Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of Artabotrys aurantiacus Engl (Annonaceae) leaves aqueous extract in rat

Paper Details

Research Paper 06/11/2022
Views (720) Download (65)

Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of Artabotrys aurantiacus Engl (Annonaceae) leaves aqueous extract in rat

Patience Emambo, Marie Claire Tchamadeu, Phillipe Belle Ebanda, Calvin Bogning Zangeu, Christian Tenezogang Takoukam, Modeste Nya Wankeu, Alain Bertrand Dongmo, Siméon Pierre Choukem
Int. J. Biosci.21( 5), 24-36, November 2022.
Certificate: IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


The widespread use of Artabotrys aurantiacus in traditional medicine for the quest for well-being aroused attention for its potential risk to human and animal health. This study points out the acute and sub-chronic toxicological profile of Artabotrys aurantiacus leaves aqueous extract. The extract was prepared following the traditional healer’s method and orally administered to Wistar rats at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg or 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day for 45 days for acute and sub-chronic tests, respectively. In acute toxicity, no behavioral disorder was observed in treated animals as compared to the control. The lethal dose of 50 was estimated to be higher than 5000 mg/kg and the extract was noted as slightly toxic. Similarly, no significant change in body weight nor biochemical parameters were observed after 45 days of repeated dosing of the extract. Histological study revealed that all tested doses induced no damage to the liver and kidney as compared to control. These findings indicate that the use of Artabotrys aurantiacus leaves aqueous extract at tested doses is not associated with any toxic effect.


Aguilar NO. 2001. Artabotrys R. Br. Ex Ker Gawl. In: Van Valkenburg JLCH, Bunyapraphatsara N. Eds. Plant resources of south-East Asia: medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys publishers 85-89.

Ahmed AZB, Merzouk H, Bouanane S, Benkalfat NB, Merzouk SA, Mulengi JK,  Narce M. 2010. Evaluation de la toxicité aiguë de la 2-hydroxy-méthyl-1 (Nphtaloyltryptophyl) azidiridine chez le rat Witsar. Annal of Toxicology 3, 115-121.

Arthur FKN, Woode E, Terlabi EO, Larbie C. 2011. Evaluation of acute and subchronic toxicity of Annona muricata (Linn.) aqueous extract in animals. European Journal of Experimental Biology 1, 115 -124.

Ashafa OA, Orekoya LO, Yakubu MT. 2012. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedical 2, 811-817.

Bariweni MW, Yibala OI, Ozolua RI. 2018. Toxicological studies on the aqueous extract leaf extract of Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum) in rodents. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy Research 6, 1-16.

Bruno ETO. 2013. Research in clinical phytopharmacology to develop health care. In developing countries: state of the art and perspectives. Phytopharmacology 4, 149-205.

Chanda I, Parekh J, Vaghasiya Y, Dave R, Baravalia Y, Nair R. 2015. Medicinal plants from traditional use to toxicity assessment. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research 6, 2652-2670.

Cortes D, Torrero MY, D’Ocon MP, Candenas ML, Cave A, Hadi AHA. 1990.  Norstephalagine and atherospermidine: two smooth muscle relaxant aporphines from Artabotrys maingayi. Journal of Natural Product 53, 503-508.

Garg SC, Siddiqui N. 1998. Neuropharmacological studies of the essential oil of Artabotrys odoratissimus R.Br. Hamdard Medicus 41, 22-27.

Georges P, Arekar C, Subhashini D. 2011. Biodiversity survey of trees and ornamental plants in Karunya University, Coimbatore. India International Journal of Biodiversity Conservation 3, 431-443.

Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. 2002. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 81, 81-100.

Hashim A, Salman KM, Ahmad S. 2014. Alleviation of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia by Phyllanthus virgatus Forst Extract and its Partially Purified Fraction in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. EXCLI Journal 13, 809-824.

Johri PK, Tiwari D, Johri R. 2009. Screening of some indigenous medicinal plants for anti-implatation/anti-fertility activivity in female albino rats. Biochemistry Cellular Archives 9, 175-178.

Kamo IL, Tra BI, Gnahoue G, Kra AK, Djaman AJ, N’guessan JD. 2015. Hepatic tolerance study of hydro-alcoholic of Terminalia mantaly H, Perrier (Combretaceae) in rats. Journal of Phytopharmacology 3, 164-174.

Li X, Luo Y, Wang L, Li Y, Shi Y, Cui Y, Xue M. 2010. Acute and subacute toxicity of ethanol extracts from Salvia przewalskii Maxim in rodents. Journal of Ethno pharmacology 131, 110-115.

Locke DA. 1983. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archive of Toxicology 54, 275- 287.

Loomis TA, Hayes AW. 1996. Loomis’s Essentials of Toxicology. Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, USA, p 282.

Madingou NOK, Traore A, Souza A, Mounanga MMB, Samseny RRA, Ouedraogo S, Traore AS. 2015. Preliminary studies of acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Guiboutia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonards stem-barks (Caesalpiniaceae) in mice and rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6, 506-510.

Marble Y. 2012. Creation of communal graying areas for goats in southern Mozambique: future perspertives. MSc thesis, Wageningen University, Netherlands, 83 p.

Mishra SB, Dwivedi S, Shashi A, Prajapati K. 2008. Ethnomedicinal uses of some plant species by ethnic and rural peoples of the Salem district of Tamilnadu with special reference to the conservation of vanishing species. Ethnobotanic Leaflets 12, 873-887.

Mokoka TA, Zimmermann S, Julianti T, Hata Y, Moodley N, Cal M, Adams M,  Kaiser M, Brun R, Koorbanally N, Hamburger M. 2011. In vitro screening of traditional South African malaria remedies against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, and Plasmodium falciparum. Planta Medica 77, 1663-1667.

Moore J. 1994. Plants of the Tongwe East Forest Reserve (Ugalla), Tanzania. Tropics 3, 333-340.

Murphy BT, Cao S, Brodie PJ, Miller JS, Ratovoson F, Birkinshaw C, Rakotobe E, Rasamison VE, Tendyke K, Suh EM, Kingston DGI. 2008. Antiproliferative compounds of Artabotrys madagascariensis from the Madagascar rainforest. Natural Product Research 22, 1169-1175.

Neeta MP, Mukta M, Bilwa K. 2015. Comparative qualitative phytochemical analysis of Sesamum indicum L. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 2, 172-181.

Ojewumi AW, Kadiri M. 2013. Physiological evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on rats. Journal of Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology 12, 50-61.

Olson H, Betton G, Robinson D, Thomas K, Monro A. 2000. Concordance of toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 32, 56-67.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2001. OEDC guideline for testing of chemicals. Test N° 423. Acute Oral Toxicity – Acute Toxic Class Method. OEDC Publishing, 1-14.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2008. OEDC Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals. Test N°407: repeated dose 28 – day oral toxicity study in rodents. Paris OEDC Publishing, 2-8.

Pilay P, Maharaj VJ, Smith PJ. 2008. Investigating South African plants as a source of new antimalarial drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119, 438-454.

Poualeu KSL, Wansi SL, Mzoyem NG, Miaffo D, Nkeng-Efouet AP, Kamanyi A. 2016. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of an aqueous extract of Hallea stipulosa (Rubiaceae) in Wistar Rats. International Journal of Toxicology and Pharmacology Research 8, 204-209.

Seidemann J. 2005. World spice plants: economic usage, botany, taxonomy. Ed.  Springer Science & Business Media, 592 p.

Stephens F, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL. 2007. An Acute increase in skeletal muscle Carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical and Endocrinology Metabolism 91, 5013-5018.

Tarabishy AB, Aldalbagh, Sun Y, Imamura Y, Mukherjee PK, Lass JH, Ghannoum MA, Pearlman E. 2008. MyD88 regulation of Fusarium Keratitis is dependent of TLR4 and IL-1R1 but not TLR2. Journal of Immunology 181, 593-600.

Tortora GJ, Derrickson B. 2006. Liver and gallbladder. In Principle of Anatomy and Physiology, 11th ed. United States of America: John Wiley and Sons, Inc 918-921 p.

Trivedi CP, Saxena SP, Emmanuel J. 1971. Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Artabotrys odoratissimus (Champa). Indian Journal of Medicine and Research, 635-639.