Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Antibiogram of gram-negative bacteria isolated from in-house patient samples in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata

Research Paper | September 1, 2019

| Download 3

Asif Mahmud, Puja Kapuria, Pronob Sarkar

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.15( 3), 364-370, September 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.3.364-370


IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Emerging resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic use pattern are major concerns in clinical settings. This study aimed to detect common gram-negative bacteria and their antibiotic resistance patterns within 4 consecutive months in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from blood, sputum, wound swab, urine and stool from February to May of 2015 at the adult ward in Fortis Hospital, Anandapur, and Kolkata. Identification of bacteria was done by the biochemical tests such as nitrate, indole, oxidase and urease. Antimicrobial resistance screening was performed by using 13 antibiotics, by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (38.35%) followed by Klebsiella (26.31%), Pseudomonas (21.05%), Acinetobacter (14.29%). 33.08% of the isolated gram negative organisms were found to be multidrug resistant. In our study MDR is high in E. coli (43.14%) followed by Pseudomonas (28.57%), Acinetobacter (26.31%), Klebsiella (25.71%). Antibiotic resistivity pattern of 7 different antibiotic groups were done in this study, in which most effective drug compared to other was found to be cephalosporins with an average of approx. 6.7% resistivity in all organisms. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from different infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Antibiogram of gram-negative bacteria isolated from in-house patient samples in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata

Anvarinejad M, Pouladfar G, Japoni A, Bolandparvaz S, Satiary Z, Abbasi P. 2015. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of the microorganisms isolated from diabetic foot infections in Nemazee hospital, Southern Iran. Journal of Pathogens 2015, 328796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/328796

Coelho J, Woodford N, Turton J, Livermore DM. 2004. Multiresistant Acinetobacter in the UK: how big a threat? The Journal of Hospital Infection 58(3), 167-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2003.12.019

Falagas ME, Bliziotis IA, Kasiakou SK, Samonis G, Athanassopoulou P, Michalopoulos A. 2005. Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR) Gram-negative bacteria. BMC Infectious Diseases 5, 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-5-24

Ghosh A, Karmakar PS, Pal J, Chakraborty N, Debnath NB, Mukherjee JD. 2009. Bacterial incidence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in moderate and severe infections in hospitalized patients. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 107(1), 21-2, 24-5.

Jones ME, Draghi DC, Thornsberry C, Karlowsky JA, Sahm DF, Wenzel RP. 2004. Emerging resistance among bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit–a European and North American Surveillance study (2000–2002). Annals of Clinical Microbiology Antimicrobials 3, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-3-14

Jones RN. 1996. Impact of changing pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in the treatment of serious infections in hospitalized patients. The American Journal of Medicine 100(6A), 3S-12S. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(96)00102-7

Khalili H, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Shahidi MR, Abdollahi A, Jafari S, Jahangard-Rafsanjani Z. 2012. Changes in 4-year antimicrobial resistance pattern of gram-positive bacteria at the main referral teaching hospital, Tehran, Iran. Acta Medica Iranica 50(7), 493-504.

Moradi N, Javadpoor S, Vahdani M. 2015. Prevalence and antibiogram pattern of gram negative bacteria isolated from blood cultures in shahidmohammadi hospital, Bandar Abbas. Journal of Preventive Medicine 2(2), 55–61.

Muto CA. 2005. Why are antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections spiraling out of control? Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 26(1), 10–2.

Panta K, Ghimire P, Rai SK, Mukhiya RK, Singh RN, Rai G. 2013. Antibiogram typing of gram negative isolates in different clinical samples of a tertiary hospital. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 6(1), 153-156.

Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. 2005.  Extended-spectrum betalactamases: a clinical update. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18, 657- 686.

Paterson DL. 2006. Resistance in gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae. The American Journal of Medicine 119, S20-S28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.03.013

Samanipour A, Dashti-Khavidaki S, Abbasi M-R, Abdollahi A. 2016.Antibiotic resistance patterns of microorganisms isolated from nephrology and kidney transplant wards of a referral academic hospital. Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice 5(1), 43–51.

Sarnak MJ, Jaber BL. 2000.Mortality caused by sepsis in patients with end-stage renal disease compared with the general population. Kidney International 58(4), 1758–64.

Shrestha S, Chaudhari R, Karmacharya S, Kattel HP, Mishra SK, Dahal RK, Bam N, Banjade N, Rijal BP, Sherchand JB, Ohara H, Koirala J, Pokhrel BM. 2011.Prevalence of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections caused by Multi- drug resistance pathogens. Journal of the Institute of Medicine 33(2), 1-17.

Talbot GH, Bradley J, Edwards JE, Gilbert D, Scheld M, Bartlett JG. 2006. Bad bugs need drugs: an update on the development pipeline from the Antimicrobial Availability Task Force of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 42(5), 657-668.

Walsh TR, Toleman MA, Poirel L, Nordmann P. 2005. Metallobeta-lactamases: the quiet before the storm? Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18(2), 306-325.