J. Bio. Env. Sci.20(1), 1-9, January 2022
Urbanization is increasing rapidly in all parts of the world to accommodate the increasing human population but it is having a drastic effect on native flora and fauna. The present study was carried out across a three stage urbanization gradient in and around the city of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. Observations were made from September 2019 to February 2021 at the selected three sites during COVID 19 pandemic. Point count method was used for bird surveys and Sound pressure (Noise) measurements were made across the three selected sites. The Avian diversity was measured by total species richness, Fisher’s alpha diversity index and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The Urban centre recorded the highest sound pressure and lowest Avian species richness but as we moved away from the urban centre the noise levels reduced and the avain species richness increased towards the rural areas. This is mainly due to many avian species avoiding urban areas because of increasing noise levels. We also found that the urban bird community is dominated by a few species whereas the rural bird community was much more diverse.
Arévalo JE, Newhard K. 2011. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest. Revista de Biología Tropical 59(2), 969-980.
Bibby CJ, Burgess ND, Hillis DM, Hill DA, Mustoe S. 2000. Bird census techniques. Elsevier.
Blair RB, Launer AE. 1997. Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological conservation 80(1), 113-125.
Blair RB. 1996. Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecological applications 6(2), 506-519.
Blair RB. 2001. Birds and butterflies along urban gradients in two ecoregions of the United States: is urbanization creating a homogeneous fauna? In Biotic homogenization (pp. 33-56). Springer, Boston, MA.
Brackenbury JH. 1979. Power capabilities of the avian sound-producing system. Journal of Experimental Biology 78(1), 163-166.
Brumm H. 2004. The impact of environmental noise on song amplitude in a territorial bird. Journal of animal ecology 73(3), 434-440.
Catchpole CK, Slater PJ. 2003. Bird song: biological themes and variations. Cambridge university press.
Census of India. 2011. Population Statistics. Directorate of Census Operations in Chhattisgarh, Census of India 2011.
De Moura LN, Vielliard JM, Da Silva ML. 2010. Seasonal fluctuation of the Orange-winged Amazon at a roosting site in Amazonia. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 122(1), 88-94.
Galushin VM. 1971. A huge urban population of birds of prey in Delhi India. Ibis 113(4), 522-522.
Garaffa PI, Filloy J, Bellocq MI. 2009. Bird community responses along urban–rural gradients: Does the size of the urbanized area matter. Landscape and Urban Planning 90(1-2), 33-41.
Halfwerk W, Holleman LJ, Lessells CKM, Slabbekoorn H. 2011. Negative impact of traffic noise on avian reproductive success. Journal of applied Ecology, 48(1), 210-219.
Hunter P. 2007. The human impact on biological diversity: How species adapt to urban challenges sheds light on evolution and provides clues about conservation. EMBO reports 8(4), 316-318.
Jennings V, Larson L, Yun J. 2016. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: Cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health. International Journal of environmental research and public health 13(2), 196.
Jokimäki J. 1999. Occurrence of breeding bird species in urban parks: effects of park structure and broad-scale variables. Urban Ecosystems 3(1), 21-34.
Kale M, Ferrante M, Dudhe N, Kasambe R, Trukhanova IS, Ivanova T, Lövei GL. 2018. Nestedness of bird assemblages along an urbanisation gradient in Central India. Journal of Urban Ecology 4(1), juy 017.
Konadath S, Mahadeva A, Chatni S. 2019. Noise measurement across different land-use patterns. Journal of Indian Speech Language & Hearing Association 33(2), 55.
Marzluff JM, Bowman R, Donnelly R. 2001. A historical perspective on urban bird research: trends, terms, and approaches. In Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world (pp. 1-17). Springer, Boston, MA.
McClure CJ, Ware HE, Carlisle J, Kaltenecker G, Barber JR. 2013. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1773), 20132290.
McKinney ML, Lockwood JL. 1999. Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trends in ecology & evolution 14(11), 450-453.
McKinney ML. 2002. Urbanization, Biodiversity, and ConservationThe impacts of urbanization on native species are poorly studied, but educating a highly urbanized human population about these impacts can greatly improve species conservation in all ecosystems. BioScience 52(10), 883-890.
Mohring B, Henry PY, Jiguet F, Malher F, Angelier F. 2021. Investigating temporal and spatial correlates of the sharp decline of an urban exploiter bird in a large European city. Urban Ecosystems 24(3), 501-513.
Naithani A, Bhatt D. 2012. Bird community structure in natural and urbanized habitats along an altitudinal gradient in Pauri district (Garhwal Himalaya) of Uttarakhand state, India. Biologia 67(4), 800-808.
Niemiec AJ, Raphael Y, Moody DB. 1994. Return of auditory function following structural regeneration after acoustic trauma: behavioural measures from quail. Hearing research 79(1-2), 1-16.
Oberweger K, Goller F. 2001. The metabolic cost of birdsong production. Journal of Experimental Biology 204(19), 3379-3388.
Ortega CP. 2012. Chapter 2: Effects of noise pollution on birds: A brief review of our knowledge. Ornithological monographs 74(1), 6-22.
Pauchard A, Aguayo M, Peña E, Urrutia R. 2006. Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: the case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile). Biological conservation 127(3), 272-281.
Perillo A, Mazzoni L G, Passos LF, Goulart VD, Duca C, Young RJ. 2017. Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks. Ibis 159(3), 638-646.
Ramaiah M, Avtar R. 2019. Urban green spaces and their need in cities of rapidly urbanizing India: A review. Urban Science 3(3), 94.
Rheindt FE. 2003. The impact of roads on birds: does song frequency play a role in determining susceptibility to noise pollution. Journal für Ornithologie 144(3), 295-306.
Sengupta S, Mondal M, Basu P. 2014. Bird species assemblages across a rural urban gradient around Kolkata, India. Urban Ecosystems 17(2), 585-596.
Slabbekoorn H, Ripmeester EAP. 2008. Birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation. Molecular ecology 17(1), 72-83.
Summers-Smith JD. 2003. The decline of the House Sparrow: a review. British Birds 96(9), 439-446.
Turrini T, Knop E. 2015. A landscape ecology approach identifies important drivers of urban biodiversity. Global change biology 21(4), 1652-1667.
Vishwakarma A, Anthony FM, Tiwari S, Choubey S. 2021. Avifaunal Diversity of Winter Season in Kopra Reservoir of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. In Proceedings of the Zoological Society (Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 118-126). Springer India.
Viswanath S, Nair PKR, Kaushik PK, Prakasam U. 2000. Acacia nilotica trees in rice fields: A traditional agroforestry system in central India. Agroforestry systems 50(2), 157-177.
Wadatkar JS. 2001. Checklist of birds from Amravati University Campus, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal 16(5), 497-499.
Zannin PH, Diniz FB, Barbosa WA. 2002. ‘‘Environmental noise pollution in the city of Curitiba, Brazil,’’ Applied Acoustics 63, 351-358.