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Antidiabetic and antidiabetogenic properties of the aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats

Research Paper | August 1, 2015

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O.C. Ezeigwe, C.J. Ononamadu, B.N. Enemchukwu, U.F. Umeoguaju, J.C. Okoro

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Int. J. Biosci.7( 2), 116-126, August 2015

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/7.2.116-126


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There is a surging interest in the use of plant derived products in the treatment of a lot of diseases in recent decades. This present study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-diabetogenic activity of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf in normal as well as alloxan induced diabetic rats. The phytochemical analyses as well as the 24-hour acute toxicity test of the orally administered aqueous extract were carried out using standard methods. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal dose of 200mg/kgbw of Alloxan. The aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica was administered orally in three (3) doses of 50mg/kgbw, 100mg/kgbw and 150mg/kgbw for six days. Antidiabetogenic potential of the extract was investigated by pretreatment of rats with 100mg/kg bw of the aqueous extract before diabetic induction. The phytoconstituents identified in the aqueous extract were saponin, condensed tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolic group. The result of the 24-hour acute toxicity test of the orally administered aqueous extract of A. indica leaves gave an LD50 of 4.47g/kgbw. All the doses of the aqueous extract showed a progressive daily percentage reduction in blood sugar level and were significantly (P<0.05) effective in reducing blood sugar level in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats on the sixth day of treatment when compared to the control diabetic rats that were treated with glibenclamide (a standard antidiabetic drug) at a dose of 0.214mg/kgbw on that same day. The 100mg/kgbw had the highest reduction in blood glucose level. Pre-treatment with the aqueous extract at a dose of 100mg/kgbw for fourteen days showed a significant protection (P<0.05) from alloxan induced diabetogenic effect resulting in a 39.5% reduction in blood glucose level when diabetes was induced. The efficacy of the extract in protecting diabetic induction with alloxan was better at two weeks than after 3 days. These results suggest that the leaf extract of A. indica has both anti-diabetic and antidiabetogenic effects and could be of great use in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, controlling blood sugar level as well as in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes mellitus.


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Antidiabetic and antidiabetogenic properties of the aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats

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