Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of methanolic extract of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2018
Views (221) Download (6)

Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of methanolic extract of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.)

Ananta Swargiary, Manita Daimari, Partha Pratim Sarma, Rajib Ratan Kashyap
Int. J. Biosci.12( 6), 488-496, June 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) is a medicinal plant used by the people of Assam as antihyperglycemic agent. However, very less scientific studies have been conducted to confirm its medicinal property. Therefore, present study investigates the toxicological effect of plant on mice model. Acute and sub-acute toxicity was carried out following OECD guidelines. Toxicity study was designed for 14 days period by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of different doses plant extract, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Following i.p. injection the animals were continuously observed for 1 h, then frequently for 24 h, and thereafter once per day for 14 days to monitor any kind of behavioral changes. One-tenth of the highest dose of acute toxicity study (i.e., 100 mg/kg b.w.) was taken for sub-acute toxicity study and continued for 14 days with daily administration. On the 15th day, tissue samples, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen were collected and processed for histological and biochemical analysis. All the biochemical studies were done following standard protocols. Acute toxicity study revealed no toxicological effect on albino mice at the tested doses. Sub-acute toxicity study revealed slight changes in the various enzymes and molecules in control and treated mice. However, no significant differences were observed in the treated mice. Similarly, no such observable alterations were noticed in histological architecture of tissue sections of treated mice. The absence of any toxicological effects of extract of H. heteroclita suggests its suitability in medicinal systems. However, further investigations are needs to be done to see the mode of action.


Arome D, Chinedu E. 2013. The importance of toxicity testing. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Bio Sciences 4, 146-148.

Banerjee S, Ghosh J. 2016. Drug Metabolism and Oxidative Stress: Cellular Mechanism and New Therapeutic Insights. Biochem Anal Biochem 3, 1-11.

Basumatary S, Das AK, Nanjian R, Sharma GD. 2015. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Cucurbitaceae) fruit. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences 5, 80-83.

Bergmeyer HU. 1974. Methods of enzymatic analysis, 2nd edition, New York. 673-677.

Cragg GM, Newman DJ. 2002. Drug Discovery and Development from Natural Products : The Way Forward. 11th NAPRECA Symposium B Proceedings 1, 56-69.

Deavall DG, Martin EA, Horner JM, Roberts R. 2012. Drug-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. Journal of Toxicology 2012, Article ID 645460.

Habig W, Michel RH, McGovern PE. 1974. Glutathione S-Transferases: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. The Journsl of Biological Chemistry 249, 7130-7139.

Ingale KG, Thakurdesai PA, Vyawahare NS. 2013. Protective effect of Hygrophila spinosa against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 45, 232-236.

John King. 1965. Practical clinical enzymology-John King – Google Books, Van Nostrand, New York, USA.

Karale S, Kamath JV. 2017. Effect of daidzein on cisplatin-induced hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 49, 49-54.

Lim KT, Lim V, Chin JH. 2012. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2, 948-952.

Lodhi G, Singh HK, Pant KK, Hussain Z. 2009. Hepatoprotective effects of Calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Acta Pharmaceutica 59, 89-96.

Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1953. Protein measurement with the folin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265-275.

Ludwig TG, Goldberg HJV. 1956. The anthrone method for the determination of carbohydrates in foods and in oral rinsing. Journal of Dental Research 35, 90-94.

Madeleine R, Etame E, Mouokeu RS, Anne R, Ngane N, Assam JPA, Masoohe AM, Tientcheu T, Hopogap M, Etoa F. 2017. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Harungana madagascariensis LAM (Hypericaceae) stem bark methanol extract. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 7, 160-167.

Mangathayaru K, Grace XF, Bhavani M, Meignanam E, Rajasekhar Karna S, Kumar DP. 2005. Effect of Leucas aspera on hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 37, 329.

Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. 1979. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 582, 67-78.

Namsa ND, Tag H, Mandal M, Kalita P, Das AK. 2009. An ethnobotanical study of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 125, 234-245.

OECD. 2001. Acute Oral Toxicity- Fixed Dose Procedure, OECD Guidelines for Testing Chemicals, (December) 2001; 1-14.

Pantelidou M, Tsiakitzis K, Rekka EA, Kourounakis PN. 2017. Biologic stress, oxidative stress, and resistance to drugs: What is hidden behind? Molecules 22, 1-13.

Parasuraman S. 2011. Toxicological screening. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics 2, 74-79.

Plummer DT. 1987. An introduction to practical biochemistry, (Tata Mc Graw-Hill).

Roy S, Ukil B, Lyndem LM. 2016. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies on the effect of Senna alata in Swiss Albino mice. Cogent Biology 2(1).

Semwal DP, Bhatt KC, Bhandari DC, Panwar NS. 2014. A note on distribution, ethnobotany and economic potential of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook. f & Thoms. in North-eastern India. Indian Journal of Natural Product Resourses 5, 88-91.

Sireeratawong S, Jaijoy K, Khonsung P, Lertprasertsuk N, Ingkaninan K. 2016. Acute and chronic toxicities of Bacopa monnieri extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. BMC Complement Alternative Medicine 16, 249.

Sur TK, Chatterjee S, Hazra AK, Pradhan R, Chowdhury S. 2015. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity study of black tea in rodents. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 47, 167-172.

Suvarna SK, Layton C, Bancroft JD. 2013. Bancroft’s Theory and practice of histological techniques, Sixth Edition., (Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier).

Swargiary A, Brahma BK, Rahman S. 2013. Ethno-Botanical Study of Anti-Diabetic Medicinal Plants used by the Local People of Kokrajhar District of Bodoland Territorial Council, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 1, 51-58.

Swargiary A, Brahma D. 2017. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb). Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 79, 212-219.Swargiary A, Daimari A, Daimari M, Basumatary N, Narzary E. 2016. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 48, 418-423.

Syiem D, Warjri P. 2015. Antidiabetic, antioxidant, and TNF-α lowering properties of extract of the traditionally used plant Ixeris gracilis in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Pharmaceutical Biology 53, 494-502.

Usha T, Goyal AK, Narzary D, Prakash L, Wadhwa G, Babu D, Shanmugaranjan D, Middha SK. 2018. Identification of bioactive lowering compounds of methanolic extract of Hodgsonia heteroclita fruit pulp. Frontiers in Biosciences (Landmark Ed.) 1, 875-888.

WHO. 2000. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine World Health Organization. WHO 1-73.

WHO. 2002. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. WHO 1-74.