Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.11( 2), 1-13, August 2017
Response to environmental stress is an important aspect in metabolism of organisms. For this purpose, C. punctata, a variety of fish was used and examined the effect of cold acclimation on the regulation of protein, cholesterol and triglyceride in liver induced by HgCl2 for 1h. The stimulatory effects on protein content were demonstrated whenever exposed to HgCl2 (1 and 10 µM) (10.63 vs 31.25, 38.62). Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in excised liver were enhanced in response to HgCl2 when compared to respective controls (145.73 vs 1678.42; 16.46 vs 102.24). To find interaction with cold acclimation, fish were treated with HgCl2 (1 and 10 µM) and exposed to 4 oC. The stimulatory effects on protein synthesis in cold stress were observed (10.63 vs 36.49, HgCl2 1 µM; 10.63 vs 67.0, HgCl2 10 µM) compared to control and the effects were potential whenever exposed to mercury (10 µM) in cold. The cholesterol level in response to cold along with HgCl2 (1 and 10 µM) was found similarly to increase (145.73 vs 1086.13, 1838.48) respectively and the results were assumed to be higher than that of HgCl2 alone. Cold acclimation also affects triglyceride in presence of different concentrations of HgCl2 and increased level of triglyceride in liver exposed to HgCl2 (1 and 10 µM) and cold (16.46 vs 34.22, 42.47) was demonstrated. Collectively, both these stimuli cause severe stress to the organism, involved in diverse metabolic regulation which may contribute for survival of species in the environment.
Alvarez MD, Murphy CA, Rose KA, McCarthy ID, Fuiman LA. 2006. Maternal body burdens of methylmercury impair survival skills of offspring in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). Aquatic Toxicology 80, 329-337.
Basra AS. 2001. Crop responses and adaptations to temperature stress. In: T.K. Prasad (Ed.), Mechanisms of chilling injury and tolerance, Haworth Press Inc. New York, 1-34 P.
Carvan MJ, Dalton TP, Stuart GW, Nebert DW. 2000. Transgenic zebrafish as sentinels for aquatic pollution. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 919, 133-147. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06875.x
Dos Santos RS, Galina A, Da-Silva WS. 2013. Cold acclimation increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in goldfish white skeletal muscle. Biology Open 2(1), 82-87. http://doi.org/10.1242/bio.20122295
Das M, Banerjee B, Choudhury MG, Saha N. 2013. Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. PLoS One 8(12), e85535. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085535
Giudetti AM, Damiano F, Gnoni GV, Siculella L. 2013. Low level of hydrogen peroxide induces lipid synthesis in BRL-3A cells through a CAP-independent SREBP-1a activation. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 45, 1419-1426. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2013.04.004
Grim JM, Miles DRB, Crockett EL. 2010. Temperature acclimation alters oxidative capacities and composition of membrane lipids without influencing activities of enzymatic antioxidants or susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in fish muscle. Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 445-452. http://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.036939
Ibarz A, Martı´n-Pe´rez M, Blasco J, Bellido D, de Oliveira E, Ferna´ndez-Borra`s J. 2010. Gilthead sea bream liver proteome altered at low temperatures by oxidative stress. Proteomics 10, 963-975. http://doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200900528
Jeon J, Kim J. 2013. Cold stress signaling networks in Arabidopsis. Journal of Plant Biology 56, 69-76. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12374-013-0903-y
Johnston IA, DunnJ. 1987. Temperature acclimation and metabolism in ectotherms with particular reference to teleost fish. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 41, 67-93.
Kammer AR, Orczewska JI, O’Brien KM. 2011. Oxidative stress is transient and tissue specific during cold acclimation of three spine stickleback. Journal of Experimental Biology 214, 1248-1256. http://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.053207
Kenny AP. 1952. The determination of cholesterol by the Liebermann Burchard reaction. Biochemical Journal 52(4), 611-619. http://doi.org/10.1042/bj0520611
Kent J, Koban M, Prosser CL. 1988. Cold-acclimation-induced protein hypertrophy in channel catfish and green sunfish. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 158(2), 185-198. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01075832
Lee DH, Lee CB. 2000. Chilling stress-induced changes of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of cucumber: In gel enzyme activity assays. Plant Science 159(1), 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(00)00326-5
Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin-phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 183, 265-275.
Li ZH, Chen L, Wu YH, Li P, Li YF, Ni ZH. 2014. Effects of mercury on oxidative stress and gene expression of potential biomarkers in larvae of the Chinese rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 67(2), 245-51. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0034-6
Mieiro CL, Pardal M, Duarte A, Pereira E, Palmeira CM. 2015. Impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism of two marine fish by in vitro mercuric chloride exposure. Marine Pollution Bulletin 97(1-2), 488-93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.05.054
Oidaira H, Satoshi S,Tomokazu K, Takashi U. 2000. Enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities in chilled rice seedlings. Plant Physiology 156, 811-813. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(00)80254-0
Padmini E, Hepshibha BT, Shellomith ASS. 2004. Lipid alteration as stress markers in grey mullets (Mugil cephalusL.) caused by industrial effluents in Ennore estuary (Oxidative stress in fish). Aquaculture 5(1), 115-118.
Roy SK, Haque MS. 2009. Interaction of arsenic on cold-induced adaptive response involving the change of liver weight of fish Channa punctatus. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences 15(2), 115-119.
Rothschild RF, Duffy LK. 2005. Mercury concentrations in muscle, brain and bone of Western Alaskan waterfowl. Science of theTotal Environment 349, 277-283. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.05.021
Rangwala SM, Lazar MA. 2000. Transcriptional control of adipogenesis. Annual Review of Nutrition 20, 535-559. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.20.1.535
Rosen ED, Walkey CJ, Puigserver P, Spiegelman BM. 2000. Transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Genes and Development 14, 1293-1307. http://doi.org/10.1101/gad.14.11.1293
Sharma B, Singh S, Siddiqi NJ. 2014. Biomedical implications of heavy metals induced imbalances in redox systems. Bio Med Research International 2014, 640754. http://doi.org/10.1155/2014/640754
Ung CY, Lam SH, Hlaing MM, Winata CL, Korzh S, Mathavan S, Gong Z. 2010. Mercuryl-induced hepatotoxicity in zebrafish: in vivo mechanistic insights from transcriptome analysis, phenotype anchoring and targeted gene expression validation. BMC Genomics 11, 212. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-212
Verlecar XN, Jena KB, Chainy GBN. 2007. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature. Chemico-Biological Interactions 167, 219-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2007.01.018
Zhang L, Wong MH. 2007. Environmental mercury contamination in China: sources and impacts. Environment International 33, 108-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.06.022