Int. J. Biosci.14(6), 219-231, June 2019
Plant-derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anti-cancer agents. This study aims to determine the anti-mitotic activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus microcarpa to sea urchin embryos as a preliminary bioassay to determine its anti-cancer property. The mitotic inhibition activity of the plant extract to sea urchin embryos was observed in four (4) various treatment concentrations of the extract. The time interval of each developmental stage of sea urchin embryos treated with the different concentrations of the C. microcarpa extract was higher compared to negative control group. The lowest concentration (0.50%) of the plant extract showed the fastest mitotic activity compared to other concentrations. On the other hand, the highest concentration (2.00%) showed the slowest mitotic activity compared to other treatment concentrations. In addition, 0.50% concentration showed a comparable result with the positive control on the time interval during 2-cell stage. C. microcarpa leaf extract showed anti-mitotic activity to sea urchin embryos. The inhibition of sea urchin’s proliferation in each developmental stage is dependent on the increase plant extract concentration. In addition, increasing concentration of the plant extract increased the time interval between developmental stages of sea urchin embryos. Results on phytochemical screening revealed that C. microcarpa contains the following phytochemicals: alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and tannins. The antimitotic activity of the extract can be attributed to the phytochemicals present in the plant which can be a potent anti-cancer agent. Further studies for the isolation and identification of the bioactive compounds of these extracts should be undertaken.
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