Alia A, Bhalu B, Mohanty P. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current science 82(5), 525-532.

Mittler R. 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants, and stress tolerance. Ternds Plant Sci 7, 405-410.

Mobin M, Khan NA. 2007. Photosynthetic activity, pigment composition and antioxidative response of two mustard (Brassica juncea) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity subjected to cadmium stress. Journal of Plant Physiology 164(5), 601-610.

Molina MC, Crespo A, Vicente C, Elix JA. 2003. Differences in the composition of phenolics and fatty acids of cultured mycobionts and thallus of Physconia distorta. Plant Physiol. Biochem 41, 175-180.

Monsoґ MA, Legaz ME, Vicente C. 1993. A biochemical approach to the hemiparasitic action of the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri on Betula pendula. Ann Bot Fenn 30(4), 299-303.

Mourato M, Reis R, Martins LL. 2012. Characterization of Plant Antioxidative System in Response to Abiotic Stresses: A Focus on Heavy Metal Toxicity. In: Montanaro G and Dichio B Eds Advances in Selected Plant Physiology Aspects. Croatia, Intech. 388p.

Muggia L, Schmitt I, Grube M. 2009. Lichens as treasure chests of natural products. Sim News 85-97. www.simhq.org.

Nimis PL. 2016. The Lichens of Italy. A Second Annotated Catalogue. EUT, Trieste 739 pp.

Odabasoglu F, Aslan A, Cakir A, et al. 2004. Comparison of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of three lichen species. Phytother Res 18, 938-41.

Oksanen I. 2006. Ecological and biotechnological aspects of lichens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73, 723-34.

Palmqvist K, Dahlman L. 2006. Responses of the green algal foliose lichen Platismatia glauca to increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 171(2), 343-56·

Peres MTLP, Mapeli AM, Faccenda O, Gomes AT, Honda NK. 2009. Allelopathic potential of orsellinic acid derivates. Braz Arch Biol Technol 52(4), 1019-1026.

Plaza CM, Diaz de Torres LE, Lucking RK, Vizcaya M, Medina GE. 2014. Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research 2(5), 138-147.

Pleshkov BP. 1985. Practical Handbook of Plant Biochemistry. Moskva: Agropromizdat, 3rd edn 207-208. (in Russian).

Ranković B, Kosanić M. 2015. Lichens as a Potential Source of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites. In: Ranković B. Ed. Lichen Secondary Metabolites. Springer, Cham. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-13374-4-1

Rankovic BR, Kosanic MM, Stanojkovic TP. 2011. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11, 97. http://www.biome dcentral.com/1472-6882/11/97.

Rizzi G, Giordani P. 2012. The ecology of the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia in Italy: An investigation throughout spatial scales. Plant Biosystems 1, 1-7.

Saradhi PP, Alia Arora S, Prasad KV. 1995. Proline accumulates in plants exposed to UV radiation and protects them against UV induced peroxidation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun 209, 1-5.

Sedia EG, Ehrenfeld JG. 2003. Lichens and mosses promote alternate stable plant communities in the New Jersey Pineland. Oikos 100, 447_458.

Shawuti G, Abbas A. 2007. Research progress on biological activities of lichens secondary metabolites. Food Sci J 28, 624-627.

Spier L, van Dobben H, van Dort K. 2010. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras? Environ Pollut 158(12), 3607-11.

Stocker-Worgotter E, Elix JA. 2002. Secondary chemistry of cultured micobiont formation of a complete chemosyndrome by the lichen fungus of Lobaria spathulata. Lichenologist 34(4), 351-359.

Stocker-Worgotter E, Elix JA. 2004. Experimental studies of lichenized fungi: formation of rare depsides and dibenzofuranes by the culture mycobiont of Bunodophoron patagonicum (Sphaerophoraceae, lichenized Ascomycota). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88, 659-669.

Stojanovic G, Stojanovic I, Stankov-JovanovicV, et al. 2010. Reducing power and radical scavenging activity of four Parmeliaceae species. Cent Eur J Biol 5, 808-13.

Szabados L, Savoure A. 2010. Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15, 2, 89-97.

Turkina MV, Sokolova SV. 1971. Methods of determination of mono- and oligosaccharides. In: Pavlinova O.A. ed. Biological methods in plant physiology. Moscow, Nauka, 20-26. (Russian)

Watson R. 2014. Polyphenols in Plants: Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation. 1st Edition. Academic Press 360.

Weigel HJ, Jager HJ. 1979. Changes in Proline Concentration of the Lichen Psendevernia furfuracea during Drought Stress. Phyton (Austria), 19Fasc. 3-4163-16710. 9.

White PAS, Oliveira RCM, Oliveira AP, Serafini MR, Araujo AAS, Gelain DP, Moreira JCF, Almeida JRGS, Quintans JSS, Quintans-Junior LJ, Santos MRV. 2014. Antioxidant Activity and Mechanisms of Action of Natural Compounds Isolated from Lichens: A Systematic Review. Molecules 19, 14496-14527.