Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

An assessment of distance decay within woody forest layers in Central African’s semi-deciduous forests

Research Paper | June 1, 2017

| Download 4

Amani A. Christian

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.10( 6), 14-26, June 2017


JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


In the Central Congo Basin, semi-deciduous forests often express edaphic heterogeneity in their physical characteristics marked by contrasting sandy and clayey habitats, mainly due to microtopographic features. The fact that almost identical substrates are located in separated sites may give rise to local floristic differentiations because of dispersal limitation due to distance and ecological barriers. It is also notable that species composition differs according to forest layers and there could be different soil and distance effects on plant communities when these forest layers are considered.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

An assessment of distance decay within woody forest layers in Central African’s semi-deciduous forests

Ashton PS. 1998.  Niche specificity among tropical trees: a question of scales. In: Newbery DM, Prins HHT, Brown ND, Ed. Dynamics of tropical communities. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK., 491-514.

Baltzer JL, Thomas SC, Nilus R, Burslem DFRP. 2005. Edaphic specialization in tropical trees: physiological correlates and responses to reciprocal transplantations. Ecology 86 (11), 3063-3077.

Bell G. 2000.  Neutral macroecology. Science 293, 2413-2418.

Beernaert FR. 1999. Development of a soil and terrain/map database – Democratic Republic of Congo – FAO, Rome, 202 p. + appendices.

Brown JH, Morgan SKE, Parody JM, Haskell JP. 2001. Regulation of diversity: maintenance of species richness in changing environments. Oecologia 126, 321-332.

Chase JM. 2003. Community assembly: when should history matter? Oecologia 136, 489-498.

Chave J. 2004. Neutral theory and community ecology. Ecology Letters 7, 241-253.

Chave J, Leigh EGJr. 2002. A spatially-explicit neutral model of beta-diversity in tropical forests. Theoretical Population Biology 62, 153-168.

Clark DB, Palmer MW, Clark DA. 1999.  Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 80, 2662-2675.

Condit R. 1996. Defining and mapping vegetation types in mega diverse tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11, 4-5.

Condit R, Ashton PS, Baker P, Bunyavejchewin S, Gunatilleke S, Gunatilleke N, Hubbell SP, Foster RB, Itoh A, LaFrankie JV, Lee HS, Losos E, Manokaran N, Sukumar R, Yamakura T. 2000. Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical trees. Science 288, 1414-1418.

Condit R, Pitman N, Leigh Jr, Chave J, Terborgh J, Foster RB, Percy V, Aguillar S, Valencia R, Gorky V, Landau M, Losos E, Hubbell SP. 2002. Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science 295, 666-669.

Couteron P, Pelissier R, Mapaga D, Molino JF, Teillier L. 2003. Drawing ecological insights from a management-oriented forest inventory in French Guiana. Forest Ecology and Management 172, 89-108.

Graham B. 2000. The Distribution of Abundance in Neutral Communities. The American Naturalist 155, 606-617.

Graham B, Lechowicz MJ, Waterway MJ. 2006. The comparative evidence relating to functional and neutral interpretations of biological communities. Ecology 87(6), 1378-1386.

Hans J, Butaye J, Dumortier M, Hermy M, Lust N. 2001. Effects of age and distance on the composition of mixed deciduous forest fragments in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Vegetation Science 12, 635-642.

Hardy OJ. 2005.  BiodivR 1.0: a program to compute statistically unbiased indices of species diversity within samples and species similarity between samples using rarefaction principles.

Hubbell SP. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203, 1299-1309.

Hubbell SP. 2001. The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, US, 375 p.

Hubbell SP. 2005. Neutral theory in community ecology and the hypothesis of functional equivalence.  Functional Ecology 19, 166-172.

Hubbell SP. 2006. Natural theory and the evolution of ecological equivalence. Ecology 87(6), 1387-1398.

Jabot F, Rampal SE, Chave J. 2008. Reconciling neutral community models and environmental filtering: theory and an empirical test. Oikos 117, 1308-1320.

Kembel WS, Hubbel SP. 2006. The phylogenetic structure of a Neotropical forest tree community. Ecology 87, 86-99.

Nekola JC, White PS. 1999. The distance decay of similarity in biogeography and ecology. Journal of Biogeography 26, 867-878.

Ølsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS, Dean LA. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Circ. 939.

Palmer MW. 2005. Distance decay in an old-growth neotropical forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 16, 161-166.

Palmiotto PA, Stuart JD, Kristina AV, Ashton MS, Vogt DJ, Ashton PS. 2004. Soil-related habitat specialization in dipterocarp rain forest tree species in Borneo. Journal of Ecology 92, 609-623.

Poulin R. 2003. The decay of similarity with geographical distance in parasite communities of vertebrate hosts. Journal of Biogeography 30, 1609-1615.

Rangel FLVB, Diniz-Filho JAF. 2005. Neutral community dynamics, the mid-domain effect and spatial patterns in species richness. Ecology Letters 8, 783-790.

Ricklefs RE. 2006. The unified neutral theory of biodiversity: do the numbers add up? Ecology 87 (6), 1424-1431.

Soininen J, McDonald R, Hillebrand H. 2007. The distance decay of similarity in ecological communities. Ecography 30, 3-12.

Swaine MD. 1996. Rainfall and soil fertility as factors limiting forest species distributions in Ghana. Journal of Ecology 10, 419-428.

Terborgh J, Pitman N, Silman M, Schichter H, Núñez PV. 2002. Maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. In: Levey DJ, Silva WR, Galetti M, Ed. Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation, 117-137.

Thenkabail PS, Hall J, Lin T, Mark S, Ashton MS, Harris D, Enclona EA. 2003. Detecting floristic structure and pattern across topographic and moisture gradients in a mixed species Central African forest using IKONOS and Landsat-7 ETM+ images. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4, 255-270.

Tuomisto H, Ruokolainen K, Yli-Halla M. 2003. Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of western Amazonian forests. Science 299, 241-244.

Turner JRG. 2004. Explaining the global biodiversity gradient: energy, area, history and natural selection. Basic and Applied Ecology 5, 435-448.

Van Engelen VWP, Verdoodt A, Dijkshoorn JA, Van Ranst E. 2006. Soil and Terrain Database of Central Africa (D.R. of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda) [Report 2006/07 (available through www.isric.org ISRIC – World Soil Information, Wageningen.

Veenendaal EM, Swaine MD. 1998. Limits to species distribution in lowland tropical rainforest. In: Newbery DM, Brown N, Prins HTT, Ed. Dynamics of tropical communities. Blackwell Science Oxford, 163-192 

Venugopal DP. 2008. Regional patterns in the floristic composition and structure of forests in the Western Ghats, India. [IFP report]

Whitfield J. 2002. Neutrality versus the niche.  Nature 417, 480-481.

Whittaker RJ, Katherine JW, Richard F. 2001. Scale and species richness: towards a general, hierarchical theory of species diversity. Journal of Biogeography 28, 453-470.

Wilson DS. 1997. Biological communities as functionally organized units. Ecology 78 (7), 2018-2024.

Wright JS. 2002. Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130, 1-14.

Wilson JB, Lee WG. 2000. C-S-R triangle theory: community-level predictions, tests, evaluation of criticisms, and relation to other theories. Oikos 91, 77-96.

Yamada T, Zuidema P, Itoh A, Yamakura T, Ohkubo T, Kanzaki M, Tan S, Ashton PS. 2007. Strong habitat preference of a tropical rain forest tree does not imply large differences in population dynamics across habitats. Journal of Ecology 95, 332-342.