Altitudinal distribution of soil organic carbon stock and its relation to aspect and vegetation in the mountainous forest of Bagrot Valley, North Karakoram, Gilgit-Baltistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2014
Views (294) Download (8)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Altitudinal distribution of soil organic carbon stock and its relation to aspect and vegetation in the mountainous forest of Bagrot Valley, North Karakoram, Gilgit-Baltistan

Shamsher Ali, Rifat Hayat, Farida Begum, Azhar Hussain, Najam ul Hasan, Abdul Hameed
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 1), 199-213, July 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in mountain ecosystems is highly heterogeneous because of differences in soil parent material, climate, vegetation and topography. The area is unexplored with respect to distribution of SOC stock. Furthermore, SOC distribution factors like altitude, slope aspect, vegetation, deforestation and depth of soil remain unclear. In the present study SOC stock and bulk density in three depths were determined in 10-sites of forest under different altitude (2787-3600 m), slope aspect (north and south facing slope) and vegetation types on the mountainous forest of Bagrot valley, North Karakorum, Gilgit-Baltistan. The results showed that SOC stock and bulk density varied significantly with respect to altitude, aspect, vegetation and depths (p < 0.05). SOC stocks correlated positively with the altitude but negatively with bulk density, depth and pH. Mean SOC at north facing slope was comparatively higher than the south facing slope. The highest SOC stock was observed in Rakhan forest site at altitude 3460 m located at north facing slope and dominated by dense Betula utilis (Birch) vegetation. Similarly, the lowest SOC stock was found at the Gasonar forest site covered by Juniperous excels vegetation, where severely deforested was observed. The variation in SOC stocks were mainly due to the increasing precipitation and decreasing temperature and pH with altitude, which resulted in decreased litter decomposition. In addition to altitude the vegetation, soil depth and deforestation also significantly effect on SOC stock. Soil bulk density followed the above pattern but in inversed order.

VIEWS 11

Anderson JM, Ingram JSI .1993. Tropical Soil Fertility: A handbook of methods, CA B., Wallingford. U.K. 68-71 p.

Athar M. 2005. Nodulation of native legumes in Pakistani Rangelands. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 70, 49-54.

Baath E, Anderson TH. 2003. Comparison of Soil Fun- gal/Bacterial Ratios in a pH Gradient Using Physiological and PLFA-Based Techniques. Soil Biology and Bio- chemistry 35(7), 955-963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00154-8

Bajracharya RM, Lal R, Kimble JM. 1998. Soil organic carbon distribution in aggregates and primary particle fractions as influenced by erosion phases and landscape position. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Follett RF, Stewart BA (eds) Soil processes and the carbon cycle. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, USA, 353–367 p.

Baldock JA, Nelson PN. 2000. Soil organic matter. In Sumner ME. (ed.) Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 25–84.

Bale CL, Charley JL. 1994. The impact of aspect on forest floor characteristics in some eastern Australian sites. Forest Ecology and Management 67, 305–317.

Bale CL, Williams BJ, Charley JL. 1998. The impact of aspect on forest structure and floristics in some Eastern Australian Sites. Forest Ecology and Management 110, 363–377.

Banfield  GE,  Bhatti  JS,  Jiang  H,  Apps  MJ .2002. Variability in regional scale estimates of carbon stocks in boreal forest ecosystems: results from west-central Alberta. Forest Ecology and Management 169, 15–27.

Barry RG. 1981.  Mountain  weather  and  climate. Methuen, London.

Becker A, Bugmann H. 1997. Predicting global change impacts on mountain hydrology and ecology: Integrated catchment hydrology / altitudinal gradient studies. Workshop Report. IGBP Report 43.

Becker A, Bugmann H. 2001. Global change and mountain regions. IGBP Report 49.

Beniston M. 2000. Environmental change in mountains and uplands. London. (2003): Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. In: Climatic Change 59, 5–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024458411589.

Beniston M. 2006. Mountain weather and climate: a general overview and a focus on climatic change in the Alps. In: Hydrobiologia 562, 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-005-1802-0

Blake GR, Hartge KH .1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Physical and mineralogical methods, part 1, 2nd edn. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI, 363–375 p.

Bot A, Benites J. 2005. The Importance of Soil Organic Matter: Key to Drought-Resistant Soil and Sustained Food and Production. FAO Soils Bulletin 80. FAO of the United Nations, Rome.

Brady NC, Weil RR. 1996. The Nature and Properties of Soils. Prentice Hall, US 343-490 p.

Brubaker SC, Jones AJ, Lewis DT, Frank K. 1993. Soil properties associated with landscape position. Soil Society American Journal 57, 235–239.

Casanova M, Messing I, Joel A. 2000. Influence of aspect and slope gradient on hydraulic conductivity measured by tension infiltrometer. Hydrological Process 14, 155–164.

Cebecauer T, Hofierka J. 2008.The consequences of land-cover changes on soil erosion distribution in Slovakia. Geomorphology 98,187-198.

Chen ZS, Hsieh CF, Jiang FY, Hsieh TH, Sun IF. 1997. Relations of soil properties to topography and vegetation in a subtropical rain forest in southern Taiwan. Plant Ecology 132, 229–241.

Chhabra A, Palria S, Dadhwal VK. 2003. Soil Organic Carbon in Indian Forests. Forest Ecology and Management 173, 187-199.

Cole VC, Paustian K, Elliott ET, Metherell AK, Ojima DS, Parton WJ. 1993. Analysis of Agroecosystem Carbon Pools. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 70(1-4), 357-371.

Cramer T. 2000. Geländeklimatologische Studien im Bagrottal, Karakorumgebirge, Pakistan. Geo Aktuell Forschungsarbeiten 3. Göttingen.

Cremer T. 1997. Climatic Gradients in the Karakorum and their effects on the Natural Vegetation. In: Stellrecht I and Winiger M (eds.). Perspectives on History and Change in the Karakorum, Hindukush, and Himalaya., Koln: Rudiger Koppe Verlag, 265-276.

Czimczik C, Mund M, Schulze ED, Wirth C. 2005. Effects of reforestation, deforestation, and afforestation on carbon storage in soils. In: Griffiths, H., Jarvis, P.G. (Eds.), The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes. Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers, London.

Dahlgren AR, Bottinger LT, Huntington LG, Amundson AR. 1997. Soil development along an elevation transect in the western Sierra Nevada, California. Geoderma 78, 207–236.

Dai W, Huang Y. 2006. Relation of soil organic matter concentration to climate and altitude in zonal soils of China. Catena 65, 87–94.

Dimri BM, Jha MN, Gupta MK .1997. Status of soil nitrogen at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya. Van-Vigyan 35, 77–84.

Djukic I, Zehetner F, Tatzber M, Gerzabek MH . 2010. Soil organic-matter stocks and characteristics along an Alpine elevation gradient. Journal of Plant Nutrient and Soil Science 173, 30–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1998.00118.x.

Emiru N, Gebrekidan H. 2013.Effect of land use changes and soil depth on soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents of soils in Senbat watershed, Western Ethiopia. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 8, 3-8.

Eswaran H, Berg E, van den Reich P. 1993. Organic carbon in soils of the world. Soil Science. Society of American Journal 57, 192–194.

Falloon P, Smith P. 2009. Modelling soil carbon dynamics. Soil Carbon Dynamics. An Integrated Methodology. Cambridge University Press.

Farquhar GD, Fasham MJR, Goulden ML, Heimann M, Jaramillo VJ, Kheshgi HS, Le Quere C, Scholes RJ, Wallace DWR. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis IPCC. Chapter 3. The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 183–237 p.

Federer CA, Turcotte DE, Smith CT. 1993. The organic fraction—bulk density relationship and the expression of nutrient content in forest soils. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23, 1026–1032.

Ganuza A, Almendros G. 2003. Organic carbon storage in soils of the Basque Country (Spain): the effect of climate, vegetation type and edaphic variables. Biology and Fertility Soils 37, 154–162.

Garcia Pausas J, Casals P, Camarero LS, Huguet C, Sebastia` MT, Thompson JA, Romanya`J. 2007. Soil organic carbon storage in mountain grasslands of the Pyrenees: effects of climate and topography. Biogeochemistry 82, 279– 289.

Garten CT, Post III WM, Hanson PJ, Cooper LW. 1999. Forest carbon inventories and dynamics along an elevation gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Biogeochemistry 45, 115– 145.

Genxu W, Haiyan M, Ju Q, Juan C. 2004. Impact of land use changes on soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and water pollution in an arid region of northwest China. Soil Use and Management 20, 32-39.

Goudie AS, Cuff DJ. 2002. Encyclopedia of global change. Environmental change and human society. Oxford.

Hansen AJ, Rotella JJ, Kraska MPV, Brown D . 2000. Spatial patterns of primary productivity in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 15, 505–522.

Hartman RE, Lloyd WJ. 1969. The influence of aspect on forests of the Clarksville soils in Dent Country, Missouri Journal of Forest 67, 178–182.

Hewitt K. 1989. The altitudinal organization of Karakoram geornorphic processes and depositional environments. Zeitscrift fur Geomorphologie, 76, 9-32.

Hicks RR, Frank PS. 1984. Relationship of aspect to soil nutrients, species importance and biomass in a forested watershed in west Virginia. Forest Ecology and Management 8, 281–291.

Hoffmann T, Glatzel S, Dikau R. 2009. A carbon storage perspective on alluvial sediment storage in the Rhine catchment. Geomorphology 108, 127–137.

Homann PS, Sollins P, Chappell HN, Stangenberger AG. 1995. Soil organic carbon in a mountainous, forested region: relation to site characteristics. Soil Science Society American Journal 59, 1468–1475.

Homann PS, Sollins P, Chappell HN, Stangenberger AG. 1995. Soil organic carbon in a mountainous, forested region: relation to site characteristics. Soil Science Society of American Journal 59, 1468–1475.

Hutchins RL, Hill JD, White EH. 1976. The influence of soil and microclimate on vegetation of forested slopes in eastern Kentucky. Soil Science 121, 234–241.

Ineson P, Taylory T, Harrison AF, Poskitt J, Benham DG, Tipping E, Woof C. 1998. Effects of climate change on nitrogen dynamics in upland soils. 1. A transplant approach. Global Change Biology 4, 143–152.

IPCC. 2007a. Climate change 2007 – the physical science basis. Cambridge.

IPCC. 2007b. Climate change 2007 – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge.

Kalembasa SJ, Jenkinson DS. 1973. A comparative study of titrimetric and gravimetric methods for the determination of organic carbon in soil. Journal Science Food Agriculture 24, 1085–1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740240910

Kane ES, Valentine DW, Schuur EAG, Dutta K . 2005. Soil carbon stabilization along climate and stand productivity gradients in black spruce forests of interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 2118–2189.

Kidanemariam A, Gebrekidan H, Mamo T, Kibret K. 2012. Impact of Altitude and Land Use Type on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Acidic Soils in Tsegede Highlands, Northern Ethiopia. Open Journal of Soil Science 2, 223-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojss.201223027

Kirschbaum MUF. 1995. The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic storage. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27, 753–760.

Kneopp JD, Swank WT. 1998. Rates of nitrogen mineralization across an elevation and vegetation gradient in the southern Appalachians. Plant and Soil Science 204, 235– 241.

Lal R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123(1–2), 1–22.

Lal R. 2008. Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in global carbon pools. Energy and Environmental Science 1, 86–100.

Lisiki J, Westman CJ. 1997. Carbon storage in forest soils of Finland: II. Size and regional patterns. Biogeochemistry 36, 247–261.

Liski J, Westman J. 1997. Carbon storage in forest soil of Finland. Effect of thermoclimate. Biogeochemistry 36, 239–260.

Luyssaert S, Schulze ED, Börne A, Knohl A, Hessenmöller D, Law BE, Ciais P, Grace J. 2008.  Old-growth  forests  as global  carbon  sinks. Nature 455, 213–215.

Madison, WI. 2004. Agron.Monogr 9, 199-224.

Makinen H, Nojd P, Kahle HP, Neumann U, Tveite B, Mielikainen K, Rohle H, Spiecker H. 2002. Radial growth variation of Norway spruce (Piceaabies (L.) Karst.)across latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in central and northern Europe. Forest Ecology Management 171, 243–259.

McLean EO. 1982. Soil pH and lime requirement. In, A.L Page, R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney (eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. 2nd ed. ASA and SSSA.

Meier IC, Leuschner C. 2010. Variation of soil and biomass carbon pools in beech forests across a precipitation gradient. Global Change Biology 16, 1035–1045.

Melillo JM, McGuire AD, Kicklighter DW, Moore B, Vorosmarty CJ, Schloss AL. 1993. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature 363, 234–240.

Mendoza-Vega J. 2002. The influence of land use/land cover and soil types on amounts of soil organic carbon and soil characteristics. Doctoral thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Moore AM. 1986. Temperature and moisture dependence of decomposition rates of hardwood and coniferous leaf litter. Soil Biol. Biochemistry 18, 427– 435.

Morgan JA, Follett RF, Allen LHJ, Del Grosso S, Derner JD, Dijkstra F, Franzluebbers, A, Fry R, Paustian K, Schoeneberger MM. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agricultural lands of the United States. Journal of Soil Water Conservation 65 (1), 6A–13A.

Mroz GD, Jurgensen MF, Frederick DJ. 1985. Soil nutrient changes following whole tree harvesting on three northern hardwood sites. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 1552-1557.

Noor A, Surayya K. 2013. Analysis of Vegetation Pattern and Soil Characteristics of Astore Valley Gilgit- Baltistan. Pakistan Journal Botany 45(5), 1663-1667.

Pennock DJ, van Kessel C. 1997. Clear-cut forest harvest impacts on soil quality indicators in the mixed wood forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. Geoderma 75, 13-32.

Perruchoud D, Walthert L, Zimmermann S, Lüscher P. 2000. Contemporary carbon stocks of mineral forest soils in the Swiss Alps. Biogeochemistry 50, 111–136.

Peterson DW, Peterson DL. 2001. Mountain hemlock growth responds to climatic variability at annual and decadal time scales. Ecology 82, 3330– 3345.

Peterson DW, Peterson DL, Ettl GJ. 2001. Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32, 1503–1517.

Phillips OL, Malhi Y, Higuchi N, Laurance WF, Nunez PV, Vasquez RM, Laurance SG, Ferreira LV, Stern M, Brown S, Grace J. 1998. Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science 282(5388), 439–442.

Pregitzer KS, Euskirchen ES. 2004. Carbon cycling and storage in world forests: biome patterns related to forest age. Global Change of Biology 10, 2052–2077.

Riedo M, Gyalistras D, Fuhrer J. 2001. Pasture responses to elevated temperature and doubled CO2 concentration: assessing the spatial pattern across an alpine landscape. Climate Research 17, 19–31.

Sanjay K, Munesh K, Mehraj AS. 2010. Effect of Altitudes on Soil and Vegetation Characterstics of Pinus roxburghii Forest in Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Ad vanced Laboratory Research in Biology 1.

SAS. 2002. Statistical Analysis System, SAS Version 16, SAS Institute Inc., Cary.

Schickhoff U. 2002. Die Degradierung der Gebirgswälder Nordpakistans. Faktoren, Prozesse und Wirkungszusammenhänge in einem regionalen Mensch-Umwelt- System. Erdwiss Forsch 41. Stuttgart.

Schlesinger WH. 1997. Biogeochemistry. An analysis of global change. Academic Press: San Diego 588 p.

Schlesinger WH. 1977. Carbon balance in terrestrial detritus. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8, 51-81.

Searle MP. 1991. Geology and Tectonics of the Karakoram Mountains. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester 358, 47-73.

Seong YB, Owen LA, Bishop MP, Bush ABG, Clendon P, Copland L, Finkel R, Kamp U, Shroder JR JF. 2007. Quaternary glacial history of the Central Karakoram. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 3384-3405.

Shamsher A. 2014.  Soil  study  of  Bagrot  valley. International University, Gilgit-Baltistan.

Sims ZR, Nielsen GA. 1986. Organic carbon in Montana soils related to clay content and climate. Soil Science Society American Journal 50, 1261–1271.

Six J, Feller C, Denef K, Ogle SM, de Moraes JC, Albrecht A. 2002. Soil organic matter, biota and aggregation in temperate and tropical soils- effects of no-tillage. Agronomie 22, 755-775.

Smith P . 2004. Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context. European Journal of Agronomy 20(3), 229–236.

Sveinbjo rnsson B, Davis J, Abadie W, Butler A. 1995. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization at different elevations in the Chugach Mountains of south central Alaska, USA. Artic Alpine Research 27, 29–37.

Tate KR. 1992. Assessment, Based on a Climosequence of Soil in Tussock Grasslands, of Soil Carbon Storage and Release in Response to Global Warming,” Journal of Soil Science 43(4), 697-707.

Theurillat JP, Felber F, Geissler P, Gobat, JM, Fierz M, Fischlin A, Küpfer P, Schlüssel A, Velluti C, Zhao GF, Williams J. 1998. Sensitivity of plant and soil ecosystems of the Alps to climate change. In: P.D. Cebon, U., Davies, H.C., Imboden, D., Jaeger, C.C. (Eds.), Views from the Alps. Regional Perspectives on Climate Change.MIT Press, Massachusetts.

Trumbore SE. 1997. Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change. Proc. Natl. Academy of Sciences 94, 8284–8291.

Winjum JK, Dixon RK, Schroeder PE. 1992. Estimating the global potential of forest and agroforest management practices to sequester carbon. Water, Air, Soil Pollute 64(1–2), 213–227.

Woldeamlak B, Stroosnijder L. 2003. Effects of agro-ecological land use succession on soil properties in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Geoderma 11, 85-98.

Yimer F, Ledin S, Abdelkadir A. 2006. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks as affected by topographic aspect and vegetation in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Geoderma 135, 335–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.01.005

Yoo K, Amundson R, Heimsath AM, Dietrich WE. 2006. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon on hill-slopes: integrating geomorphic processes and the biological C cycle. Geoderma 130, 47–65.

Zhang YQ, Tang YH, Jiang J, Yang YH. 2007. Characterizing the dynamics of soil organic carbon in grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. China Earth Science 50, 113–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-007-2032-2